Last updated

Tilphussa (Ancient Greek : Τιλφοῦ(σ)σαTilphoũssa) is a spring in Boeotia. Tiresias died after he drank water from this spring. Strabo locates the deadly spring below the slopes of Tilphossium (Τιλφωσσαῖον, near Haliartus and Alalcomenae; he mentions the sanctuary of Tiresias and the temple of Tilphoussian Apollo, unique to this site. [1] Pausanias noted that a temple consecrated to Praxidike was in the vicinity of Tiresias's tomb. The manuscript tradition of Plutarch's Life of Lysander offers a unique report of a spring Kissousa at Haliartus, in which the infant Dionysus was washed; this must be a scribal error for Tilphousa. [2]


  1. Strabo 'Geography' 9. 2. 27 and 36
  2. Edward Dodwell, A classical and topographical tour through Greece: during the years 1801, 1805 and 1806 (London, 1819) Volume 1, p. 246 attributed the error to Plutarch himself.

PD-icon.svg This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain :  Smith, William, ed. (1854–1857). "Boeotia". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography . London: John Murray.

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Boeotia</span> Region of Greece

Boeotia, sometimes Latinized as Boiotia or Beotia is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the region of Central Greece. Its capital is Livadeia, and its largest city is Thebes.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Plataea</span> Ancient city in southeastern Boeotia, Greece

Plataea or Plataia, inhabitants: Plataeae or Plataiai, was an ancient Greek city-state situated in Boeotia near the frontier with Attica at the foot of Mt. Cithaeron, between the mountain and the river Asopus, which divided its territory from that of Thebes.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tanagra</span> Place in Greece

Tanagra is a town and a municipality north of Athens in Boeotia, Greece. The seat of the municipality is the town Schimatari. It is not far from Thebes, and it was noted in antiquity for the figurines named after it. The Tanagra figurines were a mass-produced, mold-cast and fired type of Greek terracotta figurines produced from the later fourth century BC, primarily in Tanagra.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Livadeia</span> Place in Greece

Livadeia is a town in central Greece. It is the capital of the Boeotia regional district. Livadeia lies 90 km (56 mi) north-west of Athens, 64 km (40 mi) west of Chalkida, 63 km (39 mi) south-east of Lamia, 44 km (27 mi) east-south-east of Amfissa, and 91 km (57 mi) east-north-east of Nafpaktos. The town lies some five kilometres west of Greek National Road 3, to which it is linked by National Road 48.

Archelaus was a prominent Greek general who served under King Mithridates VI of Pontus in northern Anatolia and was also his favorite general.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ocalea (town)</span>

Ocalea or Okalea, later Ocaleia or Okaleia (Ὠκάλεια), was a town in ancient Boeotia, Greece. It lay in the middle of a long narrow plain, situated upon a small stream of the same name, bounded on the east by the heights of Haliartus, on the west by the mountain Tilphossium, on the south by a range of low hills, and on the north by the Lake Copais.

Pamboeotia was a major festive panegyris of all the Boeotians, celebrated probably annually. The grammarians compare the Pamboeotia with the Panathenaea of the Atticans, and the Panionia of the Ionians. Though probably quite older than this, even primitive, the festival is celebrated with the name "Pamboeotia" only starting in the 3rd century BC. The festival was celebrated in the tenth month of the Boeotian calendar, Pamboiotos, at a temple of Athena Itonia in the neighborhood of Coronea.

Delium was a small town in ancient Boeotia with a celebrated temple of Apollo. It was located upon the sea-coast in the territory of Tanagra in Boeotia, and at the distance of about a mile from the territory of Oropus. This temple, which like the town took its name from the island of Delos, is described by Livy as overhanging the sea, and distant 5 miles (8.0 km) from Tanagra, at the spot where the passage to the nearest parts of Euboea is less than 4 miles (6.4 km). Strabo speaks of Delium as a temple of Apollo and a small town (πολίχνιον) of the Tanagraei, distant 40 stadia from Aulis.

Haliartus or Haliartos, also known as Ariartus or Ariartos or Hariartus or Hariartos, was a town of ancient Boeotia, and one of the cities of the Boeotian League. It was situated on the southern side of Lake Copais in a pass between the mountain and the lake. It is mentioned in the Catalogue of Ships in the Iliad by Homer, who gives it the epithet ποιήεις (grassy) in consequence of its well-watered meadows.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Onchestos</span>

Onchestos or Onchestus was a Greek town in ancient Boeotia northwest of Thebes. In ancient times it was famous for its sanctuary of Poseidon. The site has been excavated intermittently since the 1960s. It was in the territory of Haliartus, said to have been founded by Onchestos, a son of Poseidon.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Thalamae (Laconia)</span>

Thalamae or Thalamai was a town of ancient Laconia, which at various times belonged to Messenia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Medeon (Boeotia)</span> City in Ancient Greece

Medeon was a town of ancient Boeotia, mentioned by Homer in the Catalogue of Ships in the Iliad. Medeon is described by Strabo as a dependency of Haliartus, and situated near Onchestus, at the foot of Mount Phoenicium, from which position it was afterwards called Phoenicis.

Leuctra or Leuktra, also Leuctrum or Leuktron, was a town of ancient Laconia, situated on the eastern side of the Messenian Gulf, 20 stadia north of Pephnus, and 60 stadia south of Cardamyle. Strabo speaks of Leuctrum as a colony of the Leuctra in Boeotia, near the minor Pamisus, but this river flows into the sea at Pephnus, about three miles south of Leuctrum. Leuctrum was said to have been founded by Pelops, and was claimed by the Messenians as originally one of their towns. It was awarded to the latter people by Philip II of Macedon in 338 BCE, but in the time of the Roman Empire it was one of the Eleuthero-Laconian towns. Pausanias saw in Leuctra a temple and statue of Athena on the acropolis, a temple and statue of Cassandra, a marble statue of Asclepius, another of Ino, and wooden figures of Apollo Carneius.

Acraephia or Akraiphia, Acraephiae or Akraiphiai (Ἀκραιφίαι), Acraephium or Akraiphion (Ἀκραίφιον), Acraephnium or Akraiphnion (Ἀκραίφνιον), was a town of ancient Boeotia on the slope of Mount Ptoum (Πτῶον) and on the eastern bank of the Lake Copais, which was here called Ἀκραιφὶς λίμνη from the town.

Coroneia, or Coronea, was a town of ancient Boeotia, and a member of the Boeotian League. It is described by Strabo as situated upon a height near Mount Helicon; its territory was called Κορωνειακή. The town stood upon an insulated hill at the entrance of a valley leading southwards to Mt. Helicon, the principal summit of which is seen at the head of the valley. From this hill there was a fine view over the Lake Copais, and at its foot there was a broad plain extending as far as the marshes of the lake. On either side of the hill flowed two streams, one on the eastern or right hand side, called Coralius or Cuarius, and the other on the left, named Phalarus: a tributary of the latter was the Isomantus or Hoplias. Coroneia is said to have been founded by the Boeotians from Arne in Thessaly, after they had been driven out of their original homes by the Thessalians; and they appear to have called it Coroneia after the Thessalian town of this name. At the same time they built in the plain in front of the city a temple of Athena Itonica, also named after the one in Thessaly, and likewise gave to the river which flowed by the temple the name of Cuarius or Curalius, after the Thessalian river. In this temple was held the festival of the Pamboeotia, which was common to all the Boeotians. The Thessalian origin of Coroneia is also attested by Pausanias, who ascribes its foundation, as well as that of Haliartus, to Athamas and his descendants, who came from Thessaly.

The Ocalea or Okalea was a river of ancient Boeotia, flowing midway between Haliartus and Alalcomenae, with the town of Ocalea upon its banks. William Martin Leake who visited the area in the 19th century, describes it as rising in the eastern part of Mount Leibethrium, and issuing through a precipitous gorge lying between the eastern end of Mount Tilphossium and a rocky peak.

Tilphossium or Tilphossion, or Tilphusium or Tilphousion (Τιλφούσιον), was a mountain on the southern side of Lake Copais, between the plains of Haliartus and Coroneia, maybe regarded as the furthest offshoot of Mount Helicon, with which it is connected by means of Mount Leibethrium. At the foot of the hill was the small fountain Tilphossa or Tilphussa, where the seer Tiresias is said to have died. The hill bears the form of a letter T, with its foot turned towards the north. From its position between the lake and Leibethrium, there is a narrow pass on either side of the hill. The pass between Tilphossium and the lake was one of great importance in antiquity, as the high road from northern Greece to Thebes passed through it. This pass was very narrow, and was completely commanded by the fortress Tilphossaeum or Tilphusium, on the summit of the hill.

Lophis was a small stream of ancient Boeotia, near Haliartus, apparently the same as the Hopelites (Ὁπλίτης) of Plutarch, where Lysander fell in the Battle of Haliartus.

The Permessus or Permessos was a stream rising in Mount Helicon, which, after uniting with the Olmeius, flowed into Lake Copais near Haliartus. William Martin Leake, visiting the site in the 19th century, regarded the Kefalári as the Permessus, and the river of Zagará as the Olmeius.

The Olmeius or Olmeios was a stream rising in Mount Helicon, which, after uniting with the Permessus, flowed into Lake Copais near Haliartus. William Martin Leake, visiting the site in the 19th century, regarded the Kefalári as the Permessus, and the river of Zagará (modern Evangelistria] as the Olmeius.