Leonard Churchill Hector
24 November 1942
|12 November 2002 59) (aged
|Antigua Caribbean Liberation Movement
Leonard "Tim" Hector (24 November 1942 – 12 November 2002) was a leftist Antiguan political leader and cricket administrator known for his opposition to the rule of the Bird family.
Born in St John's, Antigua, and named Leonard Churchill Hector, he was called "Tim" by his grandfather as a term of endearment stemming from the Russian General Semyon Timoshenko, and in later years was better known as Tim Hector.(During World War II in the Caribbean, naming children Churchill, Winston, and Roosevelt was common.) After attending the Antigua Grammar School, widely known as an exceptional student, and later teaching there, Hector went on to Acadia University and McGill University. He broke off graduate studies in Philosophy at McGill to return home, where he felt his contribution was needed.
Hector was a founder of the Antigua Caribbean Liberation Movement in 1968. The party supported socialism, the Cuban Revolution, and a pan-Caribbean vision. He also published the newspaper The Outlet and the online column "Fan the Flame".
His name has become particularly associated with a leading human rights case, referred to as Hector v. Attorney-General of Antigua & others  2 AC 312, 2 All ER 103, 2 WLR 606, TLR 23.1.90 and The Independent.The case was heard and decided by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, which sits as the final court of appeal for certain countries in the British Commonwealth. This was a major constitutional case, specifically dealing with freedom of speech and of the press. There were also commentaries in The Times , by Geoffrey Bindman, and in The Guardian by James Michael.
The words of Lord Bridge of Harwich in his judgment (at p. 318) are those most frequently cited:
The case has been frequently cited in cases subsequently.For instance, Inter-American Court of Human Rights Case No. 12.441 "Luisiana Ríos", it was cited in a case concerning Venezuela in the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, other references spread from Australia, South Africa to Canada and many other places.
One interesting, if little known fact about the case was that the solicitor for the Appellant, Richard Hallmark, in preparing the case for the appeal hearing, placed before the court a series of extracts of the legislation of most of the eastern European states which had, as communist states, created offences in very similar terms to those sought to be justified by the government of Antigua & Barbuda but which had, even in some cases in only a matter of days and weeks before the hearing in the Privy Council, been repealed. The relevance of those developments was clear but not actually argued upon in the hearing. Given a different uncertainty about the role of the Privy Council at that time, indeed whether it had a role in such appeal cases, this case may be interpreted as significant in the history of that Court as an institution too.
Hector died at the age of 59 on 12 November 2002, having been suffering from heart disease.He was given a state funeral in Antigua.
The Leonard Tim Hector Memorial Committee is a non-profit group formed to keep alive Hector's work and memory, including through an Annual Distinguished Leonard Tim Hector Memorial Lectureand the Leonard Tim Hector Memorial Award.
Antigua and Barbuda is a sovereign island country in the Caribbean. It lies at the conjuncture of the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean in the Leeward Islands part of the Lesser Antilles.
The politics of Antigua and Barbuda takes place in a framework of a unitary parliamentary representative democratic monarchy, wherein the sovereign of Antigua and Barbuda is the head of state, appointing a governor-general to act as vice-regal representative in the nation. A prime minister is appointed by the governor-general as the head of government, and of a multi-party system; the prime minister advises the governor-general on the appointment of a Council of Ministers. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of the Parliament. The bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives.
The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (JCPC) is the highest court of appeal for the Crown Dependencies, the British Overseas Territories, some Commonwealth countries and a few institutions in the United Kingdom. Established on 14 August 1833 to hear appeals formerly heard by the King-in-Council, the Privy Council formerly acted as the court of last resort for the entire British Empire, other than for the United Kingdom itself.
The High Court of Australia is Australia's apex court. It exercises original and appellate jurisdiction on matters specified in the Constitution of Australia and supplementary legislation.
The Supreme Court of New Zealand is the highest court and the court of last resort of New Zealand. It formally came into being on 1 January 2004 and sat for the first time on 1 July 2004. It replaced the right of appeal to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, based in London. It was created with the passing of the Supreme Court Act 2003, on 15 October 2003. At the time, the creation of the Supreme Court and the abolition of appeals to the Privy Council were controversial constitutional changes in New Zealand. The Supreme Court Act 2003 was repealed on 1 March 2017 and superseded by the Senior Courts Act 2016.
Antigua Caribbean Liberation Movement was a radical socialist and Pan-African political party in Antigua and Barbuda. ACLM was founded in 1968 by Tim Hector, the then chairman of the Progressive Labour Movement. The ideological inspiration for ACLM came from C.L.R. James.
The Caribbean Court of Justice is the judicial institution of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM). Established in 2005, it is based in Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago.
Sir Vincent Frederick Floissac was a Saint Lucian jurist and politician. He was styled The Rt. Hon. Sir Vincent Floissac by virtue of his membership of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom.
The Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (ECSC) is a superior court of record for the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS), including six independent states: Antigua and Barbuda, the Commonwealth of Dominica, Grenada, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and three British Overseas Territories. It has unlimited jurisdiction in each member State.
The House of Representatives of Antigua and Barbuda is the lower chamber of the country's bicameral parliament. Each of the constituencies created in accordance with section 62 of the Constitution shall elect one representative to the House in a direct election in accordance with the procedures specified by or pursuant to any law, subject to the rules of the Constitution. Unless he is prohibited by law from registration as a voter for the purpose of electing a member of the House, every Commonwealth citizen who is eighteen years of age or older and who meets the requirements relating to residence or domicile in Antigua and Barbuda as prescribed by Parliament is entitled to be registered as such a voter in accordance with the provisions of any law in that regard, and no other person may be registered. Every person who is registered to vote in any constituency shall, unless prohibited from doing so by any law, be entitled to vote in accordance with the provisions of any law in that regard in any election of members of the House in that constituency. Voting is free and must be done by secret ballot in accordance with any rules that Parliament may impose during House member elections.
West Indies Associated States was the collective name for a number of islands in the Eastern Caribbean whose status changed from being British colonies to states in free association with the United Kingdom in 1967. These states were Antigua, Dominica, Grenada, Saint Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla, Saint Lucia, and Saint Vincent.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and introduction to Antigua and Barbuda:
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons in Antigua and Barbuda may face legal challenges not experienced by non-LGBT citizens.
President of the Senate of Antigua and Barbuda is the presiding officer in the Senate of Antigua and Barbuda. Prior to conducting any other business, the Senate must elect a senator to serve as president when it convenes following a general election.
The Judiciary of Barbados is an independent branch of the Barbadian government, subject only to the Barbadian Constitution. It is headed by the Chief Justice of Barbados. Barbados is a common law jurisdiction, in which precedents from English law and British Commonwealth tradition may be taken into account.
The Outlet was a radical newspaper published in Saint John's, Antigua and Barbuda. The Outlet was founded in 1968. The newspaper was edited by Tim Hector and James Knight. It functioned as a weekly organ of the Antigua Caribbean Liberation Movement (ACLM). For the ACLM the newspaper played a very important role. In its heyday Outlet claimed a circulation of around 5,000 copies, thus being the most widely read newspaper on Antigua. As of the early 1970s, Outlet and Standard were the sole opposition newspapers in the country.
A constitutional referendum was held in Antigua and Barbuda on 6 November 2018, the first referendum in the country's history. The proposed constitutional amendment, which ultimately failed to pass, would have made the Caribbean Court of Justice the final court of appeal, replacing the London-based Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. A quorum of 66.6 % of the valid votes in favour was required for the amendment to be approved.
Joanne C. Hillhouse is a creative writer, journalist, producer and educator from Antigua and Barbuda. Her writing encompasses novels, short stories, poetry and children's books, and she has contributed to many publications in the Caribbean region as well as internationally, among them the anthologies Pepperpot (2014) and New Daughters of Africa (2019). Hillhouse's books include the poetry collection On Becoming (2003), the novellas The Boy from Willow Bend (2003) and Dancing Nude in the Moonlight (2004), the children's books Fish Outta Water and With Grace, the novel Oh Gad! (2012), and the young adult novel Musical Youth (2014), which was runner-up for the Burt Award for Caribbean Literature. She was named by Literary Hub as one of "10 Female Caribbean Authors You Should Know". An advocate for the development of the arts in Antigua and Barbuda, she founded the Wadadli Youth Pen Prize in 2004.
Trevor Myke Walker is a Barbudan politician, current member of parliament for Barbuda, and former Cabinet Minister under the Baldwin Spencer administration. He is a member of the Barbuda People's Movement, a party that seeks the independence of Barbuda from Antigua and Barbuda.
The judiciary of Antigua and Barbuda is an independent branch of the Antiguan and Barbudan government, subject to the Constitution of Antigua and Barbuda. Even though the Office of the Attorney General in the executive branch appoints magistrates, the judicial branch is mostly independent of the other two branches. The Magistrate's Court handles minor offenses, while the High Court handles major ones, makes up the judiciary. A matter must be sent to the Eastern Caribbean States Supreme Court, whose members are chosen by the OECS, in order to move past the High Court. The heads of state in the OECS system must unanimously approve any appointments or removals of Supreme Court magistrates. The attorney general's advice is the basis for the prime minister of Antigua and Barbuda's decision-making on this court.