Tim Souster (29 January 1943 – 1 March 1994) was a British composer and writer on music, best known for his electronic music output ( Jack 1994 ).
Born Timothy Andrew James Souster in Bletchley, Buckinghamshire ( Jack 1994 ), Souster was educated at Bedford Modern School (from 1952 through 1961) ( Anon. 2005 ) and New College, Oxford (from 1961 through 1964). His teachers included Bernard Rose, Sir David Lumsden and Egon Wellesz. In 1964, he attended summer courses at Darmstadt taught by Karlheinz Stockhausen, and took composition lessons with Richard Rodney Bennett the following year (Griffiths 2001; Anon. 2005).
Before the end of 1965, Souster was a producer with the BBC Third Programme, and put on many performances of contemporary music by composers such as Boulez, Berio, Barraqué, Cardew, Feldman, Henze and Stockhausen (Griffiths 2001; Jack 1994) After leaving the BBC in 1967, he began to devote more time to composing and songwriting ( Jack 1994 ).
In the late 1960s Souster began experimenting with electronics. His first acknowledged composition involving electronic techniques was Titus Groan Music (1969) for wind quintet, ring modulator, amplifiers and tape. In August of the same year he moved to King's College, Cambridge and formed a live-electronic group with Roger Smalley, Andrew Powell and Robin Thompson called Intermodulation ( Griffiths 2001 ). As well as compositions by Souster and Smalley, the group performed contemporary music by Cardew, Riley, Rzewski, Stockhausen and Wolff ( Anon. 2005 ).
In 1971, Souster became a teaching assistant to Stockhausen in Cologne, and in 1973 he moved to Berlin where he remained for two years. In 1975 Souster returned to England to take up a research fellowship at Keele University ( Anon. 2005 ). He remained in England for the rest of his life, except for a six-month stint in California in 1978 (Griffiths 2001; Anon. 2005).
He died after a brief, sudden illness on 1 March 1994 ( Jack 1994 ).
His concert pieces included Triple Music II for three orchestras, given at the Proms in 1970 and revised in 1974, Song of an Average City for small orchestra and tape, conducted by Pierre Boulez at the Roundhouse in 1974, and a Trumpet Concerto (1988) for John Wallace and the BBC National Orchestra of Wales ( Jack 1994 ).
In the 1980s and 1990s Souster wrote music for film and television, including music for The Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy , for which he also arranged the main theme, a version of "Journey of the Sorcerer" by The Eagles ( Jack 1994 ). His music for the BBC drama miniseries The Green Man , adapted from the Kingsley Amis novel and starring Albert Finney, won the BAFTA award for best TV music of 1990 ( Griffiths 2001 ). During this period, Souster composed a large amount of concert music ( Jack 1994 ).
He wrote a number of important works for brass and electronics including Equalisation (1980) for Equale Brass and Echoes (1990) ( Anon. 2005 ). His last completed work was La marche (1993), a brass quintet (Griffiths 2001; Anon. 2005).
In addition to his activities as a composer and performer, Souster published a large number of articles about music ( Anon. 2005 ).
Karlheinz Stockhausen was a German composer, widely acknowledged by critics as one of the most important but also controversial composers of the 20th and early 21st centuries. A critic calls him "one of the great visionaries of 20th-century music". He is known for his groundbreaking work in electronic music, for introducing controlled chance into serial composition, and for musical spatialization.
Mauricio Raúl Kagel was a German-Argentine composer notable for developing the theatrical side of musical performance. He spent his last fifty years in Germany, dying after a long illness at the age of 76.
Pierre Louis Joseph Boulez CBE was a French composer, conductor, writer and founder of several musical institutions. He was one of the dominant figures of the post-war classical music world.
György Sándor Ligeti was a Hungarian-Austrian composer of contemporary classical music. He has been described as "one of the most important avant-garde composers in the latter half of the twentieth century" and "one of the most innovative and influential among progressive figures of his time".
John Roger Smalley AM was an Anglo-Australian composer, pianist and conductor. Professor Smalley was a senior honorary research fellow at the School of Music, University of Western Australia in Perth and honorary research associate at the University of Sydney.
Vinko Globokar is a French-Slovenian avant-garde composer and trombonist.
Mark Simpson is a British composer and clarinettist from Liverpool. In 2006, he became notable for winning both the BBC Young Musician of the Year and the BBC Proms/Guardian Young Composer of the Year, making him the first and, to date, only person to win both competitions.
Brian Elias is a British composer.
Andrew Powell is an English musical composer, arranger and performer, born of Welsh parents.
Gruppen for three orchestras (1955–57) is amongst the best-known compositions of German composer Karlheinz Stockhausen, and is Work Number 6 in the composer's catalog of works. Gruppen is "a landmark in 20th-century music. .. probably the first work of the post-war generation of composers in which technique and imagination combine on the highest level to produce an undisputable masterpiece".
Diego Masson is a French conductor, composer, and percussionist.
Robin John Maconie is a New Zealand composer, pianist, and writer.
Justin Riveagh Connolly was a British composer and teacher.
York Höller is a German composer and Professor of composition at the Hochschule für Musik Köln.
Indeterminacy is a composing approach in which some aspects of a musical work are left open to chance or to the interpreter's free choice. John Cage, a pioneer of indeterminacy, defined it as "the ability of a piece to be performed in substantially different ways".
Live electronic music is a form of music that can include traditional electronic sound-generating devices, modified electric musical instruments, hacked sound generating technologies, and computers. Initially the practice developed in reaction to sound-based composition for fixed media such as musique concrète, electronic music and early computer music. Musical improvisation often plays a large role in the performance of this music. The timbres of various sounds may be transformed extensively using devices such as amplifiers, filters, ring modulators and other forms of circuitry. Real-time generation and manipulation of audio using live coding is now commonplace.
Zeitmaße is a chamber-music work for five woodwinds composed in 1955–1956 by German composer Karlheinz Stockhausen; it is Number 5 in the composer's catalog. It is the first of three wind quintets written by Stockhausen, followed by Adieu für Wolfgang Sebastian Meyer (1966) and the Rotary Wind Quintet (1997), but is scored with cor anglais instead of the usual French horn of the standard quintet. Its title refers to the different ways that musical time is treated in the composition.
Mixtur, for orchestra, 4 sine-wave generators, and 4 ring modulators, is an orchestral composition by the German composer Karlheinz Stockhausen, written in 1964, and is Nr. 16 in his catalogue of works. It exists in three versions: the original version for full orchestra, a reduced scoring made in 1967, and a re-notated version of the reduced scoring, made in 2003 and titled Mixtur 2003, Nr. 162⁄3.
Refrain for three players is a chamber music composition by Karlheinz Stockhausen, and is number 11 in his catalog of works.
Sternklang, is "park music for five groups" composed in 1971 by Karlheinz Stockhausen, and bears the work number 34 in his catalogue of compositions. The score is dedicated to Mary Bauermeister, and a performance of the work lasts from two-and-a-half to three hours.