The Timavo River, known in Slovene as the Timava or Timav, is a two-kilometre stream in the Province of Trieste. It has four sources near San Giovanni (Slovene : Štivan) near Duino (Slovene : Devin) and outflows in the Gulf of Panzano (part of the Gulf of Trieste) 3 kilometres (2 mi) southeast of Monfalcone (Slovene : Tržič), Italy.
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The river has a karst character. It receives much of its water through subterranean flow from the Reka River (Slovenia), but tracer studies have shown that other sinking rivers, Vipava, Soča, and Raša also contribute. From modelling results, the Timavo is believed to receive one third of its flow from the Reka and two-thirds of its flow from infiltration of precipitation into the Karst Plateau, and to a lesser extent from the other sinking river sources.
The Roman authors Livy, Strabo, and Virgil mention the river. Virgil wrote that nine streams emerge from a mountain to form the river.A Roman settlement near the sources was called Fons Timavi. An Italian passenger liner called the Timavo ran aground during the Second World War on the east coast of South Africa near Cape Vidal. The engine of the wreck is still visible from the beach, now situated within the Isimangaliso Wetland Park.
In his 2019 work Underland, British author Robert Macfarlane tracks the source of the Timavo and discusses the history of its exploration.
The Soča or Isonzo is a 138-kilometre (86 mi) long river that flows through western Slovenia and northeastern Italy.
The Free Territory of Trieste was an independent territory in Southern Europe between northern Italy and Yugoslavia, facing the north part of the Adriatic Sea, under direct responsibility of the United Nations Security Council in the aftermath of World War II. For a period of seven years, it acted as a free city.
A subterranean river is a river or watercourse that runs wholly or partly beneath the ground, one where the riverbed does not represent the surface of the Earth. It is distinct from an aquifer, which may flow like a river but is contained within a permeable layer of rock or other unconsolidated materials. A river flowing below ground level in an open gorge is not classed as subterranean.
Friuli-Venezia Giulia is one of the 20 regions of Italy and one of five autonomous regions with special statute. The regional capital is Trieste on the Gulf of Trieste, a bay of the Adriatic Sea.
The Karst Plateau or the Karst region, also locally called Karst, is a karst plateau region extending across the border of southwestern Slovenia and northeastern Italy.
The province of Trieste was a province in the autonomous Friuli-Venezia Giulia region of Italy. Its capital was the city of Trieste. It had an area of 212 square kilometres (82 sq mi) and it had a total population of 234,668. It had a coastal length of 48.1 kilometres (29.9 mi). Abolished in 2017, it was reestablished in 2019 as the regional decentralization entity of Trieste, and was reactivated on 1 July 2020.
The Slovene Littoral is one of the five traditional regions of Slovenia. The littoral in its name - for a coastal-adjacent area - recalls the former Austrian Littoral, the Habsburg possessions on the upper Adriatic coast, of which the Slovene Littoral was part.
Aurisina is a town in the karst part of the comune of Duino-Aurisina near Trieste, Italy, in a region of Slovene minority. It lies 15 kilometres northwest of Trieste, and according to the 2003 census had a total of 2,406 inhabitants, 60% of them Slovenes.
Doberdò del Lago is a comune (municipality) in the Regional decentralization entity of Gorizia in the Italian region of Friuli Venezia Giulia, located about 30 kilometres (19 mi) northwest of Trieste and about 11 kilometres (7 mi) southwest of Gorizia, and borders the following municipalities: Duino-Aurisina, Fogliano Redipuglia, Komen (Slovenia), Miren-Kostanjevica (Slovenia), Monfalcone, Ronchi dei Legionari, Sagrado, and Savogna d'Isonzo. It is located in the westernmost part of the Karst Plateau.
Savogna d'Isonzo is a comune (municipality) in the Regional decentralization entity of Gorizia in the Italian region of Friuli Venezia Giulia, located about 35 kilometres (22 mi) northwest of Trieste and about 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) southwest of Gorizia, on the border with Slovenia. The name of the village comes from the Slovene word sovodnje, which means "confluence". Near Savogna, in fact, the Vipava river flows into the Isonzo at the conjunction of the Karst Plateau and the Vipava Valley.
Duino-Aurisina is a comune (municipality) in the Regional decentralization entity of Trieste in the Italian region of Friuli Venezia Giulia. Lying near the border with Slovenia, it has a substantial Slovene minority. It is named by the two major settlements, Duino and Aurisina.
The Reka, also the Inner Carniola Reka, is a river that starts as Big Creek in Croatia, on the southern side of Mount Snežnik, and flows through western Slovenia, where it is also initially known as Big Creek. The river is 54 km (34 mi) long, of which 51 km (32 mi) is in Slovenia. At the village of Škocjan it disappears underground through Škocjan Caves, flowing 38 km (24 mi) underneath the Slovenian Karst. The river continues as part of the Timavo in Italy. Tracer studies have shown that it also feeds springs elsewhere on the Adriatic Coast between Trieste and Monfalcone. It has a pluvial regime.
The Temenica is a river in Slovenia. It is one of the most typical influent streams of Slovenia's karst terrain.
Alojz Rebula was a Slovene writer, playwright, essayist, and translator, and a prominent member of the Slovene minority in Italy. He lived and worked in Villa Opicina in the Province of Trieste, Italy. He was a member of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts.
A ponor is a natural opening where surface water enters into underground passages; they may be found in karst landscapes where the geology and the geomorphology is typically dominated by porous limestone rock. Ponors can drain stream or lake water continuously or can at times work as springs, similar to estavelles. Morphologically, ponors come in forms of large pits and caves, large fissures and caverns, networks of smaller cracks, and sedimentary, alluvial drains.
Škocjan Caves is a cave system located in Slovenia. Recognized for its exceptional significance, Škocjan Caves was included on UNESCO’s list of natural and cultural World Heritage Sites in 1986. The international scientific community has acknowledged the caves as one of the planet Earth's natural treasures. Renowned as one of the most important caves in the world, Škocjan Caves is a significant underground phenomenon on the Karst Plateau and in Slovenia. After gaining independence from Yugoslavia in 1991, Slovenia made a commitment to actively protect the Škocjan Caves area. To fulfill this commitment, Škocjan Caves Regional Park was established, along with its managing authority, the Škocjan Caves Park Public Service Agency.
Škocjan Caves Regional Park is located in the Škocjan Karst, a vast flat landscape that lies at an elevation between 420 and 450 m in the southeast part of the Karst area. Following its independence, the Slovenia committed itself to protecting the Škocjan Caves area; for this reason, it established Škocjan Caves Regional Park and its managing authority, the Škocjan Caves Park Public Service Agency.
The Slovene Riviera is the coastline of Slovenia, located on the Gulf of Trieste, by the Adriatic Sea. It is part of the Istrian peninsula and is 46.6 km long. The region comprises the towns of Koper and Piran with Portorož, and the municipality of Izola. It is a seaside tourist destination, with a vibrant multiethnic Slovenian and Italian heritage.
Logaščica Creek is a stream that flows across the Logatec Karst Field and collects water from the western dolomite area of the karst field. Logaščica Creek starts at the confluence of Reka Creek and Black Creek in Gorenji Logatec and it sinks into the walled Jačka Sinkhole. The stream often floods. After it flows into the ground, it joins water from the Planina Karst Field and drains below the Logatec Karst Field towards Močilnik Springs and other sources of the Ljubljanica in Vrhnika.
The Pivka Basin or the Pivka Valley, also simply Pivka, is a varied basin in southwestern Slovenia, lying between high Dinaric plateaus, the Karst Plateau, and the Brkini Hills. It covers an area of 160 square kilometres (62 sq mi). To the northwest, it is bordered by Mt. Nanos, to the north, by Hrušica, to the east by the Javornik Hills and Mt. Snežnik, and to the west by the lower Slavina Plain and Tabor Hills. The lower part of the basin between Nanos and the Postojna Gate is known as the Lower Pivka Basin, and the upper part between Prestranek and Snežnik as the Upper Pivka Basin.