Last updated
Timbalesy HLTBR-1011 firmy Hayman.jpg
Timbales with a single cowbell
Percussion instrument
Other namesTimbaleta, pailas, pailas criollas
Classification drum
Hornbostel–Sachs classification percussion
Developedc. 1900 in Cuba
Related instruments
Timpani, bongo drum
Sound of timbales

Timbales ( /tɪmˈbɑːlz/ ) or pailas are shallow single-headed drums with metal casing. They are shallower than single-headed tom-toms and usually tuned much higher, especially for their size. [1] They were developed as an alternative to classical timpani in Cuba in the early 20th century and later spread across Latin America and the United States.


Timbales are struck with wooden sticks on the heads and shells, although bare hands are sometimes used. The player (called a timbalero) uses a variety of stick strokes, rim shots, and rolls to produce a wide range of percussive expression during solos and at transitional sections of music, and usually plays the shells (or auxiliary percussion such as a cowbell or cymbal) to keep time in other parts of the song. The shells and the typical pattern played on them are referred to as cáscara. Common stroke patterns include abanico, baqueteo (from danzón), mambo, and chachachá.

Timbales have average diameters of 33 cm (13 in) (macho drum) and 35 cm (14 in) (hembra drum). [2] Originally made of calfskin, the heads are most commonly made of plastic for increased volume and durability and mounted on a steel rim. [2] The shells are usually made of metal, although wooden shells are also available. In general, the drums are mounted on a stand and played while standing. Smaller timbales called timbalitos are often incorporated into larger drum kits.


In Spain and in classical music contexts across the Hispanophone world, the word timbales (sing. timbal) refers to timpani (kettledrums). The Spanish word tímpano is less commonly used. Timbal, tímpano and timpani all derive from the Latin tympănum, from the Greek týmpanon, meaning drum. (The Spanish word for drum, tambor, although similar, actually derives from Arabic tabl).

In Cuba and Latin America, timbales (timpani) were adapted into pailas, which is the name given to various Spanish metallic bowls and pans used as cookware (see paila). Paila derives from Old French paele, from Latin patĕlla. [3] However, the term timbales continued to be used to refer to pailas, which is a less common term restricted to Cuba. Because of the historical overlap in the use of timpani and pailas (both called timbales) by danzón orchestras between 1900 and 1930, usage of the term in that period is ambiguous.

Similar ambiguities exist in other languages. For example, in French, timbales (pronounced  [tɛ̃bal] ) is also the word for timpani, thus the French refer to Cuban timbales as timbales latines. In Brazil, the term timbal refers to an unrelated drum, timbau.


Ubaldo Nieto (center right) on timbales with Machito's Afro-Cubans, 1947 (Portrait of Mario Bouza, Jose Mangual, Carlos Vidal(%3F), and Ubaldo Nieto, Glen Island Casino, New York, N.Y., ca. July 1947) (LOC) (5395853414).jpg
Ubaldo Nieto (center right) on timbales with Machito's Afro-Cubans, 1947
Tito Puente's timbales on exhibit in the Musical Instrument Museum of Phoenix Phoenix-Musical Intrument Museum-Tito Puente exhibit-2.jpg
Tito Puente's timbales on exhibit in the Musical Instrument Museum of Phoenix

Origins and popularization

Timpani were imported into Cuba in the 19th century and used by wind orchestras known as orquestas típicas. These were the same general type of drum used in military bands and in symphonic orchestras. They were, and are, played with mallets (sticks with large, soft, round heads). Timpani were replaced by pailas, which were made from the body of a commonly used metal pan (later, cans of lard were used to make timbalitos). These new timbales were originally designed to be used by street bands. Unlike classical timpani, these are always hit with straight batons (thicker than standard drumsticks, and not shaped: they are of uniform thickness along the length) that have no additional head. [1]

Timbales became an integral part of a smaller type of orchestra that superseded the orquestas típicas in the early 20th century, the charanga. Ulpiano Díaz, timbalero in some of the most popular charangas in Cuba, those directed by Tata Alfonso, Antonio Arcaño and later José Fajardo, was the first to add a cowbell [4] [5] and to popularize the abanico technique in the 1930s. [6] In the 1950s, timbalero Silvano "Chori" Shueg became a sensation in the nightclubs of Havana due to his skillful improvisations on timbales and other homemade percussion instruments, while Walfredo de los Reyes and Guillermo Barreto explored new idioms with the instrument in jam sessions known as descargas; they were influenced by American jazz drummers such as Max Roach and often doubled on the drum kit. [7] Walfredo was an important influence on his student Amadito Valdés, later a member of Buena Vista Social Club, and his own sons Walfredo Reyes Jr. and Daniel de los Reyes. In the 1970s, innovations in timbales playing mostly came from songo groups such as Orquesta Revé, directed by timbalero Elio Revé, Orquesta Ritmo Oriental, featuring Daniel Díaz on timbales, and Los Van Van, whose timbaleros, first Blas Egües and later Changuito became masters of the instrument. [8] In the 1990s, Changuito filmed a series of instructional videos on timbales, as well as congas and drums, which were released on VHS.

In the United States

Ubaldo Nieto, timbalero in Machito and his Afro-Cubans, was one of the first musicians to popularize the instrument in the United States. However, it was New York-born percussionist and bandleader Tito Puente who became the leading figure for the rest of the 20th century, often being referred to as the "king of the timbales". He often acted as a bandleader in his studio recordings, leaving the timbales spot for up-and-coming artists such as Willie Bobo and Monchito, son of bandleader Rafael Muñoz. Several other Puerto Rican timbaleros also rose to prominence during the 1950s, like Willie Rodríguez, Humberto Morales and Rafael Cortijo. The former two often played in mambo and Latin jazz bands, while Cortijo established one of Puerto Rico's most popular groups, Cortijo y su Combo. In the 1960s, the incipient New York salsa scene saw the emergence of Kako, Manny Oquendo, Jimmy Sabater, Orestes Vilató and Nicky Marrero. Timbales were also popular in boogaloo bands such as Pucho & His Latin Soul Brothers, whose leader was timbalero Henry "Pucho" Brown. [9] In the 1970s, timbales began to be used in other genres such as Latin rock and reggae. Mexican-American percussionist Pete Escovedo, his brother Coke and his daughter Sheila all became accomplished timbaleros in rock, jazz and funk. Later on, timbales were introduced in hip hop by percussionists such as Eric Bobo, the son of Willie Bobo.

Arturo Sandoval on timbales at the Hard Rock Cafe, Times Square ArturoSandoval cut.jpg
Arturo Sandoval on timbales at the Hard Rock Cafe, Times Square



The basic timbales part for danzón is called the baqueteo. In the example below, the slashed noteheads indicate muted drum strokes, and the regular noteheads indicate open strokes. The danzón was the first written music to be based on the organizing principle of sub-Saharan African rhythm, known in Cuba as clave . [10]

Basic baqueteo timbales part. Play (help*info) Baqueteo-2.tif
Basic baqueteo timbales part. Loudspeaker.svg Play  

Bell patterns

During the mambo era of the 1940s, timbaleros began to mount cowbells on their drums. The cowbells, or wood blocks, may be mounted slightly above and between the two timbales a little further from the player. The following four timbale bell patterns are based on the folkloric rumba cáscara part. They are written in 3-2 clave sequence.

Four different timbale bell patterns. Play 1 (help*info)
, 2 (help*info)
, 3 (help*info)
, 4 (help*info) Four common timbale bell patterns.tif
Four different timbale bell patterns. Loudspeaker.svg Play 1  , Loudspeaker.svg 2  , Loudspeaker.svg 3  , Loudspeaker.svg 4  

In the 1970s José Luis Quintana "Changuito" developed the technique of simultaneously playing timbale and bongo bell parts when he held the timbales chair in the songo band Los Van Van. The example below shows the combined bell patterns (written in a 2-3 clave sequence).

Two interlocking cowbells, the "Changuito Special." Play (help*info) Two cowbells.png
Two interlocking cowbells, the "Changuito Special." Loudspeaker.svg Play  

Tito Puente was frequently seen in concerts, and on posters and album covers, with seven or eight timbales in one set. The timbales were occasionally expanded with drum kit pieces, such as a kick or snare drum. By the late 1970s this became the norm in the genre known as songo. [11] Changuito and others brought rumba and funk influences into timbales playing. In contemporary timba bands, drummers, such as Calixto Oviedo, often use a timbales/drum kit hybrid. [12]


Típico style

The original style of soloing on timbales is known as típico ('typical'). Manny Oquendo (1931-2009) played timbales solos famous for their tastefully sparse, straight forward típico phrasing. The following five measure excerpt is from a timbales solo by Oquendo on "Mambo." [13] The clave pattern is written above for reference. Notice how the passage begins and ends by coinciding with the strokes of clave. [14]

Rumba quinto rhythmic vocabulary

By the late 1940s and early 1950s, some timbaleros ('timbales players'), particularly Tito Puente, began incorporating the rhythmic vocabulary of rumba quinto into their solos. [15]

Derivative instruments


Timbalitos or pailitas are small timbales with diameters of 15 centimetres (6 in), 20 centimetres (8 in) or 25 centimetres (10 in). The timbalitos are used to play the part of the bongos with sticks, but are not used to play the traditional timbales part. Manteca, Papaíto, Félix Escobar "El Gallego" and Manny Oquendo were masters at playing the bongó part on timbalitos. [16] Timbalitos are sometimes incorporated into expanded timbales set-ups, or incorporated into drum kits.

Mini timbales

Mini timbales small timbales, similar to timbalitos, often used by rock drummers as part of their drum kits. For examples, drummer John Dolmayan of System of a Down is known for using two (6" and 8") mini timbales in his kit [17] and Dave Mackintosh uses a pair of 8" diameter attack timbales 9" and 11" deep made by Meinl Percussion [18] to produce a similar sound to a pair of octobans. Meinl also produce a set of mini timbales of traditional depth but 8" and 10" diameter, also suitable for drum kit usage. [19]

Marching Timbales

The Ohio University Marching 110 is the only collegiate marching band in the United States to march timbales in their percussion section. Timbales were added to the band in 1971, accompanying five snare drums, two bass drums, two tenor bass drums, and two sets of cymbals. The band does not use a normal set of multi tenor drums that most marching bands do, and instead use a combination of timbales and duo-tenor drums to fulfill the mid-ranges of the percussion section's sound. Together, the section is known as the "Middle Voices" or "Middles".

Related Research Articles

Mambo is a genre of Cuban dance music pioneered by the charanga Arcaño y sus Maravillas in the late 1930s and later popularized in the big band style by Pérez Prado. It originated as a syncopated form of the danzón, known as danzón-mambo, with a final, improvised section, which incorporated the guajeos typical of son cubano. These guajeos became the essence of the genre when it was played by big bands, which did not perform the traditional sections of the danzón and instead leaned towards swing and jazz. By the late 1940s and early 1950s, mambo had become a "dance craze" in Mexico and the United States as its associated dance took over the East Coast thanks to Pérez Prado, Tito Puente, Tito Rodríguez and others. In the mid-1950s, a slower ballroom style, also derived from the danzón, cha-cha-cha, replaced mambo as the most popular dance genre in North America. Nonetheless, mambo continued to enjoy some degree of popularity into the 1960s and new derivative styles appeared, such as dengue; by the 1970s it had been largely incorporated into salsa.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Salsa music</span> Latin American dance music genre

Salsa music is a style of Latin American music, combining elements of Cuban, Puerto Rican, and American influences. Because most of the basic musical components predate the labeling of salsa, there have been many controversies regarding its origin. Most songs considered as salsa are primarily based on son montuno, with elements of mambo, Latin jazz, bomba, plena and guaracha. All of these elements are adapted to fit the basic son montuno template when performed within the context of salsa.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Arsenio Rodríguez</span> Musical artist

Arsenio Rodríguez was a Cuban musician, composer and bandleader. He played the tres, as well as the tumbadora, and he specialized in son, rumba and other Afro-Cuban music styles. In the 1940s and 1950s Rodríguez established the conjunto format and contributed to the development of the son montuno, the basic template of modern-day salsa. He claimed to be the true creator of the mambo and was an important as well as a prolific composer who wrote nearly two hundred songs.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Conga</span> Cuban drum

The conga, also known as tumbadora, is a tall, narrow, single-headed drum from Cuba. Congas are staved like barrels and classified into three types: quinto, tres dos or tres golpes (middle), and tumba or salidor (lowest). Congas were originally used in Afro-Cuban music genres such as conga and rumba, where each drummer would play a single drum. Following numerous innovations in conga drumming and construction during the mid-20th century, as well as its internationalization, it became increasingly common for drummers to play two or three drums. Congas have become a popular instrument in many forms of Latin music such as son, descarga, Afro-Cuban jazz, salsa, songo, merengue and Latin rock.

Charanga is a traditional ensemble that plays Cuban dance music. They made Cuban dance music popular in the 1940s and their music consisted of heavily son-influenced material, performed on European instruments such as violin and flute by a Charanga orchestra.. The style of music that is most associated with a Charanga is termed 'Danzón', and is an amalgam of both European classical music and African rhythms.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Los Van Van</span>

Los Van Van is one of the leading musical groups of post-revolutionary Cuba. It was founded in 1969 by bassist Juan Formell, who directed the band until his death in 2014. Formell and former band members Changuito and Pupy are some of the most important figures in contemporary Cuban music, having contributed to the development of songo and timba, two popular dance music genres.

Danzón is the official musical genre and dance of Cuba. It is also an active musical form in Mexico and Puerto Rico. Written in 2
, the danzón is a slow, formal partner dance, requiring set footwork around syncopated beats, and incorporating elegant pauses while the couples stand listening to virtuoso instrumental passages, as characteristically played by a charanga or típica ensemble.

Mozambique refers to two separate styles of music.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Timba</span> Cuban genre of music

Timba is a Cuban genre of music based on Cuban son with salsa, American R&B/Funk and the strong influence of Afro-Cuban folkloric music. Timba rhythm sections differ from their salsa counterparts, because timba emphasizes the bass drum, which is not used in salsa bands. Timba and salsa use the same tempo range and they both use the standard conga marcha. Almost all timba bands have a trap drummer. Timbas also often break the basic tenets of arranging the music in-clave. Timba is considered to be a highly aggressive type of music, with rhythm and "swing" taking precedence over melody and lyricism. Associated with timba is a radically sexual and provocative dance style known as despelote. It is a dynamic evolution of salsa, full of improvisation and Afro Cuban heritage, based on son, Rumba and mambo, taking inspiration from Latin jazz, and is highly percussive with complex sections. Timba is more flexible and innovative than salsa, and includes a more diverse range of styles. Timba incorporates heavy percussion and rhythms which originally came from the barrios of Cuba.

Afro-Cuban jazz is the earliest form of Latin jazz. It mixes Afro-Cuban clave-based rhythms with jazz harmonies and techniques of improvisation. Afro-Cuban music has deep roots in African ritual and rhythm. The genre emerged in the early 1940s with the Cuban musicians Mario Bauzá and Frank Grillo "Machito" in the band Machito and his Afro-Cubans in New York City. In 1947, the collaborations of bebop trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie and percussionist Chano Pozo brought Afro-Cuban rhythms and instruments, such as the tumbadora and the bongo, into the East Coast jazz scene. Early combinations of jazz with Cuban music, such as "Manteca" and "Mangó Mangüé", were commonly referred to as "Cubop" for Cuban bebop.

Songo is a genre of popular Cuban music, created by the group Los Van Van in the early 1970s. Songo incorporated rhythmic elements from folkloric rumba into popular dance music, and was a significant departure from the son montuno/mambo-based structure which had dominated popular music in Cuba since the 1940s. Blas Egües was the first drummer in Los Van Van, but it was the band's second drummer, José Luis Quintana "Changuito", who developed songo into the world-wide phenomenon it is today.

Changuito is a Cuban percussionist.

NG La Banda is a Cuban musical group founded by flutist José Luis "El Tosco" Cortés. NG stands for nueva generación. NG La Banda are the creators of timba, the most important popular dance and music genre of the past two decades. Prior to founding NG La Banda, Cortés played in the Afro-Cuban jazz-fusion supergroup Irakere, and the seminal songo band Los Van Van.

The danzón-mambo is a subgenre of Cuban dance music that marked the transition from the classical danzόn to the mambo and the cha-cha-chá. It was also in the context of the danzón-mambo that the Cuban dance band format called charanga reached its present form.

In music of Afro-Cuban origin, tumbao is the basic rhythm played on the bass. In North America, the basic conga drum pattern used in popular music is also called tumbao. In the contemporary form of Cuban popular dance music known as timba, piano guajeos are known as tumbaos.

Manny Oquendo was an American percussionist of Puerto Rican ancestry. His main instruments were the timbales and the bongos.

Early Cuban bands played popular music for dances and theatres during the period 1780–1930. During this period Cuban music became creolized, and its European and African origins gradually changed to become genuinely Cuban. Instrumentation and music continually developed during this period. The information listed here is in date order, and comes from whatever records survive to the present day.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tito Puente</span> American Latin jazz and mambo musician (1923–2000)

Ernesto AntonioPuente Jr., commonly known as TitoPuente, was an American musician, songwriter, bandleader, timbalero, and record producer of Puerto Rican descent. He is best known for dance-oriented mambo and Latin jazz compositions from his 50-year career. His most famous song is "Oye Como Va".

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Guajeo</span> Arpeggiated melodic motif found in salsa and other Cuban musical genres

A guajeo is a typical Cuban ostinato melody, most often consisting of arpeggiated chords in syncopated patterns. Some musicians only use the term guajeo for ostinato patterns played specifically by a tres, piano, an instrument of the violin family, or saxophones. Piano guajeos are one of the most recognizable elements of modern-day salsa. Piano guajeos are also known as montunos in North America, or tumbaos in the contemporary Cuban dance music timba.

Ulpiano Díaz (1900–1990) was a Cuban timbalero. He is considered an innovator of the timbales, being the first to add a small cowbell to the setup, and popularizing the abanico. He started his career playing güiro in Félix González's orquesta típica, and rose to prominence as the timbales player of three important charangas: Orquesta de Tata Alfonso, Arcaño y sus Maravillas and Fajardo y sus Estrellas.


  1. 1 2 Orovio, Helio 1981. Diccionario de la música cubana: biográfico y técnico. Entries for Paila criolla; Timbal criollo.
  2. 1 2 Wacker, Jonathan (2003). "Timbales". In Shepherd, John (ed.). Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World: Volume II: Performance and Production. London, UK: Bloomsbury. pp. 401–402. ISBN   9780826463227.
  3. Corominas, Joan (1981). Diccionario crítico etimológico castellano e hispánico . Madrid: Spain: Gredos. p. 339.
  4. Conzo, Joe; Pérez, David A. (2010). Mambo Diablo: My Journey With Tito Puente. Bloomington, IN: Authorhouse. p. 42.
  5. Quintana, José Luis; Silverman, Chuck (1998). Changuito: A Master's Approach to Timbales. Belwin-Mills. p. 25.
  6. Ledón Sánchez, Armando (2003). La música popular en Cuba (in Spanish). Oakland, CA: Intelibooks. p. 150. ISBN   9780932367150.
  7. Acosta, Leonardo (2001). Raíces del jazz latino: un siglo de jazz en Cuba (in Spanish). Editorial La Iguana Ciega. p. 159. ISBN   978-958-33-6805-9.
  8. Silverman, Chuck; Mauleón, Rebeca; García, Richie (1994). "The Drummers of Cuba". Modern Drummer. 175: 30–33, 87–98.
  9. Waxer, Lise (12 November 2013). Situating Salsa: Global Markets and Local Meanings in Latin Popular Music. Routledge. p. 86. ISBN   978-1-135-72534-1.
  10. Peñalosa, David (2010). The Clave Matrix; Afro-Cuban Rhythm: Its Principles and African Origins p. 254. Redway, CA: Bembe Inc. ISBN   1-886502-80-3.
  11. "The Clave and the Backbeat". Timba.com. Retrieved 19 April 2021.
  12. Oviedo, Calixto (2011). "Beyond Salsa Percussion." Timba.com. "Beyond Salsa Percussion". Archived from the original on 2012-01-13. Retrieved 2012-01-23.
  13. "Mambo" Understanding Latin Rhythms (Patato, et al.) LP Ventures LPV-337-A (1974).
  14. Peñalosa, David (2010). "Mambo Timbales Solo Excerpt," The Clave Matrix; Afro-Cuban Rhythm: Its Principles and African Origins p. 200. Redway, CA: Bembe Inc. ISBN   1-886502-80-3.
  16. Velez, A.E. (13 April 2009). "Manny Oquendo, Latin Band Leader and Stylistic Innovator, Dies at 78". The New York Times. Retrieved September 23, 2018.
  17. "Top 9 Timbales For Sale - 2018 Reviews". Instrument Insider. 4 March 2017. Retrieved October 28, 2018.
  18. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on January 22, 2013. Retrieved February 28, 2012.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) retrieved 28 February 2012
  19. "MEINL PERCUSSION - the Ultimate Selection: Timbales". Archived from the original on 2012-07-11. Retrieved 2012-02-28. retrieved 29 February 2012