Time Person of the Year

Last updated

Person of the Year
Charles Lindbergh Time cover 1928.jpg
1927 Man of the Year Charles Lindbergh, the award's inaugural winner
CountryUnited States
Presented by Time
Formerly called
  • Man of the Year
  • Woman of the Year
First awarded1927;97 years ago (1927)
Website www.time.com/poy

Person of the Year (called Man of the Year or Woman of the Year until 1999) [1] is an annual issue of the American news magazine and website Time featuring a person, group, idea, or object that "for better or for worse ... has done the most to influence the events of the year". [2] The editors select the featured subject in a "secretive ... process", though the Time website or a partner organization also runs an annual online reader's poll that has no effect on the selection. [3] [4]

Contents

Background

The tradition of selecting a "Man of the Year" began privately in 1927, with Time editors contemplating the news makers of the year after a series of "slow news days" before New Year's Day. [4] The idea originally focused on a Man of the Week before it was decided to use Lindbergh to represent the predominant story of 1927, with the magazine listing him as Man of the Year being published in early 1928. [4]

The idea was also an attempt to remedy the editorial embarrassment earlier that year of not having aviator Charles Lindbergh on its cover following his historic transatlantic flight. [4] By the end of the year, it was decided that a cover story featuring Lindbergh as the Man of the Year would serve both purposes. [5]

Before the online poll was instituted, "readers were invited to weigh in by mail." [4]

Selection

National leaders

Since the list began, every serving president of the United States has been a Man or Person of the Year at least once, with the exceptions of Calvin Coolidge (in office at the time of the first issue), Herbert Hoover (the subsequent president), and Gerald Ford (the only president never to have been elected to the office of president or vice president). Most were named Man or Person of the Year either the year they were elected or while they were in office; the only one to be given the title before being elected was Dwight D. Eisenhower, in 1944, as Supreme Commander of the Allied Invasion Force, eight years before his first election. He subsequently received the title again in 1959 while in office. Franklin D. Roosevelt became the first chosen US president and is the only person to have received the title three times, first as president-elect (1932) and later as the incumbent president (1934 and 1941).

All countries' heads of state or government to have been chosen as Man, Woman, or Person of the Year (arranged in chronological order by country name, from the most frequently selected) are:

Number of selectionsOfficeName
23 (14 unique leaders)President of the United States Franklin D. Roosevelt (1932, 1934, 1941); Harry S. Truman (1945, 1948); Dwight D. Eisenhower (1959); John F. Kennedy (1961); Lyndon B. Johnson (1964, 1967); Richard Nixon (1971, 1972); Jimmy Carter (1976); Ronald Reagan (1980, 1983); George H. W. Bush (1990); Bill Clinton (1992, 1998); George W. Bush (2000, 2004); Barack Obama (2008, 2012); Donald Trump (2016); and Joe Biden (2020)
6 (4 unique leaders) General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Joseph Stalin (1939, 1942); Nikita Khrushchev (1957); Yuri Andropov (1983); and Mikhail Gorbachev (1987, 1989)
4 Chancellor of Germany Adolf Hitler (1938); Konrad Adenauer (1953); Willy Brandt (1970); and Angela Merkel (2015)
3Pope (Sovereign leader of the Vatican City) John XXIII (1962); John Paul II (1994); and Francis (2013)
2 (1 unique leader) Paramount leader of the People's Republic of China Deng Xiaoping (1978, 1985)
2 Prime Minister of France Pierre Laval (1931); and Charles de Gaulle (1958)
1 Premier of the Republic of China Chiang Kai-shek (1937)
1 President of Egypt Anwar Sadat (1977)
1 Emperor of Ethiopia Haile Selassie (1935)
1 Prime Minister of Iran Mohammad Mosaddegh (1951)
1 Supreme Leader of Iran Ruhollah Khomeini (1979)
1 Prime Minister of Israel Yitzhak Rabin (1993)
1 President of the Palestinian National Authority Yasser Arafat (1993)
1 President of the Philippines Corazon Aquino (1986)
1 President of Russia Vladimir Putin (2007)
1 King of Saudi Arabia Faisal (1974)
1 State President of South Africa F.W. de Klerk (1993)
1 President of Ukraine Volodymyr Zelenskyy (2022)
1 Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Winston Churchill (1940)
1 Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms Elizabeth II (1952)
Notes

Winston Churchill was chosen a second time for the special "Man of the Half-Century" edition in 1949 while serving as Leader of the Opposition before his second premiership; Charles de Gaulle was chosen while being elected President of France before formally taking office; Lech Wałęsa and Nelson Mandela were chosen before being elected President of Poland and President of South Africa, respectively.

Women

Before 1999, four women were granted the title as individuals: three as "Woman of the Year"—Wallis Simpson (1936), Queen Elizabeth II (1952), and Corazon Aquino (1986)—and one as half of "Man and Wife of the Year", Soong Mei-ling (jointly with Chiang Kai-shek) in 1937. [6] "American Women" were recognized as a group in 1975. Other classes of people recognized comprise both men and women, such as "Hungarian Freedom Fighters" (1956), "U.S. Scientists" (1960), "The Inheritors" (1966), "The Middle Americans" (1969), "The American Soldier" (1950 and 2003), "You" (2006), "The Protester" (2011), and "Ebola Fighters" (2014). However, the title on the magazine remained "Man of the Year" for both the 1956 "Hungarian Freedom Fighter" and the 1966 "Twenty-five and Under" editions which both featured a woman standing behind a man, and "Men of the Year" on the 1960 "U.S. Scientists" edition which exclusively featured men on its cover. It was not until the 1969 edition on "The Middle Americans" that the title embraced "Man and Woman of the Year".

In 1999, the title was changed to the gender-neutral "Person of the Year" (its first recipient under the new name being Jeff Bezos of Amazon.com). [7] Women who have been selected for recognition after the renaming include "The Whistleblowers" (Cynthia Cooper, Coleen Rowley, and Sherron Watkins) in 2002; Melinda Gates (jointly with Bill Gates and Bono) in 2005; Angela Merkel (2015); "The Silence Breakers" (2017); Greta Thunberg (2019); Kamala Harris (jointly with Joe Biden) in 2020; and Taylor Swift (2023). To celebrate International Women's Day in 2020, Time editors released 89 new magazine covers, each showing women, in addition to the 11 already chosen, as counterparts to the Man of the Year choices from the past century. [8]

Groups and non-humans

Despite the name, the title is not just granted to individuals. Pairs of people such as married couples and political opponents, classes of people, and inanimate objects have all been selected for the special year-end issue.

Multiple named people

Classes of unnamed people

Inanimate objects

Abstract concepts

Special editions

In 1949, Winston Churchill was named Man of the Half-Century, [9] and the last issue of 1989 named Mikhail Gorbachev as "Man of the Decade". [10] The December 31, 1999 issue of Time named Albert Einstein the "Person of the Century". [11] Both Franklin D. Roosevelt and Mahatma Gandhi were chosen as runners-up. [12] Aside from Einstein, the December 31 edition also named Persons of the Century for every century of the 2nd millennium: William the Conqueror for the 11th century, Saladin for the 12th century, Genghis Khan for the 13th century, Giotto for the 14th century, Johannes Gutenberg for the 15th century, Elizabeth I for the 16th century, Isaac Newton for the 17th century, Thomas Jefferson for the 18th century, and Thomas Edison for the 19th century. [13]

Controversial choices

Despite the magazine's frequent statements to the contrary, the designation is often regarded as an honor and spoken of as an award or prize, simply based on many previous selections of admirable people. [14] However, Time points out that controversial figures such as Adolf Hitler (1938); Joseph Stalin (1939 and 1942); Nikita Khrushchev (1957); and Ayatollah Khomeini (1979) have also been granted the title for their impact on events. [15] Nevertheless, as a result of the public backlash it received from the American audience for naming Khomeini Man of the Year in 1979, the magazine's editors have since shied away from using figures who are controversial in the United States, fearing reductions in sales or advertising revenue. [16]

Time's Person of the Year for 2001, immediately following the September 11 attacks, was Rudy Giuliani, who was then mayor of New York City. [17] The stated rules of selection—the individual or group of individuals who have had the bigger influence on the year's events—made Osama bin Laden the more likely choice that year; however, Giuliani was selected for symbolizing the American response to the attacks, in the same way that Albert Einstein was selected Person of the Century for representing a century of scientific exploration and wonder instead of Adolf Hitler, who was arguably a stronger candidate. [18] The selections were ultimately based on, as the magazine describes it, "who they believed had a stronger influence on history and who represented either the year or the century the most."

Withdrawn and alleged selections

In 1941, the fictional elephant Dumbo from Walt Disney's animated film of the same name was selected to be "Mammal of the Year", and a cover was created showing the title character in a formal portrait style. However, the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7 pre-empted the cover. The U.S. president Franklin Delano Roosevelt was named Man of the Year for a record third time, although Dumbo's Mammal of the Year profile still appeared on the inside pages of the magazine. [19]

Filmmaker Michael Moore claims that director Mel Gibson cost him the opportunity to be Person of the Year alongside Gibson in 2004. Moore's controversial political documentary Fahrenheit 9/11 became the highest-grossing documentary of all time the same year Gibson's The Passion of the Christ became a box-office success and also caused significant controversy. Moore said in an interview "I got a call right after the '04 election from an editor from Time Magazine. He said,' Time Magazine has picked you and Mel Gibson to be Time's Person of the Year to put on the cover, Right and Left, Mel and Mike. The only thing you have to do is pose for a picture with each other. And do an interview together.' I said 'OK.' They call Mel up, he agrees. They set the date and time in LA. I'm to fly there. He's flying from Australia. Something happens when he gets home ... Next thing, Mel calls up and says, 'I'm not doing it. I've thought it over and it is not the right thing to do.' So they put Bush on the cover." [20]

On November 24, 2017, US president Donald Trump, who had this title the previous year, posted on the social media network Twitter that Time editors had told him he would "probably" be named Person of the Year for a second time, conditional on an interview and photo shoot, which he had refused. Time denied that they had made any such promises or conditions to Trump, who was named a runner-up. [21]

Persons of the Year

YearImageChoiceLifetimeNotesRunners-up
1927 Charles Lindbergh Time cover 1928.jpg Charles Lindbergh 1902–1974Lindbergh completed the first solo transatlantic flight in May 1927 by piloting his monoplane Spirit of St. Louis from Garden City, New York to Paris, France.
1928 Walter Chrysler in 1937.jpg Walter Chrysler 1875–1940In 1928, Chrysler oversaw a merger of his company, Chrysler, with Dodge before beginning work on the Chrysler Building.
1929 Owen D. Young on TIME Magazine, January 6, 1930.jpg Owen D. Young 1874–1962Young chaired a committee which authored 1929's Young Plan, a program for settlement of German reparations after World War I.
1930 Gandhi Time cover 1931.jpg Mahatma Gandhi 1869–1948Gandhi was the leader of India's independence movement. In 1930, he led the Salt Satyagraha, a 240-mile march to protest the imposition of taxes on salt by the British Raj.
1931 Pierre Laval-TIME-1932.jpg Pierre Laval 1883–1945Laval was first appointed Prime Minister of France in 1931. He was popular in the American press at the time for opposing the Hoover Moratorium, a temporary freeze on World War I debt payments that was disliked in both France and the US. [22]
1932 FDR 1944 Color Portrait.jpg Franklin D. Roosevelt 1882–1945Roosevelt won the 1932 US presidential election by a landslide, defeating the incumbent, Herbert Hoover.
1933 1933 Time Man of the Year cover.jpg Hugh S. Johnson 1882–1942In 1933, Johnson was appointed director of the National Recovery Administration. US President Franklin D. Roosevelt gave him the task of bringing industry, labor and government together to create codes of "fair practices" and set prices.
1934 Franklin D. Roosevelt Time cover 1935.jpg Franklin D. Roosevelt (2)1882–1945Roosevelt was President of the United States from 1933 to 1945. In 1934, Roosevelt's New Deal reforms were beginning to bear fruit.
1935 Haile Selassie Time cover 1936.jpg Haile Selassie 1892–1975Selassie was Emperor of Ethiopia in 1935, when Italian forces invaded Ethiopia, starting the Second Italo-Abyssinian War.
1936 Vincenzo Laviosa - Duke and Duchess of Windsor - Google Art Project (cropped).jpg Wallis Simpson 1896–1986In 1936, Simpson's relationship with King Edward VIII of the United Kingdom led the king to abdicate the throne to marry her.
1937 Chiang Kai-shek(Jiang Zhong Zheng ).jpg Chiang Kai-shek 1887–1975Chiang was Premier of the Republic of China at the outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937.
Madame Chiang Kai-shek, seated portrait (cropped).jpg Soong Mei-ling 1898–2003Soong was wife of Chiang Kai-shek from 1927 until his death in 1975, and was active in rallying support for the Republic of China in the US. Addressed as Madame Chiang Kai-Shek by the magazine, she was recognized together with her husband as "Man & Wife of the Year". [6]
1938 Hitler portrait crop.jpg Adolf Hitler 1889–1945As Chancellor of Germany, Hitler oversaw the unification of Germany with Austria and the Sudetenland in 1938, after the Anschluss and Munich Agreement respectively. Instead of a conventional portrait, the cover was an illustration by Rudolph von Ripper entitled 'From the unholy organist, a hymn of hate'. [23]
1939 Joseph Stalin, 1950 (cropped).jpg Joseph Stalin 1878–1953In 1939, Stalin was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and Premier of the Soviet Union. He oversaw the signing of a non-aggression pact with Nazi Germany before invading eastern Poland.
1940 Sir Winston Churchill - 19086236948.jpg Winston Churchill 1874–1965Churchill was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during the Dunkirk evacuation and the Battle of Britain.
1941 FDR 1944 Color Portrait.jpg Franklin D. Roosevelt (3)1882–1945Roosevelt was President of the United States in 1941 during the attack on Pearl Harbor, declaration of war against Japan and resulting entry of the United States into World War II. The editors had already chosen Dumbo as their "Mammal of the Year" before the Pearl Harbor attack, but quickly changed it to Roosevelt. [19]
1942 Joseph Stalin, 1950 (cropped).jpg Joseph Stalin (2)1878–1953By 1942, Stalin was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and Premier of the Soviet Union, overseeing the Battle of Stalingrad (1942–1943).
1943 George Catlett Marshall, general of the US army (cropped).jpg George C. Marshall 1880–1959As United States Army Chief of Staff in 1943, General Marshall was instrumental in organizing US actions in World War II.
1944 Dwight D. Eisenhower, official photo portrait, May 29, 1959.jpg Dwight D. Eisenhower 1890–1969General Eisenhower was Supreme Allied Commander in Europe during 1944's Operation Overlord.
1945 TRUMAN 58-766-06 (cropped).jpg Harry S. Truman 1884–1972Truman became President of the United States after the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1945, authorizing the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
1946 James F. Byrnes cph.3c32232.jpg James F. Byrnes 1882–1972In 1946, Byrnes was United States Secretary of State during the Iran crisis of 1946, taking an increasingly hardline position in opposition to Stalin. His speech, "Restatement of Policy on Germany", set the tone of future US policy, repudiating the Morgenthau Plan economic policies and giving Germans hope for the future.
1947 George Catlett Marshall, general of the US army (cropped).jpg George C. Marshall (2)1880–1959Appointed United States Secretary of State in 1947, Marshall was the architect of the Marshall Plan.
1948 TRUMAN 58-766-06 (cropped).jpg Harry S. Truman (2)1884–1972Truman was elected in his own right as President of the United States in 1948, which is considered to be one of the greatest election upsets in American history. [24] [25] [26]
1949 Sir Winston Churchill - 19086236948.jpg Winston Churchill (2)1874–1965Proclaimed as the "Man of the half-century", Churchill had led Britain and the Allies to victory in WWII. In 1949, Churchill was Leader of the Opposition.
1950 Man-of-the-Year-TIME-1951.jpg The American fighting-man Representing US troops involved in the Korean War (1950–1953)
1951 Mohammad Mosaddegh portrait.jpg Mohammad Mossadegh 1882–1967In 1951, Mossadegh was appointed Prime Minister of Iran and expelled western oil companies, starting the Abadan Crisis.
1952 Queen Elizabeth II-TIME-1953.jpg Elizabeth II 1926–2022In 1952, Elizabeth acceded to the throne of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms upon the death of her father, King George VI.
1953 Konrad-Adenauer-TIME-1954.jpg Konrad Adenauer 1876–1967In 1953, Adenauer was re-elected as Chancellor of West Germany. Adenauer was overseeing the reconstruction of Germany and the Economic Miracle, had successfully restored relations with Germany's wartime enemies in the West, and was working towards European integration. [27]
1954 John Foster Dulles Nov 49-cropped.jpg John Foster Dulles 1888–1959As United States Secretary of State in 1954, Dulles was architect of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization.
1955 Mr. Harlow H. Curtice, General Manager. Buick Motor Division.jpg Harlow Curtice 1893–1962Curtice was President of General Motors (GM) from 1953 to 1958. In 1955, GM sold five million vehicles and became the first corporation to earn US$1 billion in a single year. [28]
1956 Hole in flag - Budapest 1956.jpg The Hungarian freedom fighter Representing Hungarian revolutionaries involved in the 1956 uprising against the Soviet-dominated government, which was put down by the Soviet Army
1957 Nikita-Khrushchev-TIME-1958.jpg Nikita Khrushchev 1894–1971In 1957, Khrushchev consolidated his leadership of the Soviet Union, surviving a plot to dismiss him by Stalinist members within the Presidium, and leading the Soviet Union into the Space Race with the launch of Sputnik 1.
1958 Charles-DeGaulle-TIME-1959.jpg Charles de Gaulle 1890–1970De Gaulle was appointed Prime Minister of France in May 1958 and, following the collapse of the Fourth Republic and establishment of the Fifth Republic, was then elected as President of France in December.
1959 Dwight D. Eisenhower, official photo portrait, May 29, 1959.jpg Dwight D. Eisenhower (2)1890–1969Eisenhower was President of the United States from 1953 to 1961. In 1959, Eisenhower arranged the state visit by Nikita Khrushchev to the United States and toured several countries, becoming the first US president to visit India. [29]
1960 Conical flask teal.svg U.S. Scientists Time claimed in 1960 "science is at the apogee of its power for good or evil", although it noted that "the 15 men [on the cover] include two or three whose greatest work is probably behind them".
The cover and piece spotlights the following scientists:
[30]
1961 John F. Kennedy, White House color photo portrait.jpg John F. Kennedy 1917–1963Kennedy was inaugurated as President of the United States in 1961, ordering the failed invasion of Cuba by U.S.-trained Cuban exiles.
1962 Pope John XXIII - Time Magazine Cover - January 4, 1963.jpg John XXIII 1881–1963Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from 1958 to 1963. In 1962, he volunteered as a mediator in the Cuban Missile Crisis between the U.S. and USSR, gaining praise from both sides. He also initiated the Second Vatican Council that same year.
1963 Martin Luther King, Jr..jpg Martin Luther King Jr. 1929–1968A leader of the American Civil rights movement, King delivered his famous "I Have a Dream" speech in 1963.
1964 37 Lyndon Johnson 3x4.jpg Lyndon B. Johnson 1908–1973Johnson was elected in his own right as President of the United States in 1964, before securing the passage of the Civil Rights Act, declaring a War on poverty, and escalating US involvement in the Vietnam War.
1965 Gen William C Westmoreland.jpg William Westmoreland 1914–2005General Westmoreland was commander of US forces in South Vietnam during the Vietnam War.
1966 US Birth Rates.svg The Inheritor Representing a generation of American men and women, aged 25 and under – the Baby Boom generation, who in 1966 made up nearly half the population and were influential both in the counterculture of the 1960s and as drafted soldiers in the Vietnam War. The face most prominently seen on the cover representing the generation was that of Thomas M. McLaughlin. [31] [32]
1967 37 Lyndon Johnson 3x4.jpg Lyndon B. Johnson (2)1908–1973Johnson was President of the United States from 1963 to 1969. Time noted that it had been a year of setbacks and failures for Johnson, with race riots across the US, deepening involvement in the Vietnam War, and the Dump Johnson movement within his own party. [33]
1968 Apollo 8 Crewmembers - GPN-2000-001125.jpg The Apollo 8 astronauts Frank Borman: 1928–2023
Jim Lovell: Born 1928
William Anders: 1933–2024
In 1968, the American crew of Apollo 8 (William Anders, Frank Borman and Jim Lovell) became the first humans to travel beyond low Earth orbit, orbiting the Moon and paving the way for the first human Moon landings in 1969.
1969 US map-Central.png The Middle Americans Conservative, small-town Americans, also referred to as the silent majority. Time saw Middle America as the driving force behind Richard Nixon's 1968 election win, the background of the American astronauts of Apollo 11, and the conservative side of debates on social issues such as school desegregation, prayer in public schools, sex education and drugs policy. [34] [35]
1970 Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F057884-0009, Willy Brandt.jpg Willy Brandt 1913–1992As Chancellor of West Germany, Brandt was acknowledged for "seeking to bring about a fresh relationship between East and West" through his "bold approach to the Soviet Union and the East Bloc". In 1970, Brandt renounced German claims on Poland and recognized East Germany, and acknowledged the Holocaust in Nazi-occupied Poland with the symbolic Kniefall von Warschau . [36]
1971 Richard Nixon presidential portrait (1).jpg Richard Nixon 1913–1994Nixon was President of the United States from 1969 to 1974. In 1971, Nixon had withdrawn the US dollar from the gold standard, triggering the Nixon shock, created the Economic Stabilization Program, and re-opened relations with communist China. [37]
1972 Richard Nixon presidential portrait (1).jpg Richard Nixon (2)1913–1994As President of the United States, Nixon visited China in 1972, the first U.S. president to do so. Nixon later secured the SALT I pact with the Soviet Union before being re-elected in one of the largest landslide election victories in American history.
Henry A. Kissinger, U.S. Secretary of State, 1973-1977.jpg Henry Kissinger 1923–2023Kissinger, as Nixon's National Security Advisor, traveled with the President to China in 1972, and was negotiating peace in the Vietnam War.
1973 Washington DC Judge John Sirica in 1974.jpg John Sirica 1904–1992In 1973, as Chief Judge of the United States District Court for the District of Columbia, Sirica ordered President Nixon to turn over Watergate-related recordings of White House conversations.
1974 King Faisal bin Abdulaziz.jpg Faisal 1906–1975Faisal, King of Saudi Arabia, was acknowledged in the wake of the oil crisis of 1973–1974, caused by Saudi Arabia withdrawing its oil from world markets in protest at Western support for Israel during the Yom Kippur War.
1975 Pink Venus symbol.svg American women Highlighting the successes of the American feminist movement and "the status of the everyday, usually anonymous woman, who moved into the mainstream of jobs, ideas and policy making".
The cover and piece spotlights the following women:
[40]
1976 JimmyCarterPortrait2.jpg Jimmy Carter Born 1924In 1976, Carter was elected President of the United States, defeating incumbent President Gerald Ford.
1977 Anwar Sadat cropped.jpg Anwar Sadat 1918–1981Sadat, as President of Egypt, traveled to Israel in 1977—the first Arab leader to do so—to discuss normalization of Egypt–Israel relations.
1978 Deng Xiaoping at the arrival ceremony for the Vice Premier of China (cropped).jpg Deng Xiaoping 1904–1997Deng, as Vice Premier, overthrew Hua Guofeng to assume de facto control over China in 1978, as Paramount leader.
4
1979 Portrait of Ruhollah Khomeini.jpg Ruhollah Khomeini 1902–1989Khomeini led the 1979 Iranian Revolution, establishing himself as Supreme Leader.
1980 Official Portrait of President Reagan 1981.jpg Ronald Reagan 1911–2004Reagan was elected President of the United States in 1980, defeating incumbent President Jimmy Carter.
1981 Lech Walesa (2019), FORUM 2000, Prague (2).jpg Lech Wałęsa Born 1943Leader of the Polish Solidarity trade union and architect of the Gdańsk Agreement until his arrest by the communist authorities and the imposition of martial law in Poland in December 1981
1982 Sanco 8001.jpg The Computer Denoted "Machine of the Year" to herald the dawn of the Information Age
The feature spotlights the following people, in order:
1983 Official Portrait of President Reagan 1981.jpg Ronald Reagan (2)1911–2004In 1983, as President of the United States, Reagan ordered the invasion of Grenada and championed the Strategic Defense Initiative.
YuriAndropov1970.png Yuri Andropov 1914–1984Andropov, as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, was a critic of the Strategic Defense Initiative and tried to revive stagnating Soviet economy. Andropov was hospitalized in August 1983 and subsequently died in 1984.
1984 Peter Ueberroth 1985.jpg Peter Ueberroth Born 1937Ueberroth orchestrated the organization of the 1984 Summer Olympics, which involved a Soviet-led boycott.
1985 Deng Xiaoping at the arrival ceremony for the Vice Premier of China (cropped).jpg Deng Xiaoping (2)1904–1997As Paramount Leader of China, Deng was acknowledged the need for "sweeping economic reforms that have challenged Marxist orthodoxies". In 1985, Deng had lifted price controls and eased the restrictions on private ownership and business. [58]
1986 Corazon Aquino 1986.jpg Corazon Aquino 1933–2009Aquino was a prominent figure in 1986's People Power Revolution, being elected president of the Philippines.
1987 RIAN archive 850809 General Secretary of the CPSU CC M. Gorbachev (cropped).jpg Mikhail Gorbachev 1931–2022As general secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and leader of the Soviet Union, Gorbachev oversaw perestroika and glasnost political reforms in 1987, aimed at liberalizing Soviet society.
1988 The Blue Marble (remastered).jpg The Endangered EarthPlanet of the Year, representing the growing environmental movement as well as several natural and ecological disasters that struck in 1988: among them were the 1988–1989 North American drought, "syringe tide", 1988 Bangladesh cyclone and 1988 Armenian earthquake, as well as ozone depletion, global warming, radioactive contamination and deforestation. [65]
1989 RIAN archive 850809 General Secretary of the CPSU CC M. Gorbachev (cropped).jpg Mikhail Gorbachev (2)1931–2022Acknowledged as "Man of the Decade". Gorbachev, as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Soviet leader), oversaw 1989's first free Soviet elections in history before the fragmentation of the Eastern Bloc and overthrow of Soviet-dominated communist governments in Eastern Europe.
1990 George H. W. Bush presidential portrait (cropped).jpg George H. W. Bush 1924–2018As President of the United States, Bush oversaw U.S. involvement in the Gulf War (1990–1991).
1991 Ted Turner at the LBJ Foundation.jpg Ted Turner Born 1938Founder of CNN. The piece particularly highlighted CNN's coverage of Operation Desert Storm and the Gulf War, proclaiming it "History as it happens".
1992 Bill Clinton.jpg Bill Clinton Born 1946Clinton was elected President of the United States in 1992, defeating incumbent President George H. W. Bush.
1993 Peace symbol (bold).svg The PeacemakersRepresented by Yasser Arafat, F. W. de Klerk, Nelson Mandela, and Yitzhak Rabin. De Klerk, as State President of South Africa, oversaw Mandela's release from prison in 1990. In 1993, the pair were negotiating the end of the Apartheid system, and had just jointly won the Nobel Peace Prize. Arafat, as President of the Palestinian National Authority, and Rabin, as Prime Minister of Israel, signed the 1993 Oslo Accord, the first face-to-face agreement between Palestinian and Israeli authorities.
1994 Ritratto di papa Giovanni Paolo II (1984 - edited).jpg John Paul II 1920–2005Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from 1978 to 2005. In 1994, he had been active in several social debates: he released a book-length interview and the English translation of the Catechism of the Catholic Church , ruled out the ordination of women, criticized the promotion of abortion and family planning at the Cairo Conference, and established relations with Israel. [70]
1995 Newt Gingrich (52586544361)(crop).jpg Newt Gingrich Born 1943Leader of the "Republican Revolution", a Republican Party election landslide, which led to Gingrich being elected Speaker of the House
1996 Ho photo.jpg David Ho Born 1952Ho, a scientist, pioneered much AIDS research. In 1996, he had announced that a medical trial of combination therapy had reduced the viral load in HIV-positive patients to levels too low to be measured, changing the disease profile from terminal to a manageable disease. [71]
1997 Andrew Grove.jpg Andrew Grove 1936–2016In 1997, Grove was chairman and CEO of Intel, recognized as a pioneer in the semiconductor industry and taken as a representative of the Digital Revolution and the tech boom.
1998 Bill Clinton.jpg Bill Clinton (2)Born 1946As President of the United States, Clinton was impeached in 1998 following the Lewinsky scandal. The Senate acquitted him of the charges.
Kenneth W. Starr.jpg Ken Starr 1946–2022Starr, a lawyer investigating various figures within the Clinton administration, published his Starr Report in 1998, opening the door for the impeachment of Bill Clinton.
1999 Jeff Bezos visits LAAFB SMC (3908618) (cropped).jpeg Jeff Bezos Born 1964Bezos is the founder and was the CEO of Amazon.com, at that point one of the most successful companies in the dot-com boom.
2000 George-W-Bush.jpeg George W. Bush Born 1946In 2000, Bush was elected President of the United States, defeating incumbent Vice President Al Gore.
2001 2019 Rudolph Giuliani, Ex-Prefeito de Nova York - 48789790128 (cropped).jpg Rudy Giuliani Born 1944Giuliani, Mayor of New York City at the time of the September 11 attacks in 2001, was selected as a symbol of America's response to the attacks.
2002 Whistle icon.svg The Whistleblowers Represented by Cynthia Cooper, Coleen Rowley, and Sherron Watkins. In 2001, Watkins uncovered accounting irregularities in the financial reports of Enron, testifying before Congressional committees the following year. In 2002, Cooper exposed a $3.8 billion fraud at WorldCom. At the time, this was the largest incident of accounting fraud in U.S. history. In 2002, Rowley, an FBI agent, gave testimony about the FBI's mishandling of information related to the September 11 attacks of 2001.
2003 2ID Recon Baghdad.jpg The American soldier (2)Representing U.S. forces around the world, especially in the Iraq War (2003–2011)
2004 George-W-Bush.jpeg George W. Bush (2)Born 1946In 2004, Bush was re-elected President of the United States, defeating John Kerry and overseeing US involvement in the Iraq War.
2005 Bill og Melinda Gates 2009-06-03 (bilde 01).JPG
Bono singing in Indianapolis on Joshua Tree Tour 2017 9-10-17.jpg
The Good SamaritansRepresented by Bono, Bill Gates, and Melinda Gates. Bono, philanthropist and member of the rock band U2, helped to organise the 2005 Live 8 concerts. Bill Gates, founder of Microsoft and richest person in the world at the time, and his wife Melinda, founded the philanthropic Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
2006 You [75] Representing individual content creators on the World Wide Web
2007 Vladimir Putin (18-06-2023) (cropped).jpg Vladimir Putin [77] Born 1952Putin was President of Russia from 2000 to 2008, and from 2012 onwards. In 2007, it was apparent that Putin's power would continue after his presidential term expired: he had suppressed much of the opposition to his rule, including having a suspected role in the 2006 assassination of Anna Politkovskaya and poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko, and had secured his position as Prime Minister of Russia to his loyalist successor Dmitry Medvedev.
2008 President Barack Obama.jpg Barack Obama [79] Born 1961In 2008, Obama was elected President of the United States, defeating John McCain to become the first African-American President of the United States in January 2009.
2009 Ben Bernanke official portrait.jpg Ben Bernanke [81] Born 1953 Chairman of the Federal Reserve during the financial crisis of 2007–08 and the following Great Recession
2010 Mark Zuckerberg F8 2019 Keynote (32830578717) (cropped).jpg Mark Zuckerberg [83] Born 1984Founder of the social-networking website Facebook. In 2010, Facebook passed half a billion users but was involved in privacy disputes, and Zuckerberg had been the subject of the Oscar-winning biographical film The Social Network .
2011 Marcha estudiantes Chile.jpg The Protester [85] Recognizing the historic significance of many grassroots protests across the world during that year, such as the ongoing Arab Spring and those against austerity measures in Greece and later in Spain, against corruption in India, against the drug war in Mexico, for education in Chile, for social justice in Israel, as well as the riots in England, the anti-government protests in Russia and the emerging global Occupy movement [85]
2012 President Barack Obama.jpg Barack Obama (2) [87] Born 1961In 2012, Obama was re-elected President of the United States, defeating Mitt Romney.
2013 Portrait of Pope Francis (2021).jpg Francis [89] Born 1936 Elected Pope of the Roman Catholic Church in 2013, following the resignation of Pope Benedict XVI
2014 PPE Training (2).jpg Ebola fighters [91] "Ebola fighters" refers to health care workers who helped stop the spread of the Ebola virus during the Ebola virus epidemic in West Africa, including not only doctors and nurses, but also ambulance attendants, burial parties and others. [92]
Those represented on the covers included
2015 Angela Merkel 2019 cropped.jpg Angela Merkel Born 1954Chancellor of Germany from 2005 to 2021, recognized for leadership in the Greek debt crisis and European migrant crisis [99]
2016 Official Portrait of President Donald Trump.jpg Donald Trump Born 1946In 2016, Trump was elected President of the United States, defeating Hillary Clinton.
2017The Silence BreakersThe people who spoke out against sexual abuse and harassment, including the figureheads of the American MeToo movement. Represented on the cover by strawberry picker Isabel Pascual (pseudonym), lobbyist Adama Iwu, actress Ashley Judd, software engineer Susan Fowler, singer-songwriter Taylor Swift, and a sixth woman, a hospital worker who wished to remain anonymous and whose face cannot be seen.
The feature also specifically spotlights, in order:
2018 Jamal Khashoggi in March 2018.jpg
PH1-RAPPLER-DSCF3442.jpg
Police escort detained Reuters journalist Kyaw Soe Oo.jpg
The Guardians

Journalists who faced persecution, arrest or murder for their reporting. Those highlighted on four different covers were:

The feature also spotlights the following journalists, in order:
2019 Greta Thunberg in Stckholm.jpg Greta Thunberg Born 2003Swedish environmental activist and founder of the School Strike for Climate campaign. In 2019, Thunberg led the Global Week for Future with over four million protestors and addressed the 2019 UN Climate Action Summit with her "How Dare You" speech. [127]
2020 Joe Biden presidential portrait.jpg Joe Biden [129] Born 1942In 2020, Biden and Harris were elected President and Vice President of the United States respectively, defeating incumbent President Donald Trump and Vice President Mike Pence. [130] In January 2021, Harris became the first woman, first African American, and first Asian American vice president.
Kamala Harris Vice Presidential Portrait.jpg Kamala Harris [129] Born 1964
2021 Elon Musk Colorado 2022 (cropped2).jpg Elon Musk [132] Born 1971CEO of Tesla, Inc., founder and CEO of SpaceX. In 2021, Musk had become the richest person in the world and first person ever reported to have a net worth of over 300 billion US dollars. Recognized for the achievements of stated companies in the prior years, including the first all-civilian orbital flight, as well as his public image and controversies. [133] Time did not release a shortlist for 2021. [134]
2022 The world must officially recognize that Russia has become a terrorist state - address by the President of Ukraine. (51941720577) (cropped).jpg Volodymyr Zelensky [135] Born 1978 President of Ukraine since 2019, and supreme commander-in-chief during the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine

Flag of Ukraine.svg

The Spirit of Ukraine [137] "The Spirit of Ukraine" represents the "resilience of the Ukrainian people and the Ukrainian resistance, as well as foreign aid to Ukraine".
The feature spotlights the following people and organizations, in order:
2023 Taylor Swift at the 2023 MTV Video Music Awards (3).png Taylor Swift Born 1989Singer-songwriter whose 2023–2024 Eras Tour became the highest-grossing concert tour of all time. [138] The tour had a significant cultural and economic impact in 2023. Time described Swift as the first Person of the Year to be recognized for their "achievement in the arts". Swift was also on the 2017 Person of the Year cover, called "The Silence Breakers". She was noted by the magazine as the first woman to appear twice on a Person of the Year cover. [139]

Other categories

Every year, in addition to the main Person of the Year, Time (sometimes alongside a partner company) acknowledges impactful people or groups in other categories. This is a relatively recent practice, beginning in 1998 when Mark McGwire was awarded the title of Hero of the Year and becoming a regular event in 2018 with the re-introduction of the Heroes of the Year award.

Heroes of the Year was joined by Athlete of the Year, Businessperson of the Year (later renamed CEO of the Year), Entertainer of the Year and Guardians of the Year in 2019, Kid of the Year in 2020, Breakthrough Artist of the Year (later renamed Breakthrough of the Year), Dreamer of the Year, Icon of the Year and Innovator of the Year in 2022 and Team of the Year in 2023.

In 2022, Time hosted its first Person of the Year Reception at Plaza Hotel. The event featured video messages from Person of the Year Volodymyr Zelenskyy and Dreamer of the Year Donnel Baird, an interview with Icon of the Year Michelle Yeoh and a performance from Breakthrough of the Year Mickey Guyton. [140]

Hero(es) of the Year

In 2020, Heroes of the Year was awarded in partnership with State Farm. [141]

YearChoiceNotes
1998 Mark McGwire [142] Baseball player for the St. Louis Cardinals, who hit 70 home runs in 1998, breaking the single-season home run record. [143] In 2010, McGwire admitted he used steroids during the 1998 season. [144]
2018The Thai Cave Rescuers [145] The Tham Luang cave rescue took place during June and July 2018, where a group of 12 boys and their junior soccer team's assistant coach Ekkapol Chantawong, who had been trapped in a cave for over two weeks, were successfully located and rescued through an operation involving over 10,000 people. Time's corresponding article highlights the heroic actions of Chantawong, Narongsak Osottanakorn (the governor of Chiang Rai province at the time and overseer of the rescue operation), [146] John Volanthen and Rick Stanton (two divers who first found the group alive), [147] Samarn Kunan (the rescue's only immediate casualty) and Richard Harris (the anesthesiologist and cave diver who played a crucial role in the rescue).
James Shaw Jr. [145] Shaw disarmed a gunman during the Nashville Waffle House shooting on April 22, 2018, preventing the death toll from going above 4, and started a GoFundMe campaign the following day which went on to raise over $240,000 for the families of the shooting's 4 fatalities.
Brad Brown [145] Brown, a hospital chaplain at Feather River Hospital in Paradise, California, assisted with the evacuation of the hospital during Camp Fire and personally drove three immobile patients out of town, successfully getting them to a hospital in Chico after hours of potentially fatal road delays.
Tammie Jo Shults [145] Shults was the pilot of Southwest Airlines Flight 1380 on April 17, 2018, who, along with her first officer Darren Lee Ellisor, saved the lives of 143 following the failure of an engine which had fragments break off that damaged other parts of the plane and killed 1 passenger.
Mamoudou Gassama [145] On May 26, 2018, Gassama scaled four floors of an apartment building in Paris in under a minute, saving the life of a four-year-old boy dangling from a balcony and drawing comparisons to Spider-Man.
2019
Defenders of Notre Dame [148] Time's corresponding article discusses the actions of those who saved Notre-Dame's sacred treasures during the fire on April 15, 2019 (particularly Antoine-Marie Préaut, a conservator of Paris's historic monuments, and Laurent Prades, Notre-Dame's operational director), the ~400 firefighters who combatted the fire, and those who had begun preparing for the cathedral's reconstruction.
Ryan Kyote [148] Kyote, a nine-year-old resident of Napa, California, used his allowance to pay off his grade's $74 lunch debt. His mother posted about it on social media and the story went viral, starting a wider national movement against school lunch debt. [149] As a result, Kyote's school district reversed their lunch debt policy and a law was passed in California banning "lunch shaming" (a term for giving worse food to students with debt).
Satchel Smith [148] Smith, a 21-year-old student in Beaumont, Texas, was the sole employee trapped in a hotel alongside 90 guests for over 30 hours during Tropical Storm Imelda. He stayed awake during the whole ordeal, and was assisted by guests in making dinner and providing stranded truckers with food and water.
Nicole Chamberlain [148] On November 11, 2019, Chamberlain, a bus driver in Waukesha, Wisconsin, saw a two-year-old girl and her six-year-old brother alone in temperatures below 20 °F (−7 °C) near a busy intersection. She brought them on board her bus, warmed them up and stayed with them until their grandmother showed up alongside police officers.
Keanon Lowe [148] On May 19, 2019, Lowe, a teacher at Parkrose High School in Portland, Oregon, saw a student armed with a shotgun and successfully disarmed him, preventing his suicide and a school shooting. Immediately after, he gave the student a sympathetic hug and provided him with comforting words.
Chella Phillips [148] Phillips, who runs a dog refuge in Nassau, Bahamas, managed to protect the refuge's 82 dogs, alongside 15 other dogs, from Hurricane Dorian in her own home. During the week following the hurricane, she sent 68 of those dogs to homes and rescue groups in the United States after her story went viral there.
2020Australia's Volunteer Firefighters [150] Time's corresponding article highlights the work done by volunteer firefighters during the 2019–20 Australian bushfire season, including three that died on the job.
Jason Chua and Hung Zhen Long [151] Chua and Hung, co-owners of the Beng Who Cooks food stall in Singapore, committed to delivering free food to those who could not afford it during COVID-19 lockdowns from April to June 2020. In total, they spent $11,000 on ~2,500 free meals.
Greg Dailey [152] Following the rise of the COVID-19 pandemic in March 2020, Dailey, a newspaper deliveryman in Mercer County, New Jersey, began a new service of dropping off goods free of charge. During the rest of the year, he, with the help of his family, supplied over 140 homes and conducted over 1000 grocery runs in his local area.
Rahul Dubey [153] On June 1, 2020, during the George Floyd protests in Washington, D.C., Dubey provided refuge in his home to ~70 protestors who were being barricaded and pepper-sprayed by police, even letting them stay overnight to avoid curfew breaches.
Pastor Reshorna Fitzpatrick and Bishop Derrick Fitzpatrick [154] In April 2020, Reshorna and Derrick Fitzpatrick, a married couple who run Stone Temple Missionary Baptist Church in Chicago, began providing ~300 food boxes per week to people who became unemployed following the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. They expanded their operation throughout the year, obtaining a supply of fresh produce from a local Black- and women-led nonprofit farm, providing hot soup every week and giving out supplies such as face masks and hand sanitizer.
2021Vaccine scientists [155] The feature is dedicated to those that contributed to the creation of COVID-19 vaccines, and in particular spotlights Katalin Karikó, Barney S. Graham, Kizzmekia Corbett and Drew Weissman, pioneers of mRNA vaccine technology.
2022 Women of Iran [156] After the death of Mahsa Amini on September 16, 2022, who was arrested for allegedly wearing her hijab improperly and later died after she had been —according to eyewitnesses— severely beaten by religious morality police officers, massive global protests began. [157] Initial protests, mostly led by women, demanded an end to the mandatory hijab law, which has been in place since the 1979 Islamic revolution. [158] According to Iran Human Rights, at least 481 protesters including 64 minors have been killed in these protests as of January 9, 2023. [159]

Athlete of the Year

Athlete of the Year was awarded in partnership with Oura Health in 2021 [160] and LG in 2022. [161]

YearChoiceNotes
2019 United States women's national soccer team The international women's soccer team for the United States, who won the 2019 FIFA Women's World Cup [162]
2020 LeBron James American basketball player, won the 2020 NBA Finals with his Los Angeles Lakers [163]
2021 Simone Biles American gymnast, pulled out of multiple gymnastics events during the Tokyo Olympics for mental health concerns [160]
2022 Aaron Judge American baseball outfielder, hit the most home runs in a season in the history of the American League with 62 [161]
2023 Lionel Messi Argentine footballer, won the 2022 FIFA World Cup with Argentina national team, record eighth Ballon d'Or and transferred to Inter Miami CF [164]

CEO of the Year

In 2019 and 2020, this selection was called Businessperson of the Year.

YearChoiceNotes
2019 Bob Iger CEO and executive chairman of The Walt Disney Company [165]
2020 Eric Yuan CEO and founder of Zoom Video Communications [166]
2023 Sam Altman CEO and co-founder of OpenAI [167]

Entertainer of the Year

In 2022, Entertainer of the Year was awarded in partnership with Montblanc. [168]

YearChoiceNotes
2019 Lizzo American rapper and singer-songwriter [169]
2020 BTS South Korean K-pop boy band [170]
2021 Olivia Rodrigo American singer-songwriter [171]
2022 Blackpink South Korean K-pop girl group [168]

Breakthrough of the Year

In 2022, this selection was called Breakthrough Artist of the Year

YearChoiceNotes
2022 Mickey Guyton [172] American country music artist
2023 Alex Newell [173] American actor

Dreamer of the Year

Dreamer of the Year is awarded in partnership with American Family Insurance.

YearChoiceNotes
2022 Donnel Baird [174] American entrepreneur and CEO of BlocPower
2023 Syd Kitson [175] Chairman and CEO of Kitson and Partners and former professional American football guard

Icon of the Year

YearChoiceNotes
2022 Michelle Yeoh [176] Malaysian actress

Innovator of the Year

YearChoiceNotes
2022 Gregory Robinson and the James Webb Space Telescope team [177] Robinson was the telescope's program director from 2018 to 2022.

Team of the Year

Team of the Year is awarded in partnership with Smartsheet.

YearChoiceNotesRunners-up
2023 HP's Social Impact team [178] The team consists of Michele Malejki, Mariama Kabia, Anshu Grover, Ina Progonati, Stephanie Bormann and Julio Vera Barajas.
2

Kid of the Year

YearChoiceNotes
2020 Gitanjali Rao Scientist and inventor [180]
2021 Orion Jean Humanitarian [181]

Guardians of the Year

In 2020, Guardians of the Year was awarded in partnership with Amazon. [182]

YearChoiceNotes
2019 American public servants [183] The feature spotlights those involved in that year's impeachment inquiry against Donald Trump, particularly Marie Yovanovitch, William Taylor, Fiona Hill, Alexander Vindman, Mark Sandy, Jennifer Williams, David Holmes, Laura Cooper and the original whistleblower.
2020 Anthony Fauci and frontline health workers [182] Recognising the actions of frontline health workers around the world that helped contain and reduce the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. Fauci was the director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases at the time, and is credited with being a pivotal figure in the United States' fight against the pandemic.
Porche-Bennett-Bey, Assa Traoré and racial justice organizers [184] Recognising the actions of those who organized racial justice movements such as the George Floyd protests. Bennett-Bey, a resident of Kenosha, Wisconsin, gained media attention for her activism following the shooting of Jacob Blake. Traoré is an activist and the sister of Adama Traoré, a black French man who died in police custody in 2016. The police officers accused of brutality were cleared of blame on May 29, 2020, triggering a new wave of protests against police brutality in solidarity with the at the time ongoing George Floyd protests.

Online poll

Time also holds an online poll for the readers to vote for who they believe to be the Person of the Year. While many mistakenly believe the winner of the poll to be the Person of the Year, the title, as mentioned above, is decided by the editors of Time. [185] Time continues to annually run an online poll for the "People's Choice", but stresses the decision on whom the magazine recognizes is not made by the poll, but by the magazine's editors. [186] An online reader's choice poll was held in 1998, with professional wrestler Mick Foley and murdered college student Matthew Shepard as the top vote-getters, although the final result is unknown. [187] [73]

YearReaders' ChoiceNotes
2010 Julian Assange Founder of WikiLeaks [188]
2011 Recep Tayyip Erdoğan Prime Minister of Turkey [189]
2012 Kim Jong-un Supreme Leader of North Korea [190]
2013 Abdel Fattah el-Sisi President of Egypt [191]
2014 Narendra Modi Prime Minister of India [192]
2015 Bernie Sanders United States Senator from Vermont and 2016 presidential candidate [193]
2016 Narendra Modi Prime Minister of India [194]
2017 Mohammad bin Salman Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia [195]
2018 BTS K-pop band [196]
2019 Hong Kong Protesters Protesters in Hong Kong in response to the extradition bill [197]
2020 Essential Workers Those who worked during the COVID-19 pandemic [198]
2021 Jair Bolsonaro President of Brazil [199]
2022 Women Protesters in Iran Women protesters in Iran who took part in the Mahsa Amini protests [200]

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