Time in Europe

Last updated
Time in Europe:
Western European Time / Greenwich Mean Time (UTC)
Western European Time / Greenwich Mean Time (UTC)
Western European Summer Time / British Summer Time / Irish Standard Time (UTC+1)
Central European Time (UTC+1)
Central European Summer Time (UTC+2)
Eastern European Time / Kaliningrad Time (UTC+2)
Eastern European Time (UTC+2)
Eastern European Summer Time (UTC+3)
Further-eastern European Time / Moscow Time / Turkey Time (UTC+3)
pale colours indicate where standard time is observed all year; dark colours indicate where a summer time is observed Time zones of Europe.svg
Time in Europe :
Western European Time / Greenwich Mean Time (UTC)
Western European Time / Greenwich Mean Time (UTC)
Western European Summer Time / British Summer Time / Irish Standard Time (UTC+1)
Central European Time (UTC+1)
Central European Summer Time (UTC+2)
Eastern European Time / Kaliningrad Time (UTC+2)
Eastern European Time (UTC+2)
Eastern European Summer Time (UTC+3)
Further-eastern European Time / Moscow Time / Turkey Time (UTC+3)
pale colours indicate where standard time is observed all year; dark colours indicate where a summer time is observed

Europe spans seven primary time zones (from UTC−01:00 to UTC+05:00), excluding summer time offsets (four of them can be seen on the map, with one further-western zone containing the Azores, and two further-eastern zones spanning Georgia, Azerbaijan, eastern territories of European Russia, and the European part of Kazakhstan). Most European countries use summer time and harmonise their summer time adjustments; see Summer time in Europe for details.

Contents

The time zones actually in use in Europe differ significantly from uniform zoning based purely on longitude, as used for example under the nautical time system. The world could in theory be divided into 24 time zones, each of 15 degrees of longitude. However, due to geographical and cultural factors it is not practical to divide the world so evenly, and actual time zones may differ significantly from those based purely on longitude. In Europe, the widespread use of Central European Time (CET) causes major variations in some areas from solar time. Based on solar time, CET would range from 7.5 to 22.5°E. However, for example Spain (almost entirely in the Western hemisphere) and France (almost entirely west of 7.5°E, as illustrated in the map below) should theoretically use UTC, as they did before the Second World War. [1] The general result is a solar noon which is much later than clock noon, and later sunrises and sunsets than should theoretically happen. The Benelux countries should also theoretically use GMT.

Russia and Belarus observed "permanent summer time" between March 2011 and October 2014. [2] Since October 2014 Russia has observed "permanent winter time". Iceland can be considered to be on "de facto" permanent summer time because, since 1968, it uses UTC time all year, despite being located more than 15° west of the prime meridian. It should therefore be located in UTC−01:00, but chooses to remain closer to continental European time, resulting in legal times significantly in advance of local solar time; this is of little practical significance owing to the wide variations in daylight hours in that country.

The European Commission proposed in September 2018 ending the observance of summer time in the EU. [3] In March 2019, the European Parliament voted in favour of proposing ending seasonal clock changes in 2021. [4] Legislation of the EU is decided by both the Parliament and the Council of the European Union, and the Council had not made its decision. [5] Each Member State had until April 2020 to decide whether to remain permanently on their previous "summer time" or their "winter time".

This map shows the difference between legal time and local mean time in Europe during the winter. Most of Western Europe and western part of European Russia are significantly ahead of local solar time. Tzdiff-Europe-winter.png
This map shows the difference between legal time and local mean time in Europe during the winter. Most of Western Europe and western part of European Russia are significantly ahead of local solar time.
ColourLegal time vs local mean time
1 h ± 30 m behind
0 h ± 30 m
1 h ± 30 m ahead
2 h ± 30 m ahead
This map shows the difference between legal time and local mean time in Europe during the summer. Most of Western Europe is significantly ahead of local solar time. Tzdiff-Europe-summer.png
This map shows the difference between legal time and local mean time in Europe during the summer. Most of Western Europe is significantly ahead of local solar time.
ColourLegal time vs local mean time
1 h ± 30 m behind
0 h ± 30 m
1 h ± 30 m ahead
2 h ± 30 m ahead
3 h ± 30 m ahead

Use

Of the 27 EU member states (all use daylight saving time in the summer):

Of non-EU member states:

The overseas territories of Denmark, France, Netherlands are mostly located outside Europe and use other time zones.

List of time zones

Time of DayCommon name(s)UTCSummer
UTC
Users
13:13, 27 December 2020 UTC−01:00 [refresh]Further-western European Time (FWT) / Azores Time (AZOT) UTC−1 UTC Azores (Portugal)
14:13, 27 December 2020 UTC±00:00 [refresh]Further-western European Summer Time (FWST) / Azores Summer Time (AZOST)
14:13, 27 December 2020 UTC±00:00 [refresh]Western European Time (WET) / Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) / Iceland Time (ICT) UTC Iceland
14:13, 27 December 2020 UTC±00:00 [refresh]Western European Time (WET) / Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) UTC UTC+1 Portugal (including Madeira);
United Kingdom;
Republic of Ireland;
Faroe Islands;
Canary Islands
15:13, 27 December 2020 UTC+01:00 [refresh]Western European Summer Time (WEST)
∟ Irish Standard Time (IST)
∟ British Summer Time (BST)
15:13, 27 December 2020 UTC+01:00 [refresh]Central European Time (CET) UTC+1 UTC+2 Most of western Europe;
Scandinavia;
Central Europe;
Central southern Europe;
Western Balkans
16:13, 27 December 2020 UTC+02:00 [refresh]Central European Summer Time (CEST)
16:13, 27 December 2020 UTC+02:00 [refresh]Eastern European Time (EET) / Kaliningrad Time (KALT) UTC+2 Kaliningrad Oblast (Russia)
16:13, 27 December 2020 UTC+02:00 [refresh]Eastern European Time (EET) UTC+2 UTC+3 Finland; Baltic states;
Ukraine; Moldova;
Romania; Bulgaria; Greece
17:13, 27 December 2020 UTC+03:00 [refresh]Eastern European Summer Time (EEST)
17:13, 27 December 2020 UTC+03:00 [refresh]Further-eastern European Time (FET)
∟ Turkey Time (TRT)
∟ Moscow Standard Time (MSK)
∟ Minsk Time (MINT)
UTC+3 Belarus;
Most of western Russia;
Turkey;
Abkhazia;
South Ossetia
18:13, 27 December 2020 UTC+04:00 [refresh]Armenia Time (AMT) / Georgia Time (GET) / Azerbaijan Time (AZT) / Samara Time (SAMT) UTC+4 Parts of western Russia;
Armenia; Artsakh; Azerbaijan; Georgia
19:13, 27 December 2020 UTC+05:00 [refresh]West Kazakhstan Time (WKT) / Yekaterinburg Time (YEKT) UTC+5 Western-central Russia
West Kazakhstan

Related Research Articles

Time zone Region on Earth that has a uniform standard time for legal, commercial, and social purposes

A time zone is a designated area of the globe that observes a uniform standard time for legal, commercial and social purposes. Time zones tend to follow the boundaries of countries and their subdivisions instead of strictly following longitude because it is convenient for areas in close commercial or other communication to keep the same time. France, including its overseas territories, has the most time zones of any country, with a total of 12.

Western European Summer Time

Western European Summer Time is a summer daylight saving time scheme, 1 hour ahead of Greenwich Mean Time and Coordinated Universal Time. It is used in:

Japan Standard Time

Japan Standard Time, abbreviated as JST, is the standard time zone in Japan, 9 hours ahead of UTC. There is no daylight saving time, though its introduction has been debated several times. During World War II, it was often called Tokyo Standard Time.

Alaska Time Zone

The Alaska Time Zone observes standard time by subtracting nine hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC−09:00). During daylight saving time its time offset is eight hours (UTC−08:00). The clock time in this zone is based on mean solar time at the 135th meridian west of the Greenwich Observatory.

Central European Time Standard time (UTC+01:00)

Central European Time (CET), used in most parts of Europe and a few North African countries, is a standard time which is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). The time offset from UTC can be written as UTC+01:00. The same standard time, UTC+01:00, is also known as Middle European Time and under other names like Berlin Time, Warsaw Time, Paris Time or Rome Time.

Western European Time

Western European Time is a time zone covering parts of western Europe and consists of countries using UTC±00:00. It is one of the three standard time zones in the European Union along with Central European Time and Eastern European Time.

Time in the United States U.S. time zones

Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states, territories and other US possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time (DST) for approximately the spring, summer, and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and highly precise timekeeping services (clocks) are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) ; and the United States Naval Observatory (USNO). The clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations.

Summer time in Europe

Summer time in Europe is the variation of standard clock time that is applied in most European countries in the period between spring and autumn, during which clocks are advanced by one hour from the time observed in the rest of the year, with a view to making the most efficient use of seasonal daylight. It corresponds to the notion and practice of daylight saving time (DST) to be found in many other parts of the world.

Eastern European Time

Eastern European Time (EET) is one of the names of UTC+02:00 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. The zone uses daylight saving time, so that it uses UTC+03:00 during the summer.

Central European Summer Time Daylight saving time in the central european time zone

Central European Summer Time (CEST), sometimes referred to as Central European Daylight Time (CEDT), is the standard clock time observed during the period of summer daylight-saving in those European countries which observe Central European Time during the other part of the year. It corresponds to UTC+02:00, which makes it the same as Eastern European Time, Central Africa Time, South African Standard Time, Egypt Standard Time and Kaliningrad Time in Russia.

Atlantic Time Zone Time zone (UTC−04:00)

The Atlantic Time Zone is a geographical region that keeps standard time—called Atlantic Standard Time (AST)—by subtracting four hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), resulting in UTC−04:00. During part of the year, some portions of the zone observe daylight saving time, referred to as Atlantic Daylight Time (ADT), by moving their clocks forward one hour to result in UTC−03:00. The clock time in this zone is based on the mean solar time of the 60th meridian west of the Greenwich Observatory.

Moscow Time Time zone in western Russia

Moscow Time is the time zone for the city of Moscow, Russia, and most of western Russia, including Saint Petersburg. It is the second-westernmost of the eleven time zones of Russia. It has been set to UTC+03:00 without DST since 26 October 2014; before that date it had been set to UTC+04:00 year-round on 27 March 2011.

UTC+03:00

UTC+03:00 is an identifier for a time offset from UTC of +03:00. In areas using this time offset, the time is three hours later than the Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). Following the ISO 8601 standard, a time with this offset would be written as, for example, 2019-02-08T23:36:06+03:00.

Time in Russia About the 11 time zones of Russia

There are eleven time zones in Russia, which currently observe times ranging from UTC+02:00 to UTC+12:00. Daylight saving time (DST) is not used in Russia since 26 October 2014. From 27 March 2011 to 26 October 2014, permanent DST was used.

Further-eastern European Time

Further-eastern European Time (FET) is a time zone defined as three hours ahead of UTC (UTC+03:00) without daylight saving time, the zone immediately higher than the Eastern European Time. The time zone used in Belarus between 2011-2014.

Central Africa Time Time zone

Central Africa Time, or CAT, is a time zone used in central and southern Africa. Central Africa Time is two hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC+02:00), which is the same as the adjacent South Africa Standard Time, Egypt Standard Time, Eastern European Time, Kaliningrad Time and Central European Summer Time.

Time in France

Metropolitan France uses Central European Time and Central European Summer Time. Daylight saving time is observed in Metropolitan France from the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October. With its overseas territories, France uses 12 different time zones, more than any other country in the world.

Time in Ukraine

Time in Ukraine is defined as UTC+02:00 and in summer as UTC+03:00. Part of Eastern European Time, it is locally referred to as Kyiv Time. The change for the summer time takes place in the last week of March at 03:00, when the time is changed by an hour ahead, and the last week of October at 04:00, when the time changes an hour back. In this way, the clocks in Ukraine are always one hour ahead of those in central Europe.

Time in Portugal

Portugal has two time zones and observes daylight saving time. Continental Portugal and Madeira use UTC+00:00, while the Azores use UTC–01:00. Daylight saving time is observed nationwide from the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October, so that every year, continental Portugal and Madeira temporarily use UTC+01:00, and the Azores temporarily use UTC+00:00.

Time in Spain Time zones in Spain

Spain has two time zones and observes daylight saving time. Spain mainly uses Central European Time (GMT+01:00) and Central European Summer Time (GMT+02:00) in Peninsular Spain, the Balearic Islands, Ceuta, Melilla and plazas de soberanía. In the Canary Islands, the time zone is Western European Time (GMT±00:00) and Western European Summer Time (GMT+01:00). Daylight saving time is observed from the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October throughout Spain.

References

  1. Poulle, Yvonne (1999). "La France à l'heure allemande" [France on German time](PDF). Bibliothèque de l'école des chartes. 157 (2): 493–502. Retrieved 11 January 2012.(in French)[ dead link ]
  2. Parfitt, Tom (25 March 2011). "Think of the cows: clocks go forward for the last time in Russia". The Guardian . Retrieved 5 January 2012.
  3. State of the Union 2018: Q&A on the Commission's proposal to put an end to seasonal clock changes European Commission − Press Release (Strasbourg, 12 September 2018)
  4. "European Union Ready to Scrap DST". www.timeanddate.com.
  5. "Procedure File: 2018/0332(COD) | Legislative Observatory | European Parliament". oeil.secure.europarl.europa.eu.