Time in Spain

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Time in Europe:
Western European Time / Greenwich Mean Time (UTC)
Western European Time / Greenwich Mean Time (UTC)
Western European Summer Time / British Summer Time / Irish Standard Time (UTC+1)
Central European Time (UTC+1)
Central European Summer Time (UTC+2)
Eastern European Time / Kaliningrad Time (UTC+2)
Eastern European Time (UTC+2)
Eastern European Summer Time (UTC+3)
Moscow Time / Turkey Time (UTC+3)
pale colours indicate where standard time is observed all year; dark colours indicate where a summer time is observed Time zones of Europe.svg
Time in Europe :
Western European Time / Greenwich Mean Time (UTC)
Western European Time / Greenwich Mean Time (UTC)
Western European Summer Time / British Summer Time / Irish Standard Time (UTC+1)
Central European Time (UTC+1)
Central European Summer Time (UTC+2)
Eastern European Time / Kaliningrad Time (UTC+2)
Eastern European Time (UTC+2)
Eastern European Summer Time (UTC+3)
Moscow Time / Turkey Time (UTC+3)
pale colours indicate where standard time is observed all year; dark colours indicate where a summer time is observed

Spain has two time zones and observes daylight saving time. Spain mainly uses Central European Time (GMT+01:00) and Central European Summer Time (GMT+02:00) in Peninsular Spain, the Balearic Islands, Ceuta, Melilla and plazas de soberanía. In the Canary Islands, the time zone is Western European Time (GMT±00:00) and Western European Summer Time (GMT+01:00). Daylight saving time is observed from the last Sunday in March (01:00 GMT) to the last Sunday in October (01:00 GMT) throughout Spain.

Contents

Spain used Greenwich Mean Time (UTC±00:00) before the Second World War (except for the Canary Islands which used GMT−01:00 before this date). However, the time zone was changed to Central European Time in 1940 and has remained so since then, meaning that Spain does not use its "natural" time zone under the coordinated time zone system. Some observers believe that this time zone shift plays a role in the country's relatively unusual daily schedule (late meals and sleep times).

History

Standard time adoption

Spain, like other parts of the world, used mean solar time until 31 December 1900. [1] In San Sebastián on 22 July 1900, the president of the Consejo de Ministros, Mr. Francisco Silvela, proposed to the regent of Spain, María Cristina, a royal decree to standardise the time in Spain; thus setting Greenwich Mean Time (GMT±00:00) as the standard time in peninsular Spain, the Balearic Islands and Ceuta and Melilla from 1 January 1901 onwards. The royal decree was sanctioned by María Cristina on 26 July 1900 in San Sebastián, the place where she resided during summer.

The Canary Islands exception

Before 1 March 1922, the Canary Islands still used mean solar time until it was discovered that the royal decree of 1900 applied only to the Peninsula and Balearic Islands. [1] The Canary Islands then used a time 1 hour behind the rest of Spain; GMT−01:00, until 16 March 1940, and since then, they have used Western European Time (GMT±00:00). Canary Islands observes daylight saving time at the same time (01:00 GMT) the rest of Spain does, that is, changing from 01:00 WET to 02:00 Western European Summer Time on the last Sunday in March (while the rest of Spain changes from 02:00 Central European Time to 03:00 Central European Summer Time) and, when daylight saving time ends, changing from 02:00 Western European Summer Time to 01:00 Western European Time on the last Sunday in October (while the rest of Spain changes from 03:00 Central European Summer Time to 02:00 CET).

It is very popular in Spanish national media, mainly on the radio, to list the notice ′una hora menos en Canarias′ (English: ′one hour less in the Canary Islands′) [2] when the local time is mentioned.

The natural time zone for the Canary Islands is GMT−01:00.

Canary Islands are located just in the middle of GMT-01:00 time zone. Timezones2008 UTC-1.png
Canary Islands are located just in the middle of GMT−01:00 time zone.

Daylight saving time

Daylight saving time (DST) was first introduced in 1918, [3] the year in which World War I ended. It was then introduced and abolished several times. It was not applied in 1920–1923, 1925, 1930 nor during the Second Spanish Republic period in 1931–1936. During the Spanish Civil War, DST was re-established, but there were different dates of application, depending on if the territory was under the control of the Republican faction or Nationalist faction. Curiously, the Republican faction made its first attempt to change from Greenwich Mean Time to Central European Time when time was advanced 1 hour on 2 April 1938 and advanced another hour on 30 April 1938, only adjusting back 1 hour on 2 October 1938. After the war ended on 1 April 1939, Greenwich Mean Time was re-established and on 15 April 1939 DST was also applied.

Since 1974, after the 1973 oil crisis, daylight saving time has been observed every year. In 1981 it was applied as a directive and is revised every 4 years, DST is observed from the last Sunday in March (01:00 GMT) to the last Sunday in September (01:00 GMT). [3] In 1996, daylight saving time was harmonised throughout the European Union by Directive 2000/84/EC, which moved the end of DST to the last Sunday in October.

Central European Time

Difference between sun time and clock time during daylight saving time:
0h +- 30m
1h +- 30m ahead
2h +- 30m ahead
3h +- 30m ahead Tzdiff-Europe-summer.png
Difference between sun time and clock time during daylight saving time:
0h ± 30m
1h ± 30m ahead
2h ± 30m ahead
3h ± 30m ahead

In 1940, Francisco Franco changed the time zone [4] by changing 16 March 1940 23:00 Greenwich Mean Time to 17 March 1940 00:00 Central European Time during World War II. This was made permanent in 1942 in order to be in line with German occupied Europe. [5] Several western European countries, including France, Belgium, and the Netherlands stayed on German time after the war in addition to Spain. [6]

Criticism of the use of Central European Time

A Spanish advertisement offering breakfasts until 13:00 and meriendas (tea) from 17:00 to 20:00. It shows Spain's habit of late meals. Desayunos y meriendas.jpg
A Spanish advertisement offering breakfasts until 13:00 and meriendas (tea) from 17:00 to 20:00. It shows Spain's habit of late meals.

According to the original 24-hour division of the world, the nearest mean solar time zone is Greenwich Mean Time for all of mainland Spain except the westernmost part (about three-quarters of Galicia), which corresponds with the GMT-01:00 time zone. However, all of mainland Spain has used Central European Time (GMT+01:00) since 1940. At the time it was considered a temporary wartime decision which would be revoked a few years later, but the revocation never happened. [7]

Some activists believe that the mismatch between Spain's clock time and solar time contributes to the country's unusual daily schedule. [8] They believe that the relatively late sunrises and sunsets shift the average Spaniard's day later than it otherwise would be, and that a return to its original time zone would help boost productivity and bring family and work rhythms into better balance. [9]

In September 2013 the subcommittee to study the Rationalisation of Hours, the Reconciliation of Personal, Family Life and Professional Life and Responsibility (subcomisión para el estudio de la Racionalización de Horarios, la Conciliación de la Vida Personal, Familiar y Laboral y la Corresponsabilidad) of the Congress of Deputies made a report to the government of Spain proposing, among other things, a return to Greenwich Mean Time. [10] [11] The subcommittee considered that this time zone change would have a favourable effect, allowing more time for family, training, personal life, leisure, and avoiding downtime during the workday. The proposals are aimed at improving Spanish labour productivity as well as better adjusting schedules to family and work life. [9] [12] The Spanish government will consider the proposal. [13]

The Galicia problem

In Galicia, the westernmost region of mainland Spain, the difference between the official local time and the mean solar time is about two and a half hours during summer time. [14] There have been political pushes to change the official time so that, as in Portugal, it is one hour in advance of the zone standard time. This would involve switching to GMT and making the time similar to that in Portugal, with which it shares the same longitude. [15] For example, in Vigo (located 35 time minutes west of Greenwich) during summer, it is noon at around 14:40 and sunset is around 22:15 local time, [14] while in Menorca sunset is around 21:20. [16]

IANA time zone database

The IANA time zone database contains 3 zones for Spain. Columns marked with * are from the file zone.tab from the database.

c.c.*coordinates*TZ*comments*UTC offsetDSTNotes
ES +4024−00341 Europe/Madrid Spain (mainland) and Balearic Islands +01:00 +02:00
ES +3553−00519 Africa/Ceuta Ceuta, Melilla, plazas de soberanía +01:00 +02:00
ES +2806−01524 Atlantic/Canary Canary Islands +00:00 +01:00

Notation

Differences with neighbouring countries

Spain has borders with four countries: Portugal, France, Andorra, and Morocco; as well as with the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar. Clocks must normally be set one hour earlier than in Spain after crossing the borders with Portugal.

Dates of Daylight Saving Time and other changes

This is the list of historical time changes in Spain, note that the time of change is in Greenwich Mean Time.

YearDate DST startsTime zone changeDate DST endsTime zone changeNotes
1918Monday, 15 April 23:00 GMT
GMT±00:00 → GMT+01:00
Sunday, 6 October 23:00 UTC
GMT+01:00 → GMT±00:00
1919Sunday, 6 April 23:00 GMT
GMT±00:00 →
Monday, 6 October 23:00 GMT
GMT+01:00 → GMT±00:00
1924Wednesday, 16 April 23:00 GMT
GMT±00:00 → GMT+01:00
Saturday, 4 October 23:00 GMT
GMT+01:00 → GMT±00:00
1926Saturday, 17 April 23:00 GMT
GMT±00:00 → GMT+01:00
Saturday, 2 October 23:00 GMT
GMT+01:00 → GMT±00:00
1927Saturday, 9 April 23:00 GMT
GMT±00:00 → GMT+01:00
Saturday, 1 October 23:00 GMT
GMT+01:00 → GMT±00:00
1928Saturday, 14 April 23:00 GMT
GMT±00:00 → GMT+01:00
Saturday, 6 October 23:00 GMT
GMT+01:00 → GMT±00:00
1929Saturday, 20 April 23:00 GMT
GMT±00:00 → GMT+01:00
Sunday, 6 October 23:00 GMT
GMT+01:00 → GMT±00:00
1937Saturday, 22 May 23:00 GMT
GMT±00:00 → GMT+01:00
Saturday, 2 October 23:00 GMT
GMT+01:00 → GMT±00:00
In Nationalist zone
Wednesday, 16 June 23:00 GMT
GMT±00:00 → GMT+01:00
Wednesday, 6 October 23:00 GMT
GMT+01:00 → GMT±00:00
In Republican zone
1938Saturday, 26 March 23:00 GMT
GMT±00:00 → GMT+01:00
Saturday, 1 October 23:00 GMT
GMT+01:00 → GMT±00:00
In Nationalist zone
Saturday, 2 April 23:00 GMT
GMT±00:00 → GMT+01:00
In Republican zone. Change time zone from GMT to Central European Time.
Saturday, 30 April 22:00 GMT
GMT+01:00 → GMT+02:00
Sunday, 2 October 22:00 GMT
GMT+02:00 → GMT+01:00
In Republican zone
1939Saturday, 1 April 22:30 GMT
GMT+01:00 → GMT±00:00
In Republican zone. End of Spanish Civil War. Change time zone from Central European Time to GMT.
Saturday, 15 April 23:00 GMT
GMT±00:00 → GMT+01:00
Saturday, 7 October 23:00 GMT
GMT+01:00 → GMT±00:00
1940Saturday, 16 March 23:00 GMT
GMT±00:00 → GMT+01:00
Change time zone from GMT to CET. [4]
1942Saturday, 2 May 22:00 GMT
GMT+01:00 → GMT+02:00
Tuesday, 1 September 22:00 GMT
GMT+02:00 → GMT+01:00
1943Saturday, 17 April 22:00 GMT
GMT+01:00 → GMT+02:00
Sunday, 3 October 22:00 GMT
GMT+02:00 → GMT+01:00
1944Saturday, 15 April 22:00 GMT
GMT+01:00 → GMT+02:00
Saturday, 30 September 23:00 GMT
GMT+02:00 → GMT+01:00
1945Saturday, 14 April 22:00 GMT
GMT+01:00 → GMT+02:00
Saturday, 29 September 23:00 GMT
GMT+02:00 → GMT+01:00
1946Saturday, 13 April 22:00 GMT
GMT+01:00 → GMT+02:00
Saturday, 28 September 22:00 GMT
GMT+02:00 → GMT+01:00
1949Saturday, 30 April 22:00 GMT
GMT+01:00 → GMT+02:00
Saturday, 1 October 23:00 GMT
GMT+02:00 → GMT+01:00
1974Saturday, 13 April 22:00 GMT
GMT+01:00 → GMT+02:00
Saturday, 5 October 23:00 GMT
GMT+02:00 → GMT+01:00
1975Saturday, 12 April 22:00 GMT
GMT+01:00 → GMT+02:00
Saturday, 4 October 22:00 GMT
GMT02:00 → GMT+01:00
1976Saturday, 27 March 22:00 GMT
GMT+01:00 → GMT+02:00
Saturday, 25 September 22:00 GMT
GMT → GMT+01:00
1977Saturday, 2 April 22:00 GMT
GMT+01:00 → GMT+02:00
Saturday, 24 September 22:00 GMT
GMT+02:00 → GMT+01:00
1978Sunday, 2 April 22:00 GMT
GMT+01:00 → GMT+02:00
Sunday, 1 October 01:00 GMT
GMT+02:00 → GMT+01:00
1979Sunday, 1 April 01:00 GMT
GMT+01:00 → GMT+02:00
Sunday, 30 September 01:00 GMT
GMT+02:00 → GMT+01:00
1980Sunday, 6 April 01:00 GMT
GMT+01:00 → GMT+02:00
Sunday, 28 September 01:00 GMT
GMT+02:00 → GMT+01:00
1981–1995Last Sunday in March 1:00 GMT
GMT+01:00 → GMT+02:00
Last Sunday in September 1:00 GMT
GMT+02:00 → GMT+01:00
1996–Last Sunday in March 1:00 GMT
GMT+01:00 → GMT+02:00
Last Sunday in October 1:00 GMT
GMT+02:00 →GMT+01:00

See also

Related Research Articles

Greenwich Mean Time Time zone

Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is the mean solar time at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, London, reckoned from midnight. At different times in the past, it has been calculated in different ways, including being calculated from noon; as a consequence, it cannot be used to specify a precise time unless a context is given.

Time zone Region on Earth that has a uniform standard time for legal, commercial and social purposes

A time zone is a designated area of the globe that observes a uniform standard time for legal, commercial and social purposes. Time zones tend to follow the boundaries of countries and their subdivisions instead of strictly following longitude because it is convenient for areas in close commercial or other communication to keep the same time. France, including its overseas territories, has the most time zones of any country, with a total of 12.

Daylight saving time Time adjustment practice

Daylight saving time (DST), also daylight savings time or daylight time and summer time, is the practice of advancing clocks during warmer months so that darkness falls later each day according to the clock. The typical implementation of DST is to set clocks forward by one hour in the spring and set clocks back by one hour in autumn to return to standard time. As a result, there is one 23-hour day in late winter or early spring and one 25-hour day in the autumn.

Western European Summer Time

Western European Summer Time is a summer daylight saving time scheme, 1 hour ahead of Greenwich Mean Time and Coordinated Universal Time. It is used in:

Central Time Zone Time zone in North America

The North American Central Time Zone (CT) is a time zone in parts of Canada, the United States, Mexico, Central America, some Caribbean Islands, and part of the Eastern Pacific Ocean.

Central European Time Standard time (UTC+01:00)

Central European Time (CET), used in most parts of Europe and a few North African countries, is a standard time which is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). The time offset from UTC can be written as UTC+01:00. The same standard time, UTC+01:00, is also known as Middle European Time and under other names like Berlin Time, Warsaw Time, Paris Time or Rome Time.

Western European Time

Western European Time is a time zone covering parts of western Europe and consists of countries using UTC±00:00. It is one of the three standard time zones in the European Union along with Central European Time and Eastern European Time.

Time in the United States U.S. time zones

Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states, territories and other US possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time (DST) for approximately the spring, summer, and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and highly precise timekeeping services (clocks) are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) ; and the United States Naval Observatory (USNO). The clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations.

Summer time in Europe

Summer time in Europe is the variation of standard clock time that is applied in most European countries in the period between spring and autumn, during which clocks are advanced by one hour from the time observed in the rest of the year, with a view to making the most efficient use of seasonal daylight. It corresponds to the notion and practice of daylight saving time (DST) to be found in many other parts of the world.

Atlantic Time Zone Time zone (UTC−04:00)

The Atlantic Time Zone is a geographical region that keeps standard time—called Atlantic Standard Time (AST)—by subtracting four hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), resulting in UTC−04:00. During part of the year, some portions of the zone observe daylight saving time, referred to as Atlantic Daylight Time (ADT), by moving their clocks forward one hour to result in UTC−03:00. The clock time in this zone is based on the mean solar time of the 60th meridian west of the Greenwich Observatory.

Time in Australia Time zones in Australia

Australia uses three main time zones: Australian Western Standard Time, Australian Central Standard Time, and Australian Eastern Standard Time. Time is regulated by the individual state governments, some of which observe daylight saving time (DST). Australia's external territories observe different time zones.

Time in Canada Time zones of Canada

Canada is divided into six time zones, based on proposals by Scottish Canadian railway engineer Sandford Fleming, who pioneered the use of the 24-hour clock, the world's time zone system, and a standard prime meridian. Most of Canada operates on standard time from the first Sunday in November to the second Sunday in March and daylight saving time the rest of the year.

Time in Chile is divided into three time zones. Most of Continental Chile uses the time offset UTC−04:00 in winter time and UTC−03:00 in summer time, while the Magallanes and Chilean Antarctica region uses the time offset UTC-03:00 the whole year. Additionally, Easter Island uses the time offset UTC−06:00 in winter time and UTC−05:00 in summer time

Time in Mexico Overview about the time zones in Mexico

Mexico uses four main time zones since February 2015. Most of the country observes Daylight Saving Time.

  1. Zona Sureste covers the state of Quintana Roo is UTC-05:00 year round. It is the equivalent of U.S. Eastern Standard Time.
  2. Zona Centro covers the eastern three-fourths of Mexico, including Mexico City, Guadalajara and Monterrey. For most of the year, it is the equivalent of U.S. Central Time.
  3. Zona Pacífico covers the states of Baja California Sur, Chihuahua, Nayarit, Sinaloa, and Sonora. For most of the year, it is the equivalent of U.S. Mountain Time. The state of Sonora, like the U.S. state of Arizona, does not observe daylight saving time.
  4. Zona Noroeste covers the state of Baja California. It is identical to U.S. Pacific Time, including the daylight saving time schedule.
Time in Europe Time zones in Europe

Europe spans seven primary time zones, excluding summer time offsets. Most European countries use summer time and harmonise their summer time adjustments; see Summer time in Europe for details.

Time in France

Metropolitan France uses Central European Time and Central European Summer Time. Daylight saving time is observed in Metropolitan France from the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October. With its overseas territories, France uses 12 different time zones, more than any other country in the world.

Time in the Republic of Ireland

Ireland uses Irish Standard Time in the summer months and Greenwich Mean Time in the winter period..

Mexico adopted daylight saving time nationwide in 1996, even in its tropical regions, because of its increasing economic ties to the United States. Although the United States changed the schedule for DST beginning in 2007, only the municipalities located less than 20 km from the border have adopted the change. Daylight saving time for Mexico begins the first Sunday of April and ends last Sunday of October; and is usually referred to as the "Summer Schedule".

Daylight saving time in the Americas is the arrangement in the Americas by which clocks are advanced by one hour in spring and moved back in autumn, to make the most of seasonal daylight. The practice is widespread in North America, with most of Canada, Mexico, and the United States of America participating, but much less so in South America.

Time in Portugal

Portugal has two time zones and observes daylight saving time. Continental Portugal and Madeira use UTC+00:00, while the Azores use UTC–01:00. Daylight saving time is observed nationwide from the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October, so that every year, continental Portugal and Madeira temporarily use UTC+01:00, and the Azores temporarily use UTC+00:00.

References

  1. 1 2 "Una hora menos en Canarias: apunte histórico-jurídico" [One hour less in the Canaries: historical and legal note] (in Spanish). University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria . Retrieved 1 January 2013.
  2. "El origen del "una hora menos en Canarias"" [The origin of "una hora menos en Canarias"] (in Spanish). Blogspot – Curistoria . Retrieved 7 January 2013.
  3. 1 2 Afines (2017). "Cambio de horario verano 2017" (in Spanish). Retrieved 26 April 2017.
  4. 1 2 "Orden del 7 de Marzo de 1940 sobre adelanto de la hora legal en 60 minutos a partir del 16 de los corrientes" [Decree of 7 March 1940 about the advancement of legal time by 60 minutes from the 16th of the current month.](PDF) (in Spanish). Boletín Oficial del Estado . Retrieved 26 April 2017.
  5. "Franco desfasó el horario español para sintonizar con los nazis". Publico (in Spanish). 2 April 2013. Retrieved 20 February 2014.
  6. Poulle, Yvonne (1999). "La France à l'heure allemande" (PDF). Bibliothèque de l'école des chartes. 157 (2): 493–502. doi:10.3406/bec.1999.450989 . Retrieved 11 January 2012.
  7. "Se cumplen 70 años de un cambio de horario que no nos corresponde" [Is the 70th anniversary of a schedule change don't corresponded] (in Spanish). baquia.com. Retrieved 7 January 2013.
  8. Yardley, Jim (17 February 2014). "Spain, Land of 10 P.M. Dinners, Asks if It's Time to Reset Clock". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 February 2014.
  9. 1 2 Daniele, Laura (19 September 2013). "España quiere poner en hora su reloj" [Spain wants to put in time its watch] (in Spanish). ABC . Retrieved 25 September 2013.
  10. Giles, Ciaran (26 September 2013). "Spain Time Zone Change Debated By Spanish Lawmakers". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 8 March 2016. Retrieved 19 February 2014.
  11. "El Congreso baraja cambiar nuestro horario al británico para conciliar vida laboral y familiar" [Congreso considers changing our schedule to the British to reconcile work and family life] (in Spanish). Público. 19 September 2013. Retrieved 25 September 2013.
  12. "Time's up for siestas, delayed meetings and late nights, Spaniards told in effort to make them work better". The Daily Telegraph. 23 September 2013. Retrieved 25 September 2013.
  13. "El Gobierno estudia la propuesta de cambiar el huso horario" [Government is considering the proposal to change the time zone] (in Spanish). El País. 26 September 2013. Retrieved 27 September 2013.
  14. 1 2 "Amanece muy pronto por aquí: mapa de la desviación entre la hora solar y la oficial" [Soon dawns here: map of the deviation between solar time and official] (in Spanish). Wordpress – Fronteras . Retrieved 7 January 2013.
  15. "El BNG vuelve a pedir en el Senado un huso horario gallego" [The BNG turns to request in the Senate a Galician time zone] (in Spanish). La Voz de Galicia. 29 October 2007. Retrieved 7 January 2013.
  16. "El cambio horario" [The time change] (in Spanish). El País. 28 March 2007. Retrieved 7 January 2013.