|Time of Violence
| Time of Parting
by Anton Donchev
Time of Violence (Bulgarian : Време на насилие) is a 1988 Bulgarian film based on the novel Time of Parting by Anton Donchev. It consists of two episodes with a combined length of 288 minutes. It premiered at the 1988 Cannes Film Festival where it was screened in the Un Certain Regard section. The film was selected as the Bulgarian entry for the Best Foreign Language Film at the 62nd Academy Awards.
The film is set in the Ottoman Empire, in 1668. As Köprülü Fazıl Ahmed Pasha concentrates his war efforts on the Cretan War, he grows paranoid of the Sultan's Christian subjects, convinced that they are an uncontrollable threat to the empire unless Islamized. One of the targets is Elindenya, a village located in a Rhodope valley where the Christian Bulgarians' way of life was for the most part left alone under the Ottoman governor Süleyman Agha's rule. A sipahi regiment is dispatched to the valley with the mission of converting the Christian population to Islam, by force if necessary. The extraordinary thing is that the regiment is led by Kara Ibrahim, a fanatical devshirme from Elindenya, and although Süleyman Agha, feeling that his self-ordained rule is at stake, objects to forced conversions, Kara Ibrahim favors measures of extreme brutality against the local Bulgarians, including his own family.
Ahmed II was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1691 to 1695.
Merzifonlu Kara Mustafa Pasha was an Ottoman nobleman, military figure and Grand Vizier of Turkish origin, who was a central character in the Ottoman Empire's last attempts at expansion into both Central and Eastern Europe.
Ibrahim was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1640 until 1648. He was born in Constantinople, the son of Sultan Ahmed I by Kösem Sultan, an ethnic Greek originally named Anastasia.
Mehmed IV also known as Mehmed the Hunter was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1648 to 1687. He came to the throne at the age of six after his father was overthrown in a coup. Mehmed went on to become the second longest reigning sultan in Ottoman history after Suleiman the Magnificent. While the initial and final years of his reign were characterized by military defeat and political instability, during his middle years he oversaw the revival of the empire's fortunes associated with the Köprülü era. Mehmed IV was known by contemporaries as a particularly pious ruler, and was referred to as gazi, or "holy warrior" for his role in the many conquests carried out during his long reign.
Suleiman II was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1687 to 1691. After being brought to the throne by an armed mutiny, Suleiman and his grand vizier Fazıl Mustafa Pasha were successfully able to turn the tide of the War of the Holy League, reconquering Belgrade in 1690, as well as carrying out significant fiscal and military reforms.
Albania under the Ottoman Empire refers to a period in Albanian history from the Ottoman conquest in the late 15th century to the Albanian declaration of Independence and official secession from the Ottoman Empire in 1912. The Ottomans first entered Albania in 1385 upon the invitation of the Albanian noble Karl Thopia to suppress the forces of the Serbian noble Balša II during the battle of Savra. They had some previous influence in some Albanian regions after the battle of Savra in 1385 but not direct control. The Ottomans placed garrisons throughout southern Albania by 1420s and established formal jurisdiction in central Albania by 1431. Even though The Ottomans claimed rule of all Albanian lands, most Albanian ethnic territories were still governed by medieval Albanian nobility who were free of Ottoman rule. The Sanjak of Albania was established in 1420 or 1430 controlling mostly central Albania, while Ottoman rule became more consolidated in 1481, after the fall of Shkodra and League of Lezhe with the country being mostly free in the period of 1443-1481. Christian Albanians revolted again in 1481 but the Ottomans finally controlled Albania by 1488.
Grand vizier was the title of the effective head of government of many sovereign states in the Islamic world. The office of Grand Vizier was first held by officials in the later Abbasid Caliphate. It was then held in the Ottoman Empire, the Mughal Empire, the Sokoto Caliphate the Safavid Empire and Morocco. In the Ottoman Empire, the Grand Vizier held the imperial seal and could convene all other viziers to attend to affairs of the state; the viziers in conference were called "Kubbealtı viziers" in reference to their meeting place, the Kubbealtı in Topkapı Palace. His offices were located at the Sublime Porte. Today, the Prime Minister of Pakistan is referred to in Urdu as Wazir-e-azam, which translates literally to Grand Vizier.
The Köprülü family was a noble family of Albanian origin in the Ottoman Empire. The family hailed from the town of Rudnik in the Sanjak of Vlora and provided six Grand Viziers of the Ottoman Empire, with several others becoming high-ranking officers. The era during which these grand viziers served is known as the Köprülü era of the Ottoman Empire.
Köprülüzade Fazıl Mustafa Pasha ("Köprülü Mustafa Pasha the Wise", also known as Gazi Fazıl Mustafa Köprülü served as the Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire from 1689 to 1691, when the Empire was engaged in a war against the Holy League countries in the Great Turkish War. He was the son of Ayşe Hatun, of Turkish origin, and of Köprülü Mehmed Pasha. He was thus a member of the Köprülü family of Albanian origin through his father. His father, his elder brother Köprülü Fazıl Ahmed Pasha, as well as his two brothers-in-law were former grand viziers. His epithet Fazıl means "wise" in Ottoman Turkish.
Köprülü Abdullah Pasha was an Ottoman general of the first half of the 18th century and one of the commanders during the Ottoman-Hotaki War of 1722–27 as well as the Ottoman-Persian War of 1730–35.
Kösem Sultan, also known as Mahpeyker Sultan, was the chief consort and legal wife of the Ottoman Sultan Ahmed I, valide sultan as the mother of sultans Murad IV and Ibrahim, and büyük ("elder") valide sultan as the grandmother of Sultan Mehmed IV. She became one of the most powerful and influential women in Ottoman history, as well as a central figure during the period known as the Sultanate of Women.
The Köprülü era was a period in which the Ottoman Empire's politics were frequently dominated by a series of grand viziers from the Köprülü family. The Köprülü era is sometimes more narrowly defined as the period from 1656 to 1683, as it was during those years that members of the family held the office of grand vizier uninterruptedly, while for the remainder of the period they occupied it only sporadically.
Pasha, Pacha or Paşa, in older works sometimes anglicized as bashaw, was a higher rank in the Ottoman political and military system, typically granted to governors, generals, dignitaries, and others. As an honorary title, Pasha, in one of its various ranks, is similar to a British peerage or knighthood, and was also one of the highest titles in the 20th-century Kingdom of Egypt. The title was also used in Morocco in the 20th century, where it denoted a regional official or governor of a district.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the Ottoman Empire:
Alexandria... Why? is a 1979 Egyptian drama film directed by Youssef Chahine. It was entered into the 29th Berlin International Film Festival, where it won the Silver Bear - Special Jury Prize. The film was selected as the Egyptian entry for the Best Foreign Language Film at the 52nd Academy Awards, but was not accepted as a nominee.
The Goat Horn is a 1972 Bulgarian drama film directed by Metodi Andonov, starring Anton Gorchev and Katya Paskaleva. The film is set in 17th Century Bulgaria where Kara Ivan's wife is raped and killed by four local Ottoman feudal masters. Having disguised his daughter as a boy, and trained her in the masculine art of warfare over a period of ten years, they set out to take revenge.
Fatma Sultan was an Ottoman princess. She was the daughter of Sultan Ahmed I and Kösem Sultan, sister of Murad IV and Ibrahim, and the paternal aunt of Mehmed IV. She is known for her many political marriages.
Abaza Hasan Pasha, also called Kara Hasan Pasha or Celali Hasan Pasha;, was an Ottoman provincial governor and celali rebel of the mid-seventeenth century. He launched two rebellions against the Ottoman government, the second and largest of which ended with his assassination in Aleppo on 16 February 1659 following a failed attempt to force the deposition of the Grand Vizier Köprülü Mehmed Pasha.
Tulip period architecture was a stage in Ottoman architecture in the early 18th century. New types of decoration were introduced into the existing classical style of Ottoman architecture and new types of buildings, such as stand-alone fountains and libraries, became important landmarks. The style is most closely associated with the Tulip Period (1718-1730), a period of peace during the reign of Ahmed III when architectural patronage increased in Istanbul after a relative lull in the late 17th century. However, the new style was also present at the beginning of Ahmed III's reign and continued to be evident after him in the 1730s. The introduction of European influences in Ottoman culture and architecture eventually led to the creation of the Ottoman Baroque style in the 1740s.