Timeline of 10th-century Muslim history

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10th century (901–1000 CE / 288–391 AH)

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The Fatimid dynasty was an Isma'ili Shi'a dynasty of Arab descent that ruled an extensive empire, the Fatimid Caliphate, between 909 and 1171 CE. Claiming descent from Fatima and Ali, they also held the Isma'ili imamate, claiming to be the rightful leaders of the Muslim community. The line of Nizari Isma'ili imams, represented today by the Aga Khans, claims descent from a branch of the Fatimids. The Alavi Bohras, predominantly based in Vadodara (Baroda) also descend from the branch of the Fatimids.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Buyid dynasty</span> 934–1062 Shia Iranian dynasty in Iran and Iraq

The Buyid dynasty, also spelled Buwayhid, was a Shia Muslim Iranian dynasty of Daylamite origin, which mainly ruled over Iraq and central and southern Iran from 934 to 1062. Coupled with the rise of other Iranian dynasties in the region, the approximate century of Buyid rule represents the period in Iranian history sometimes called the 'Iranian Intermezzo' since, after the Muslim conquest of Persia, it was an interlude between the rule of the Abbasid Caliphate and the Seljuk Empire.

al-Mustakfi Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad (r. 944–946)

Abu’l-Qāsim ʿAbdallāh ibn Ali, better known by his regnal name al-Mustakfī bi’llāh was the Abbasid caliph in Baghdad from 944 to 946.

al-Muti Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad (r. 946–974)

Abū ʾl-Qāsim al-Faḍl ibn al-Muqtadir, better known by his regnal name of al-Mutīʿ li-ʾllāh, was the Abbasid caliph in Baghdad from 946 to 974, ruling under the tutelage of the Buyid emirs.

al-Tai Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad (r. 974–991)

Abu Bakr ʿAbd al-Karīm ibn al-Faḍl, better known by his regnal name al-Ṭāʾiʿ liʾllāh/biʾllāh, was the Abbasid caliph of Baghdad from 974 to his deposition in 991. He was in office during the domination of Iraq by the Shi'a Buyid dynasty, and as a result is generally considered a powerless figurehead under the thumb of the Buyid emirs. His tenure was also marked by strife between rival Buyid rulers and the frequent change of hands of Baghdad: al-Ta'i' himself was raised to the throne by a rebel Turkic general, Sabuktakin, who deposed al-Ta'i's father, al-Muti'. During periods of such strife, al-Ta'i' was able to exert some measure of political independence, but under stronger rulers he was sidelined, and was obliged to marry the daughters of the emirs Izz al-Dawla and Adud al-Dawla. Al-Ta'i's status suffered under Adud al-Dawla in particular, who turned to pre-Islamic Persian models for legitimacy, and relegated Iraq to the status of a simple province ruled from Fars. Al-Ta'i' was deposed on 22 November 991 by Baha al-Dawla, and replaced with his cousin, al-Qadir. He spent the rest of his days, until his death in 1003, confined to the caliphal palace.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Abd al-Malik I (Samanid emir)</span> Amir of the Samanids from 954 to 961

Abd al-Malik I was amir of the Samanid Empire from 954 to 961. He was the son and successor of Nuh I. His reign was marked by internal strife, with the Turkic slave-soldiers increasing in power. He died after falling from his horse during a game of polo at Bukhara. He was succeeded by his brother Mansur I, who was put on the throne by a faction of ghulams led by the Turkic slave-commander, Fa'iq Khassa.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Izz al-Dawla</span> Buyid Emir of Iraq and Amir al-umara (967–978)

Bakhtiyar, better known by his laqab of Izz al-Dawla, was the Buyid amir of Iraq (967–978).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mu'izz al-Dawla</span> 1st Buyid emir of Iraq (945-967)

Ahmad ibn Buya, after 945 better known by his laqab of Mu'izz al-Dawla, was the first of the Buyid emirs of Iraq, ruling from 945 until his death.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Rukn al-Dawla</span> 10th century Buyid Amir of northern and central Iran

Hasan, better known by his laqab as Rukn al-Dawla, was the first Buyid amir of northern and central Iran. He was the son of Buya.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">'Adud al-Dawla</span> Buyid dynasty emir (936-983)

Fannā (Panāh) Khusraw, better known by his laqab of ʿAḍud al-Dawla was an emir of the Buyid dynasty, ruling from 949 to 983, and at his height of power ruling an empire stretching from Makran to Yemen and the shores of the Mediterranean Sea. He is widely regarded as the greatest monarch of the dynasty, and by the end of his reign he was the most powerful ruler in the Middle East.

The office of amir al-umara, variously rendered in English as emir of emirs, prince of princes,chief emir, and commander of commanders, was a senior military position in the 10th-century Abbasid Caliphate, whose holders in the decade after 936 came to supersede the civilian bureaucracy under the vizier and become effective regents, relegating the Abbasid caliphs to a purely ceremonial role. The office then formed the basis for the Buyid control over the Abbasid caliphs and over Iraq until the mid-11th century.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Nasir al-Dawla</span> Emir of Mosul from 935 to 967

Abu Muhammad al-Hasan ibn Abu'l-Hayja Abdallah ibn Hamdan al-Taghlibi, more commonly known simply by his honorific of Nasir al-Dawla, was the second Hamdanid ruler of the Emirate of Mosul, encompassing most of the Jazira.

Uddat al-Dawla Abu Taghlib Fadl Allah al-Ghadanfar al-Hamdani, usually known simply by his kunya as Abu Taghlib, was the third Hamdanid ruler of the Emirate of Mosul, encompassing most of the Jazira.

Abu Mansur Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Razzaq ibn 'Abdallah ibn Farrukh, also simply known as Abu Mansur Muhammad and Ibn 'Abd al-Razzaq, was an Iranian aristocrat who served the Samanids during the most of career, and briefly served as governor of Azerbaijan under the Buyids.

Abu'l-Wafa Tuzun, commonly known as Tuzun, was a Turkish soldier who served first the Iranian ruler Mardavij ibn Ziyar and subsequently the Abbasid Caliphate. Rising to a position of leadership in the Abbasid army, he evicted the Hamdanid Nasir al-Dawla from Baghdad and assumed the position of amir al-umara on 31 May 943, becoming the Caliphate's de facto ruler. He held this position until his death in August 945, a few months before Baghdad, and the Abbasid Caliphate with it, came under the control of the Buyids.

Abu Ishaq Ibrahim, also known by his honorific title of Umdat al-Dawla, was a Buyid prince, who was the youngest son of the Buyid ruler Mu'izz al-Dawla.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Al-Hasan al-A'sam</span> Tenth century military leader

Abu Ali al-Hasan al-A'sam ibn Ahmad ibn Bahram al-Jannabi was a Qarmatian leader, chiefly known as the military commander of the Qarmatian invasions of Syria in 968–977. Already in 968, he led attacks on the Ikhshidids, capturing Damascus and Ramla and extracting pledges of tribute. Following the Fatimid conquest of Egypt and the overthrow of the Ikhshidids, in 971–974 al-A'sam led attacks against the Fatimid Caliphate, who began to expand into Syria. The Qarmatians repeatedly evicted the Fatimids from Syria and invaded Egypt itself twice, in 971 and 974, before being defeated at the gates of Cairo and driven back. Al-A'sam continued fighting against the Fatimids, now alongside the Turkish general Alptakin, until his death in March 977. In the next year, the Fatimids managed to overcome the allies, and concluded a treaty with the Qarmatians that signalled the end of their invasions of Syria.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">10th century in Lebanon</span> Events from the 10th century in Lebanon

This article lists historical events that occurred between 901–1000 in modern-day Lebanon or regarding its people.

Sabuktakin or Sübüktegin was a Turkic commander in the service of the Buyid dynasty. His power was such that he defied the Buyid ruler Bakhtiyar Izz al-Dawla, and even rose in revolt against him in 974, seizing control of Baghdad and threatening to overthrow Buyid rule in Iraq completely. His career was cut short by his own death in late 974. His successor, Alptakin, was defeated by the Buyids and fled to Damascus, where he eventually joined the Fatimids.