Timeline of 11th-century Muslim history

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11th century (1001–1100 CE / 391–494 AH)

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Timeline of Muslim history

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">History of Islam</span> Historical development of Islam

The history of Islam concerns the political, social, economic, military, and cultural developments of the Islamic civilization. Most historians believe that Islam originated in Mecca and Medina at the start of the 7th century CE. Muslims regard Islam as a return to the original faith of the Abrahamic prophets, such as Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, David, Solomon, and Jesus, with the submission (Islām) to the will of God.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Medieval Muslim Algeria</span>

Medieval Muslim Algeria was a period of Muslim dominance in Algeria during the Middle Ages, spanning the millennium from the 7th century to the 17th century. The new faith, in its various forms, would penetrate nearly all segments of society, bringing with it armies, learned men, and fervent mystics; in large part, it would replace tribal practices and loyalties with new social norms and political idioms.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Malik-Shah I</span> Third Seljuk sultan (r. 1072–1092)

Jalāl al-Dawla Mu'izz al-Dunyā Wa'l-Din Abu'l-Fatḥ ibn Alp Arslān, better known by his regnal name of Malik-Shah I, was the third sultan of the Great Seljuk Empire from 1072 to 1092, under whom the sultanate reached its zenith of power and influence.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tughril</span> Founder and the first sultan of the Seljuk empire

Abu Talib Muhammad Tughril ibn Mika'il, better known as Tughril, was a Turkoman chieftain, who founded the Seljuk Empire, ruling from 1037 to 1063.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Zirid dynasty</span> Sanhaja Berber dynasty

The Zirid dynasty, Banu Ziri, was a Sanhaja Berber dynasty from modern-day Algeria which ruled the central Maghreb from 972 to 1014 and Ifriqiya from 972 to 1148.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mahmud of Ghazni</span> Sultan of the Ghaznavid Empire from 998 to 1030

Yamīn-ud-Dawla Abul-Qāṣim Maḥmūd ibn Sebüktegīn, usually known as Mahmud of Ghazni or Mahmud Ghaznavi, was the founder of the Ghaznavid dynasty, ruling from 998 to 1030. At the time of his death, his kingdom had been transformed into an extensive military empire, which extended from northwestern Iran proper to the Punjab in the Indian subcontinent, Khwarazm in Transoxiana, and Makran.

al-Qadir Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad (r. 991–1031)

Abu'l-Abbas Ahmad ibn Ishaq, better known by his regnal name al-Qadir, was the Abbasid caliph in Baghdad from 991 to 1031. He was the grandson of al-Muqtadir, and was chosen in place of the deposed caliph, at-Ta'i, his cousin. His reign was marked by the strengthening of the Abbasid caliphate's role as the champion of Sunni Islam against Shia Islam, notably through the Baghdad Manifesto of 1011, and through the codification, for the first time, of Sunni doctrines and practices in the Risāla al-Qādiriyya, thereby presaging the "Sunni Revival" later in the century.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Al-Qa'im (Abbasid caliph at Baghdad)</span> Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 1031 to 1075

Abū Ja'far Abdallah ibn Aḥmad al-Qādir (Arabic: أبو جعفر عبد الله بن أحمد القادر) better known by his regnal name al-Qā'im bi-amri 'llāh or simply as al-Qā'im; 1001 – 2 April 1075) was the Abbasid caliph in Baghdad from 1031 to 1075. He was the son of the previous caliph, al-Qadir. Al-Qa'im's reign coincided with the end of the Buyid dynasty's dominance of the caliphate and the rise of the Seljuk dynasty.

Abū'l-Qasim ʿAbd Allāh ibn Muhammad ibn al-Qa'im better known by his regnal name Al-Muqtadi was the Abbasid caliph in Baghdad from 1075 to 1094. He succeeded his grandfather caliph al-Qa'im in 1075 as the twenty-seventh Abbasid caliph.

al-Nasir Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad (r. 1180–1225)

Abū al-ʿAbbās Aḥmad ibn al-Hasan al-Mustaḍīʾ, better known by his laqabal-Nāṣir li-Dīn Allāh or simply as al-Nasir, was the Abbasid caliph in Baghdad from 1180 until his death. His laqab literally can mean The One who Gives Victory to the Religion of God. He continued the efforts of his grandfather al-Muqtafi in restoring the caliphate to its ancient dominant role and achieved a surprising amount of success as his army even conquered parts of Iran. According to the historian, Angelika Hartmann, al-Nasir was the last effective Abbasid caliph.

Abuʾl-Ḥārith Arslān al-Muẓaffar al-Basāsīrī was a Turkish slave-soldier (mamlūk) who rose to become a military commander of the Buwayhid dynasty in Iraq. When the Buwayhids were ousted by the Seljuks in 1055, he transferred his allegiance to the Fatimid Caliphate of Egypt, in whose name he conquered Baghdad, which he ruled for almost a year.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Seljuk dynasty</span> Oghuz Turkic dynasty

The Seljuk dynasty, or Seljukids, also known as Seljuk Turks, Seljuk Turkomans or the Saljuqids, was an Oghuz Turkic, Sunni Muslim dynasty that gradually became Persianate and contributed to the Turco-Persian tradition in the medieval Middle East and Central Asia. The Seljuks established the Seljuk Empire (1037–1194), the Sultanate of Kermân (1041–1186) and the Sultanate of Rum (1074–1308), which at their heights stretched from Iran to Anatolia and were the prime targets of the First Crusade.

Abū Alī Hasan ibn Muhammad ibn Abbās, better known as Hasanak the Vizier, also Hasanak Mīkālī, was an Iranian statesman from the Mikalid family, who served as the vizier of the Ghaznavid sultan Mahmud from 1024 to 1030. After having been removed from the vizier, Hasanak still continued to be an important and influential figure in the Ghaznavid state. However, he later fell out of favor and was executed by hanging during the reign of Mahmud's son Mas'ud I. Hasanak's official charge was infidelity which was a politically motivated charge, and his execution was ordered by the Abbasid caliph of Baghdad.

Abu Suleiman Dawud Chaghri Beg ibn Mikail, widely known simply as Chaghri Beg (989–1060), Da'ud b. Mika'il b. Saljuq, also spelled Chaghri, was the co-ruler of the early Seljuk Empire. The name Chaghri is Turkic and literally means "small falcon", "merlin".

Abu Salama Mahmud ibn Nasr ibn Salih Arabic: محمود بن نصر بن صالح المرداسي, romanized: Abū Salama Maḥmūd ibn Naṣr ibn Ṣāliḥ, also known by his laqabRashid al-Dawla, was the Mirdasid emir of Aleppo from 1060 to 1061 and again from 1065 until his death. He was the son of Shibl al-Dawla Nasr and the Numayrid princess, Mani'a al-Sayyida al-Alawiyya.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Numayrid dynasty</span> Arab dynasty circa 990-1081

The Numayrids were an Arab dynasty based in Diyar Mudar. They were emirs (princes) of their namesake tribe, the Banu Numayr. The senior branch of the dynasty, founded by Waththab ibn Sabiq in 990, ruled the Euphrates cities of Harran, Saruj and Raqqa more or less continuously until the late 11th century. In the early part of Waththab's reign, the Numayrids also controlled Edessa until the Byzantines conquered it in the early 1030s. In 1062, the Numayrids lost Raqqa to their distant kinsmen and erstwhile allies, the Mirdasids, while by 1081, their capital Harran and nearby Saruj were conquered by the Turkish Seljuks and their Arab Uqaylid allies. Numayrid emirs continued to hold isolated fortresses in Upper Mesopotamia, such as Qal'at an-Najm and Sinn Ibn Utayr near Samosata until the early 12th century, but nothing is heard of them after 1120.


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