Timeline of 8th-century Muslim history

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This is a timeline of major events in the Muslim world from 701 AD to 800 AD (81 BH – 184 AH).

Timeline of Islamic history: 6th | 7th | 8th | 9th | 10th | 11th | 12th | 13th | 14th | 15th | 16th | 17th | 18th | 19th | 20th | 21st century

Eighth century (701–800 CE / 81–184 AH)

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">8th century</span> Century

The 8th century is the period from 701 (DCCI) through 800 (DCCC) in accordance with the Julian Calendar. The coast of North Africa and the Iberian Peninsula quickly came under Islamic Arab domination. The westward expansion of the Umayyad Empire was famously halted at the siege of Constantinople by the Byzantine Empire and the Battle of Tours by the Franks. The tide of Arab conquest came to an end in the middle of the 8th century.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Umayyad Caliphate</span> Second Islamic caliphate (661–750 CE)

The Umayyad Caliphate was the second caliphate established after the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. The caliphate was ruled by the Umayyad dynasty, also known as the Umayyads. Uthman ibn Affan, the third of the Rashidun caliphs, was also a member of the clan. The family established dynastic, hereditary rule with Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan, long-time governor of Greater Syria, who became caliph after the end of the First Fitna in 661. After Mu'awiya's death in 680, conflicts over the succession resulted in the Second Fitna, and power eventually fell to Marwan I, from another branch of the clan. Syria remained the Umayyads' main power base thereafter, with Damascus as their capital.

al-Mansur 2nd Abbasid caliph (r. 754–775)

Abū Jaʿfar ʿAbd Allāh ibn Muḥammad al-Manṣūr usually known simply as by his laqab al-Manṣūr (المنصور) was the second Abbasid caliph, reigning from 136 AH to 158 AH succeeding his brother al-Saffah. He is known for founding the 'Round City' of Madinat al-Salam, which was to become the core of imperial Baghdad.

as-Saffah 1st Abbasid caliph (r. 750–754)

Abū al-ʿAbbās ʿAbd Allāh ibn Muḥammad al-Saffāḥ usually known as as-Saffāḥ, was the first caliph of the Abbasid Caliphate, one of the longest and most important caliphates in Islamic history.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik</span> Tenth Umayyad caliph (r. 724–743)

Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik was the tenth Umayyad caliph, ruling from 724 until his death in 743.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Marwan II</span> Last Umayyad caliph (r. 744–750)

Marwan ibn Muhammad ibn Marwan ibn al-Hakam, commonly known as Marwan II, was the fourteenth and last caliph of the Umayyad Caliphate, ruling from 744 until his death. His reign was dominated by a civil war, and he was the last Umayyad ruler to rule the united Caliphate before the Abbasid Revolution toppled the Umayyad dynasty.

Maslama ibn Abd al-Malik was an Umayyad prince and one of the most prominent Arab generals of the early decades of the 8th century, leading several campaigns against the Byzantine Empire and the Khazar Khaganate. He achieved great fame especially for leading the second and last Arab siege of the Byzantine capital Constantinople.

Muḥammad ibn ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib also known as Muḥammad ibn al-Ḥanafīyya and surnamed Abū al-Qāsim. He was the third son of Ali ibn Abi Talib.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Second Fitna</span> Umayyad-era Muslim civil war (680–692)

The Second Fitna was a period of general political and military disorder and civil war in the Islamic community during the early Umayyad Caliphate. It followed the death of the first Umayyad caliph Mu'awiya I in 680, and lasted for about twelve years. The war involved the suppression of two challenges to the Umayyad dynasty, the first by Husayn ibn Ali, as well as his supporters including Sulayman ibn Surad and Mukhtar al-Thaqafi who rallied for his revenge in Iraq, and the second by Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr.

ʿĪsā ibn Mūsā ibn Muḥammad ibn ʿAlī ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn al-ʿAbbās was a nephew of the first two Abbasid caliphs, as-Saffah and al-Mansur, and for a long time heir-apparent of the Caliphate, until he was superseded by al-Mansur's son al-Mahdi.

The Kaysanites were a Shi'i sect of Islam that formed from the followers of Al-Mukhtar. They traced Imamate from Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah and his descendants. The name Kaysaniyya was most likely derived from the name of Mukhtar's chief guard, Abu Amra Kaysan.

The Qays–Yaman rivalry refers to the historical rivalries and feuds between the northern Arabian Qays tribes and the southern Arabian Yaman tribes. The conflict emerged among the tribes within the Umayyad Caliphate's army and administration in the 7th and 8th centuries. Membership in either faction was rooted in real or perceived genealogical origins of the tribes, which divided them into south Arabian descendants of Qahtan (Yaman) or north Arabian descendants of Adnan (Qays).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Third Fitna</span> 744–750 civil war in the Umayyad Caliphate

The Third Fitna was a series of civil wars and uprisings in the Islamic community. It followed the death of the twelfth Umayyad caliph Yazid III in 744 and lasted for about six years. The war culminated with the overthrow of the Umayyad Caliphate and the establishment of the Abbasid Caliphate in 750. Following the death of Yazid III in 744 and the abdication of his successor Ibrahim the same year, Marwan II became the sole ruler of the caliphate.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Umayyad dynasty</span> Rulers of Umayyad Caliphate

The Umayyad dynasty or Umayyads were the ruling Arab family of the Caliphate between 661 and 750 and later of al-Andalus between 756 and 1031. In the pre-Islamic period, they were a prominent clan of the Meccan tribe of Quraysh, descended from Umayya ibn Abd Shams. Despite staunch opposition to the Islamic prophet Muhammad, the Umayyads embraced Islam before the latter's death in 632. Uthman, an early companion of Muhammad from the Umayyad clan, was the third Rashidun caliph, ruling in 644–656, while other members held various governorships. One of these governors, Mu'awiya I of Syria, opposed Caliph Ali in the First Muslim Civil War (656–661) and afterward founded the Umayyad Caliphate with its capital in Damascus. This marked the beginning of the Umayyad dynasty, the first hereditary dynasty in the history of Islam, and the only one to rule over the entire Islamic world of its time.

Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAlī was a member of the Abbasid dynasty, and played a leading role in its rise to power during the Abbasid Revolution. As governor of Syria, he consolidated Abbasid control over the province, eliminating the remnants of the Umayyad dynasty and suppressing pro-Umayyad uprisings. After the death of his nephew and first Abbasid caliph, al-Saffah, in 754, he launched a bid for the caliphal title against al-Saffah's brother, al-Mansur, but was defeated and imprisoned. He was killed in 764.

Ayyub ibn Salama ibn Abd Allah ibn al-Walid ibn al-Walid ibn al-Mughira al-Makhzumi was a notable of Medina in the late Umayyad and early Abbasid period. He belonged to a wealthy family of the locally prominent Banu Makhzum clan of the Quraysh. He is recorded as a witness or participant of political events in Medina during the reigns of caliphs Sulayman, Hisham and al-Mansur, including as a one-time supporter of the Alid revolt of Muhammad al-Nafs al-Zakiyya against the Abbasids.

Rayṭa bint al-Saffāḥ was an Abbasid princess, daughter of first Abbasid caliph al-Saffah, niece of second Abbasid caliph al-Mansur and the first wife of third Abbasid caliph al-Mahdi.

Umm Salama bint Yaʿqūb al-Makhzūmī was the principal wife of first Abbasid caliph al-Saffah, the founder of Abbasid dynasty. Umm Salama was the only woman in the Caliphate's history who had relation through marriage with both Caliphal dynasties; Umayyads and Abbasids.

Al-Asbagh ibn Dhu'ala al-Kalbi was an Umayyad commander and a warlord of the Banu Kalb tribe in Palmyra who played a prominent role in the Third Muslim Civil War (744–750) and afterward was a leader of the revolt of the Umayyad prince Abu Muhammad al-Sufyani against the Abbasids in 750–751.