Timeline of Alzheimer's disease

Last updated

This is a timeline of Alzheimer's disease , describing especially major discoveries, developments and organizations concerning the disease.


Year/periodKey developments
Prior to 1890sEarly in History, Solon (638 BC–558 BC) relates alteration in judgment to aging. Plato notes that very old age can have influence on madness. [1]
1890s–1960sPeriod of discovery of Alzheimer's disease, starting virtually with the pioneer work by Alois Alzheimer, until the recognition of the disease in the 1960s. [2] [3]
1970sAlzheimer's disease is recognized as the most common form of dementia. [2]
1980sThe organic constituents of the two characteristic damages of Alzheimer's disease are identified: Beta-amyloid and Tau protein. Many organizations focused on Alzheimer's disease start to be founded across the world. [4]
1990sSeveral genes responsible for the inherited transmission of Alzheimer's disease are identified: PSEN1, PSEN2 and Apolipoprotein E-e4. [4] The first vaccine is used in mice. [2] [3]
2000s–presentAt present, there's no cure for Alzheimer's disease. [5] Incidence is higher in developed countries, which correlates with the proportion of senior citizens. [6]

Full timeline

Year/periodType of eventEventLocation
1892Discovery French pathologist Paul Blocq and Romanian neurologist Gheorghe Marinescu observe senile plaques for the first time. [1] [7]
1898Development Austrian neurologist Emil Redlich relates senile plaques with senile dementia. [1] [8]
1906DiscoveryAt the 37th annual conference of German psychiatrists, physician Alois Alzheimer describes the case of patient Auguste Deter, who had profound memory loss, unfounded suspicions about her family, and other worsening psychological changes. In her brain at autopsy, Alzheimer sees dramatic shrinkage and abnormal deposits in and around nerve cells. [2] [9] Tübingen, Germany
1910DevelopmentGerman psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin, a colleague of Alzheimer, first names "Alzheimer's disease" in the eighth edition of his book Psychiatrie. [2] [10] [11]
1931BackgroundGerman electrical engineer Max Knoll and German physicist Ernst Ruska co-invent the electron microscope, which can magnify up to 1 million times. After World War II the electron microscope becomes common in major research settings, enabling scientists to study brain cells in more detail. [2] [12]
1968DevelopmentResearchers develop the first validated measurement scale for assessing cognitive and functional decline in older adults. [2]
1974OrganizationThe American National Institute on Aging (NIA) is founded. [2] Baltimore, United States
1976ReportAlzheimer's disease is recognized as the most common form of dementia. [2]
1976–1977DevelopmentThree teams, led by Elaine Perry, D.M. Bowen, and P. Davies demonstrate the alteration of central cholinergic systems in Alzheimer's disease. [1] [13]
1978Organization Alzheimer Society of Canada is founded. [14] [15] Toronto, Canada
1980Organization American Alzheimer's Association is founded. [16] Chicago, United States
1980OrganizationAlzheimer's Association Japan is founded. It is involved in research and provides support for those affected by Alzheimer's. [17] Kyoto, Japan
1982OrganizationAlzheimer’s Australia is founded. It administers leading edge national dementia programs and services and is funded by the Commonwealth. [14] [18] [19] North Ryde, Australia
1983Campaign American president Ronald Reagan designates November as National Alzheimer’s Disease Awareness Month with the purpose of raising awareness for Alzheimer’s disease. [20] United States
1984DiscoveryResearchers George Glenner and Caine Wong identify protein known as amyloid beta, the main component of the amyloid plaques found in the brains of Alzheimer patients. [1] [2]
1984OrganizationAlzheimer Nederland is founded. [14] [21] [22] [23] Amersfoort, Netherlands
1984Organization Alzheimer's Disease International is founded. [24] London, United Kingdom
1985OrganizationAssociation France Alzheimer is founded. It provides financial help for research. [25] [26] [27] Paris, France
1985OrganizationAlzheimer's South Africa is founded. It provides funds for research. [14] [28] [29] Bryanston, South Africa
1986Discovery Belgian physician Jean-Pierre Brion identifies Tau protein as a key component of neurofibrillary tangles, the second pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease and another prime suspect in nerve cell degeneration. [2] [4]
1987Discovery Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is discovered. It is the first gene with mutations found to cause an inherited form of Alzheimer's disease. [30]
1988OrganizationFederazione Alzheimer Italia is founded. It delivers free training courses for carers, among other activities. [14] [31] [32] Milan, Italy
1988OrganizationAssociation Alzheimer Suisse is founded. It provides information and help for those affected by Alzheimer's. [14] [33] [34] Yverdon-les-Bains, Switzerland
1988OrganizationAlzheimer's Association of Israel is founded. In 2008, the association launched “In the Armchair with Picasso” art-kit for therapeutic use on those affected with Alzheimer's. This project has brought attention from geriatric professionals around the world. [14] [35] [36] Ramat Gan, Israel
1989OrganizationDeutsche Alzheimer Gesellschaft is founded. It provides funding for research. [14] [37] [38] Berlin, Germany
1989OrganizationAsociación de Lucha contra el Mal de Alzheimer is founded. It elaborates projects and holds its own scientific committee. [14] [39] [40] [41] Buenos Aires, Argentina
1990OrganizationConfederación Española de Familiares de Enfermos de Alzheimer is founded. It represents thirteen federations and six associations within the country. [14] [42] [43] Pamplona, Spain
1992OrganizationAlzheimer's & Related Disorders Society of India is founded. It is the first Afro-Asian organization to receive full membership with Alzheimer Disease International and has an official relationship with the WHO. [14] [44] [45] Kunnamkulam, India
1992Discovery Presenilin-1 (PS-1) is identified. It is the second gene with mutations found to cause inherited Alzheimer's disease. Variations in this gene are the most common cause of inherited Alzheimer's. [30]
1993Discovery Presenilin-2 (PS-2) is discovered. It is the third gene with mutations found to cause inherited Alzheimer's disease. [30] [46]
1993Discovery Apolipoprotein E-e4 (APOE4) is discovered. It is the first gene variation found to increase risk of Alzheimer's disease and remains the risk gene with the greatest known impact. [30] [47]
1993DevelopmentThe United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approves tacrine (Cognex) as the first drug specifically targeting Alzheimer's disease memory and thinking symptoms. [2] United States
1994Alzheimer Disease International launches the first World Alzheimer's Day on September 21. [2]
1995DevelopmentResearchers announce the first transgenic mouse model that developed Alzheimer-like brain pathology, by inserting one of the human APP genes linked to a rare, inherited form of Alzheimer's disease. [2] [48]
1996Development Donepezil is approved for use in all stages of Alzheimer's disease. [49] United States
1999DevelopmentFirst report announcing that injection of transgenic "Alzheimer" mice with beta-amyloid prevents the animals from developing plaques and other Alzheimer's disease-like brain changes. [2]
2001Development Galantamine is approved for use in mild to moderate stages of Alzheimer's disease. [49] United States
2002OrganizationThe Federación Mexicana de Alzheimer is founded. It holds its own scientific committee. [14] [50] [51] Monterrey, Mexico
2003Development Memantine is approved for use in moderate to severe stages of Alzheimer's disease. [49] United States
2003StudyThe National Alzheimer's Disease Genetics Study begins. Blood samples are collected from families with several members who developed Alzheimer's late in life to identify additional Alzheimer's risk genes. [11] United States
2006Development Rivastigmine is approved for use in all stages of Alzheimer's disease. [49] United States
2008OrganizationThe International Society to Advance Alzheimer Research and Treatment is founded. [2] [52]
2009OrganizationThe International Conference on Alzheimer's disease becomes an annual event. [2]
2010DevelopmentA database is launched containing information of more than 4000 patients with Alzheimer's disease who participated in 11 pharmaceutical industry-sponsored clinical trials of Alzheimer's treatments. [11] [53] United States
2012OrganizationMultinational research consortium Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network (DIAN), launches the first major clinical trial testing pharmacotherapy to prevent the onset of Alzheimer’s disease symptoms in people who inherited an autosomal dominant mutation putting them at high risk for the disease. [2]
2013DiscoveryInternational Genomics of Alzheimer’s Project (IGAP) researchers identify 20 genetic variations associated with increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease. [2]
2013CampaignThe G8 Dementia Summit launches an international effort to fight Alzheimer’s disease and find a cure by 2025. [54] United Kingdom
2014DiscoveryResearchers at Rush University come to the conclusion that rates of death caused by Alzheimer’s disease are found to be much higher than reported on death certificates. The study is performed on organs donated from 2,566 persons aged 65 years and older without dementia at baseline. [2] [55] United States
2016ReportAccording to Alzheimer Disease International, nearly 44 million people have Alzheimer’s disease or a related dementia worldwide. [56]

See also

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