Timeline of Haitian history

Last updated

This is a timeline of Haitian history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Haiti and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Haiti. See also the list of heads of state of Haïti.


15th century

1492 Christopher Columbus came to the first Spanish community near Cap-Haïtien.

16th century

1501The first Africans were brought to Hispaniola as people in the U.S.
1503Queen Anacaona, leader of the last Taino kingdom in the Hispaniola, is executed by Spanish governor.
1518 Ferdinand II of Aragon officially established Spain's African slave trade.
1528Don Sebastián Ramirez de Fuente became the first Catholic bishop of the island.

17th century

1625French, Dutch and English filibusters, pirates and privateers occupied Tortuga Island and were repeatedly expelled by the Spaniards.
1670The city of Cap-Francais was founded on the north coast by French settlers.
1670 Louis XIV of France authorized the African slave trade in Saint-Dominque.
1685Louis XIV enacted the Code Noir , regulating slavery in Saint-Domingue and the rest of the French colonial empire.
1697Spain signed the Treaty of Ryswick, under whose terms she ceded the western third of Hispaniola to France.

18th century

1749The city of Port-au-Prince was founded by Charles Burnier, Marquis of Larnage and named the capital of Saint-Domingue.
1751Slave rebellions in northern Saint-Domingue, led by François Mackandal, began.
1758Mackandal was captured and publicly executed in Cap-Français.
1778 Volunteer Haitian slaves, led by French admiral Count d'Estaing, left for Savannah, Georgia to participate in the unsuccessful Siege of Savannah during the American Revolutionary War.
179125 February Vincent Ogé and Jean-Baptiste Chavannes, proponents of equal rights for free blacks and mulattos and leaders of an armed rebellion, were publicly executed in Cap-Français.
7 AugustThe Conseil des Représentants de la Commune was founded by affranchis to demand equal rights. Pinchinat was named president of the council.
14 August Haitian Revolution : Dutty Boukman and Cécile Fatiman held a Vodou ceremony in Bois-Caïman, where hundreds of slaves vowed to die for liberty.
21 AugustMajor slave revolt begins, led by Dutty Boukman and his lieutenants: Jean François, Georges Biassou, and Jeannot.
25 AugustRebel attack on Cap Francais is repulsed by the cannons and militia of the white colonists.
24 SeptemberThe Concordat de Damiens was signed, granting political rights to the affranchis.
NovemberThe First Civil Commission, comprising Roume, Mirbeck, and Saint-Léger, arrived in Cap-Français to restore order.
7 NovemberDutty Boukman killed in a counter attack by colonial forces.
17924 AprilFrance's Legislative Assembly voted to give full citizenship and equal rights to all free people of color.
18 SeptemberThe Second Civil Commission, comprising Léger-Félicité Sonthonax, Étienne Polverel and Ailhaud, arrived in Cap-Français to execute the law of 4 April.
179312 AprilA force led by the Second Civil Commission and affranchis defeated white colonists in a fight to enforce the law of 4 April.
Toussaint Louverture offered his services as a military commander to the Spanish.
20 JuneFrench colonial forces, under the authority of the Second Civil Commission, put down a revolt led by François-Thomas Galbaud du Fort.
Henri Christophe was promoted to the captaincy of the French colonial forces, but soon removed when accused of adultery.
British troops landed in Saint-Domingue.
JuneToussaint, fighting for Spain, captured the city of Dondon.
13 AugustToussaint defeated the French general Desfourneaux at Ennery.
29 AugustSonthonax, without prior approval from the French government, declared the abolition of slavery by decree in northern Saint-Domingue. Polverel soon after does the same for the southern part of Saint-Domingue.
6 DecemberToussaint captured Gonaïves for Spain.
17944 FebruaryThe French National Convention declared the abolition of slavery in all French colonies, so making the abolition of slavery legal and applying to all of France and its colonies.
MayToussaint left the Spanish and joined the French forces.
1 JuneThe British captured Port-au-Prince from Colonel Montbrun of France.
21 OctoberToussaint captured the cities of Saint-Michel and Saint-Raphaël for the French.
179513 OctoberToussaint captured the city of Dondon a second time, this time for France.
14 OctoberThe Treaty of Bâle was ratified, ending Spain's involvement in the conflict and surrendering the eastern part of Hispaniola to France.
179630 MarchToussaint rescued French commander Laveaux from mulatto rebel Villatte; Laveaux appointed Toussaint the Lieutenant-Governor of Saint-Domingue.
11 MayThe Third Civil Commission, comprising Sonthonax, Roume, Giraud, Leblanc, and Julien Raymond, arrived in Saint-Domingue to establish diplomatic relations between France and the colony.
17971 MaySonthonax appointed Toussaint the commander-in-chief of the French colonial forces.
179820 AprilGeneral Hédouville arrived in Cap-Français on the orders of the French government in order to oppose the ambition of Toussaint Louverture.
31 August British general Maitland agreed to evacuate Môle Saint-Nicolas in a treaty signed with Toussaint.
179912 JanuaryThe generals of the colony – Toussaint, André Rigaud, Bauvais, and Laplume – met in Port-au-Prince and named Toussaint the lead commander. Rigaud surrendered control of the southern cities of Léogâne, Grand-Goâve, Petit-Goâve, and Miragoâne.

19th century

180127 JanuaryToussaint invaded the eastern part of Hispaniola and captured Santo Domingo, declaring freedom for all slaves and appointing a ten-member Central Assembly to issue a constitution.
8 JulyThe Constitution of 1801 was promulgated, under which Toussaint Louverture
180229 JanuaryA French expeditionary force, sent by Napoleon Bonaparte and led by his brother-in-law Charles Leclerc, arrived in Samana Bay.
1 FebruaryFrench vessels arrived at Cap-Français.
4 February Henri Christophe burned Cap-Français to resist the French troops.
23 February Battle of Ravine-à-Couleuvres : French forces defeated Toussaint.
4 April - 24 March Battle of Crête-à-Pierrot : The battle ended with a French victory over Jean-Jacques Dessalines.
6 MayToussaint arrived in Cap-Français to recognize Leclerc's authority in return for an amnesty for him and his remaining generals.
7 JuneToussaint was arrested by General Leclerc and shipped to France, where he was imprisoned.
13 OctoberDessalines, now Commander-in-Chief of the revolutionary forces, met with Alexandre Pétion in Haut-du-Cap to plan further military action.
1 NovemberCommander of the French forces General Leclerc died of yellow fever. He was succeeded by Donatien-Marie-Joseph de Vimeur, vicomte de Rochambeau.
18037 AprilToussaint died in the French prison of Fort de Joux.
18 MayThe flag of Haiti was created during a meeting between Dessalines and Pétion in l'Arcahaie and sewn by Catherine Flon.
18 November Battle of Vertières : During the last major battle of the revolution, Haitian forces under Dessalines and Pétion defeated the French.
19 NovemberFrench general Rochambeau signs a document of surrender and agrees to evacuate French troops from Saint-Domingue; Rochambeau is later given as a prisoner to the British
29 NovemberDessalines' army arrives in Cap-Français; Christophe and Clerveaux issue a preliminary declaration of independence
4 DecemberFrench forces surrender Môle Saint-Nicolas to Dessalines' army, officially ending French presence on the island
18041 JanuaryDessalines, in Gonaïves, declares Haiti an independent nation and becomes Governor-General
FebruaryOn the order of Dessalines, the 1804 Haiti Massacre eradicates the white minority of Haiti; the massacre is finally stopped 22 April.
22 SeptemberDessalines proclaims himself Emperor of Haiti
6 OctoberDessalines becomes Emperor Jacques I in a coronation ceremony at Cap-Français
180520 MayDessalines formulates the first constitution of Haiti as an independent country, the Imperial Constitution of 1805
180617 OctoberDessalines is assassinated at Pont-Rouge by disaffected leaders of his administration
27 DecemberDuring a meeting at a cathedral in Port-au-Prince, the Constituent Assembly creates a new constitution and appoints Henri Christophe to a four-year term as President of the Republic of Haiti
18071 JanuaryThe Battle of Sibert ends with the division of Haiti into the southern Republic of Haiti under Alexandre Pétion and the northern State of Haiti under Christophe
17 FebruaryHenri Christophe names himself President of the State of Haiti; a state council (7 generals and 2 civilians) appointed by Christophe meets in Cap-Haïtien and votes the Constitutional Act of Haiti
9 MarchPétion is elected President of the Republic of Haiti by the Constituent Assembly under the Constitution of 1806
1809Napoleon sends a delegation to negotiate France's recognition of Haitian independence; Pétion meets with a French delegate, Dauxion-Lavaysse, and agrees to an indemnity payable to dispossessed French planters
18119 MarchPétion is elected to a second four-year term as President of the Republic of Haiti
26 MarchChristophe proclaims himself King Henri I of the northern Haitian state, now known as the Kingdom of Haiti
28 MayThe Kingdom of Haiti promulgates the Royal Constitution of Henri I
2 JuneChristophe is crowned as King Henri I in Cap-Haïtien
181224 FebruaryThe Kingdom of Haiti establishes a civil code, the Henri Code
1814NovemberChristophe refuses to negotiate with French delegate Franco de Medina concerning France's recognition of Haitian independence
18162 JunePétion promulgates the Republican Constitution
8 OctoberLouis XVIII of France sends another delegation to negotiate France's recognition of Haitian independence; Pétion cuts off negotiation, Christophe declines to meet the delegates
181829 MarchPétion, President of the Republic of Haiti, dies of fever
30 March Jean-Pierre Boyer, Chief of the Presidential Guard, is appointed President-for-Life of the Republic of Haiti
18208 OctoberChristophe, King of the northern Haitian state, commits suicide
26 OctoberBoyer promulgates the Republican Constitution in Christophe's northern state; northern and southern Haiti are unified
18229 FebruaryBoyer arrives in Santo Domingo and declares control over the entire island of Hispaniola
182517 AprilKing Charles X of France signs an ordinance which conditionally recognizes the independence of Haiti and imposes a 150 million franc indemnity on the Haitian government
3 JulyA squadron of French ships arrives in Haiti to deliver the news of Charles X's ordinance of 17 April to President Boyer
183122 SeptemberThe city of Pétion-Ville, a suburb of Port-au-Prince named for Alexandre Pétion, is founded by Boyer
1838Haiti's remaining debt to France, 120 million francs, is reduced to 60 million francs
18427 May An earthquake strikes northern Haiti, destroying the city of Cap-Haïtien
184313 MarchPresident Boyer is overthrown and flees to Paris in exile
18 SeptemberThe Constituent Assembly begins formulating the Constitution of 1843; it will take more than three months to finish
31 DecemberThe Constitution of 1843 is released and Charles Riviere-Hérard is appointed President of Haiti
184428 FebruaryThe Dominican Republic declares its independence from Haiti
4 AprilThe Piquets , peasants of southern Haiti led by Jean-Jacques Acaau, revolt against the government
3 MayThe Piquets force Riviere-Hérard into exile; Philippe Guerrier is appointed President of Haiti
184515 AprilPresident Guerrier dies in office; the State Council appoints Jean-Louis Pierrot President of Haiti
18461 MarchPresident Pierrot is overthrown; Jean-Baptiste Riché becomes President of Haiti
1847Haitian historian Thomas Madiou publishes the first volume of his seminal work Histoire d'Haïti ("History of Haiti")
27 FebruaryPresident Riché dies in office
1 March Faustin Élie Soulouque is elected President of Haiti
185218 AprilPresident Faustin Soulouque is crowned Emperor Faustin I of Haiti
1858DecemberForces led by Fabre Geffrard defeat Emperor Faustin's Imperial Army
185913 JanuaryFabre Geffrard is elected President of Haiti
186028 MarchHaiti and the Vatican sign an agreement which divides Haiti into five dioceses
1862The United States recognizes Haiti
15 December Rhum Barbancourt is first produced
1865 Céligny Ardouin's eleven-volume work on the history of Haiti, Essais sur l'Histoire d'Haïti, is published
1867President Geffrard is forced to flee the country
Sylvain Salnave is elected President of Haiti
The Constitution of 1867 is voted
1869The National Assembly elects Nissage Saget to a four-year term as President of Haiti after the overthrow of Salnave
1870Haitian writer Demesvar Delorme publishes the essay "Les Théoriciens au Pouvoir", which maintains that political power should be in the hands of the intellectual elite
1874Saget relinquishes the Presidency; the Constituent Assembly elects Michel Domingue as President
President Domingue promulgates the Constitution of 1874
1875President Domingue signs a treaty of peace and friendship with the Dominican Republic
1876President Domingue is overthrown; the Constituent Assembly elects Pierre Théoma Boisrond-Canal to a four-year term as President
1879The Constituent Assembly elects Lysius Salomon as president; President Salomon would institute many reforms and pay off Haiti's remaining debt to France for independence
1880The National Bank of Haiti (or Haitian Central Bank) is founded by President Salomon
1882Port-au-Prince and Haiti are dedicated to Our Lady of Perpetual Help during a mass in Bel Air
1883Haitian poet Oswald Durand composes his most famous work, "Choucoune"
1884Haitian writer Louis-Joseph Janvier publishes the article "L'Egalité des Races", which proclaims the equality of the races
1885Haitian writer Anténor Firmin publishes the book De l'Égalité des Races Humaines, which proclaims the equality of the races
1888President Salomon is overthrown; the Constituent Assembly installs a provisional government
The Constituent Assembly elects François Denys Légitime to the presidency
1889President Légitime is overthrown; the Constituent Assembly installs a provisional government
The Constituent Assembly elects Florvil Hyppolite to a seven-year term as president
1893Haitian writer Hannibal Price publishes De la Réhabilitation de la Race Noire par la République d'Haïti ("On the Rehabilitation of the Black Race by the Republic of Haiti") in response to Spenser St. John's Hayti or the Black Republic
1896President Hyppolite dies of a heart attack; Tirésias Simon Sam is elected to a seven-year term as president

20th century

1902President Simon Sam resigns; Pierre Nord Alexis becomes president
19041 JanuaryHaiti celebrates 100 years of independence
The Haitian Football Federation is created
1908Pierre Nord Alexis withdraws from the presidency; the Constituent Assembly appoints François C. Antoine Simon president
1911President Antoine Simon cedes the presidency to Cincinnatus Leconte
19125 AugustThe Haitian American Sugar Company is founded
8 AugustPresident Leconte and 300 soldiers are killed in an explosion at the National Palace; the Constituent Assembly appoints Tancrède Auguste president
1913President Auguste dies during a visit to northern Haiti
Senator Michel Oreste is elected president by the Constituent Assembly
1914President Oreste is overthrown and succeeded by Oreste Zamor
President Zamor is overthrown and lost by Joseph Davilmar Théodore
1915President Théodore resigns and is succeeded by Vilbrun Guillaume Sam. Sam executed 167 political prisoners (including the previous president, Zamor) who were being held in the Port-au-Prince jail. President Sam sought refuge in the French Embassy. He was found by mulatto leaders, dragged out to the street, murdered and cut into small pieces. The parts were paraded throughout the capital.
28 JulyThree thousand United States Marines, led by Admiral William B. Caperton, enter Port-au-Prince; beginning of the 19-year United States occupation of Haiti
12 AugustSenator Philippe Sudré Dartiguenave is elected by the Constituent Assembly to a seven-year term as president
191912 AprilThe Haitian government undertakes a monetary reform with the National Bank of Haiti
31 October Charlemagne Péralte, leader of the resistance against U.S. occupation, is assassinated
1920Haitian writer Leon Laleau publishes his first compilation of poems, A Voix Basse
192124 JanuaryPresident Dartiguenave addresses United States President Warren G. Harding concerning the needs of the Haitian people
12 AprilUnited States President Harding responds to President Dartiguenave
192210 April Louis Bornó is elected to a four-year term as president by the State Council
15 MayPresident Dartiguenave's term ends; Louis Bornó is sworn into office
28 DecemberThe Central School of Agriculture ( Ecole Centrale d'Agriculture ) is founded in Damien
1926President Bornó is re-elected by the State Council and makes a diplomatic trip to the United States
Haitian writer Leon Laleau publishes his second compilation of poems, La Flèche au Cœur
1928Haitian writer Jean Price-Mars publishes his acclaimed novel Ainsi Parla l'Oncle ("So spoke the Uncle")
Leon Laleau publishes two more compilations of poems, Le Rayon des Jupes and Abréviations
192921 JanuaryHaiti and the Dominican Republic sign an agreement settling the border between the two countries
193028 FebruaryThe Forbes Commission, sent by U.S. president Herbert Hoover to investigate Haiti's political situation, arrives in the country
21 April Louis Eugène Roy is designated temporary president by state decree
18 NovemberSenator Sténio Vincent is elected to a six-year term as president
10 December Fietta, the first Apostolic Nuncio (diplomatic representative of the Roman Catholic Church) to Haiti, arrives in Port-au-Prince
1931 Jacques Roumain publishes his acclaimed novel Gouverneurs de la Rosée ("Masters of the Dew")
5 AugustThe U.S. agrees to hand over control of the Offices of Public Works, Health, Agriculture and Education to the Haitian government
15 DecemberThe ceremony commemorating the fiftieth anniversary of the dedication of Port-au-Prince to the Virgin Mary, led by Archbishop Joseph Legouaze, began.
17 DecemberThe anniversary ceremony ended.
19337 AugustThe governments of Haiti and the United States sign an agreement on the withdrawal of U.S. troops from the country and the end of the U.S. occupation
18 OctoberPresident Vincent of Haiti and President Rafael Leónidas Trujillo of the Dominican Republic meet for diplomatic talks in Ouanaminthe in northeastern Haiti, near the Dominican border
19345 JulyPresident of the United States Franklin D. Roosevelt visits Cap-Haïtien
14 AugustLast American forces withdraw from Haiti, ending the U.S. occupation
21 AugustThe flag of Haiti is raised at Casernes Dessalines, where it was lowered nineteen years earlier at the start of the U.S. occupation
193516 MayA new constitution is released, reinforcing the authority of the executive branch of government and renewing President Sténio Vincent's mandate for five more years
1937Between 20,000 and 35,000 Haitians living in the Dominican Republic are massacred by the Dominican armed forces on the orders of President Rafael Trujillo.
193818 MayThe 135th anniversary of the flag of Haiti is celebrated with athletic festivities at the Champs-de-Mars in Port-au-Prince
1940Haiti's national library, the Bibliothèque Nationale d'Haïti is organized
194114 April Élie Lescot is elected to a five-year term as president
15 MayPresident Vincent's term ends; Élie Lescot takes office
19447 MayThe Cathedral of Cap-Haïtien is consecrated after 100 years of restoration work
14 MayThe Centre d'Art is founded; it exhibits important Haitian art works
1946A military coup forces President Lescot to resign; the newly created Executive Military Committee appoints Dumarsais Estimé president and the 8.1 Ms Dominican Republic earthquake.
194816 FebruaryThe government-owned tobacco company Régie du Tabac et des Allumettes is founded
19498 DecemberThe bicentennial of Port-au-Prince's founding is celebrated; a World's Fair, the Exposition internationale du bicentenaire de Port-au-Prince, is held
195010 MayDumarsais Estimé relinquishes the presidency and is replaced by a provisional government
8 OctoberPresidential and legislative elections are held; Colonel Paul Magloire becomes the first president of Haiti to be elected directly by the people, the Delegates, and the Senators
6 DecemberPaul Magloire is sworn in as president
1951President Magloire of Haiti and President Trujillo of the Dominican Republic meet for diplomatic talks
The Haitian Institute of Statistics ( Institut Haïtien de Statistique ) and the Haitian Institute of Farming and Industrial Credit ( Institut Haïtien de Crédit Agricole et Industriel ) are established by the government
195331 MayFather Rémy Augustin, the first native Haitian bishop, is consecrated at the Cathedral of Port-au-Prince
19541 JanuaryA celebration commemorating the 150th anniversary of Haiti's independence from France, during which monuments to the "heroes of independence" are inaugurated in Port-au-Prince, began.
4 JanuaryThe celebration ended.
8 OctoberHurricane Hazel kills an estimated 1,000 Haitians and decimates the coffee and cocoa crops, affecting the economy for years to come.
195526 JanuaryPresident Magloire and his wife began a trip to the United States, Canada, and Jamaica.
17 FebruaryMagloire's trip ended.
3 MarchVice-president of the United States Richard Nixon and his wife began a visit to Haiti.
5 MarchNixon's trip ended.
1956President Magloire relinquishes the presidency; President of the Supreme Court Joseph Nemours Pierre-Louis becomes provisional president of Haiti
1957 Franck Sylvain is elected President of Haiti, but is succeeded by a thirteen-member Executive Council of Government
Daniel Fignolé is elected President of Haiti, but is replaced by a Military Council of Government
22 OctoberDr. François "Papa Doc" Duvalier is elected President of Haiti
1958Duvalier began to attack his opponents violently, driving many of them into exile.
1964Duvalier's reign of terror ended.
The National Assembly votes to accept the Duvalieriste Constitution, establishing Duvalier as President for Life of Haiti
196828 October François Wolf Ligondé, the first Haitian archbishop, is consecrated at the Cathedral of Port-au-Prince
1970Thousands of Haitians began to flee poverty and repression in Haiti by boat, often arriving in south Florida.
1971FebruaryThe National Assembly approves an amendment to the constitution, allowing President For Life Duvalier to name his son, Jean-Claude Duvalier, as his successor
21 AprilPresident for Life François Duvalier dies in Port-au-Prince
22 AprilJean-Claude "Baby Doc" Duvalier succeeds his father as president for Life
1974The Haiti national football team participates in the FIFA World Cup for the first time
197715 AugustThe U.S. ambassador to the United Nations commission arrives in Haiti; the commission meets with the Haitian government to discuss civil rights in Haiti
198027 MayPresident for Life Jean-Claude Duvalier marries Michèle Bennett
1983March Pope John Paul II arrives in Haiti, becoming the first Pope to visit the country
27 AugustThe constitution is amended, creating the post of State Minister and allowing the President to name his successor
19856 JunePresident for Life Duvalier amends the constitution to allow the creation of the post of Prime Minister of Haiti
JulyA referendum is approved by 99.48% of voters, allowing political parties to participate in the government and recognizing the Presidency for Life of Jean-Claude Duvalier
JulyA constitutional amendment on the Presidency for Life is passed
28 NovemberThree schoolboys (Jean-Robert Cius, Daniel Israël, and Mackenson Michel) are killed during an anti-government demonstration in Gonaïves
198631 JanuaryRumors spread through Port-au-Prince that President Duvalier has fled the country
3 FebruaryPresident Duvalier and members of his cabinet visit commercial and residential areas of Port-au-Prince as a show of power
7 FebruaryPresident Jean-Claude Duvalier flees Haiti for Talloires, France; the National Council of Government ( Conseil National de Gouvernement , CNG) is established, led by General Henri Namphy; the Legislative Chamber and Duvalier's armed forces, Volontaire Sécurité Nationale , are dissolved
25 FebruaryThe original blue and red flag of Haiti is raised at the National Palace, replacing the black and red flag of the Duvalier regime
MarchFormer President of Haiti Daniel Fignolé returns to Haiti; a second version of the CNG is formed, consisting of Henri Namphy, Williams Régala, and Jacques François
20 MarchMore than two thousand students and public transportation drivers of Carrefour demonstrate against the CNG
26 AprilEight people are killed in an attack by armed groups on Fort-Dimanche
19 OctoberForty-one people are elected to a constituent assembly to draft a new constitution, the CNG appoints twenty more constituents for a total of sixty-one
198710 MarchThe constituent assembly presents the new constitution, written in both French and Haitian Creole, to President of the CNG Henri Namphy
29 MarchThe new constitution is ratified by referendum; the results of 215 voting places show an approximately 99.81% approval rate
13 MayThe CNG publishes a decree electing the members of the Provisional Electoral Council ( Conseil Electoral Provisoire , CEP)
22 MayThe CEP proclaims itself independent from the CNG
5 JuneThe CEP delivers the text of the electoral law to the Minister of Justice
JulyLarge landowners ( grandons ) massacre hundreds of peasants demanding land in Jean-Rabel
17 JulyDuring a ceremony at the Military Academy, the Armed Forces of Haiti swear allegiance to the new 1987 constitution
29 NovemberAt the Haitian presidential election, 1987 a massacre of voters takes place; the elections are suspended and General Namphy dissolves the CEP
10 DecemberGeneral Namphy sets 17 January 1988 as the new election date; the CNG elects a new Provisional Electoral Council (Conseil Electoral Provisoire, CEP)
1988JanuaryChristian Democrat Leslie Manigat is elected in military-run elections boycotted by the Haitian people and most candidates. In June he is overthrown in a military coup by Gen. Henri Namphy. In September, shortly after the St Jean Bosco massacre, Namphy is overthrown by Gen. Prosper Avril.
1990JanuaryPresident/General Prosper Avril declares a state of siege in January.
MarchRising protests convince Avril to resign. A Provisional Government led by Supreme Court Justice Ertha Pascal-Trouillot is formed.
16 DecemberDemocratic elections take place. Father Jean-Bertrand Aristide, well known throughout the country for his support of the poor, is elected president with 67.5% of the counted popular vote. The "U.S. favorite" Marc Bazin finishes a distant second with 14.2% .
1991JanuaryA coup by former Tonton Macoutes head Roger Lafontant is foiled after tens of thousands pour into the streets of the capital, surrounding the National Palace.
7 FebruaryAristide is sworn in as president.
30 SeptemberA military coup deposes Aristide, who goes into exile first in Venezuela, then in the United States.
Thousands of Haitians begin to flee violence and repression in Haiti by boat. Although most are repatriated to Haiti by the U.S. government, many enter the United States as refugees.
1994SeptemberThe de facto military government resigns at the request of the United States in September, which then sends in troops to occupy Haiti. This occupation is sanctioned by the United Nations.
15 OctoberThe U.S. returns Aristide as president.
1995The U.S. nominally hands over military authority to the United Nations but maintains effective control of the occupation. Aristide dissolves the Haitian army.
DecemberFormer prime minister René Préval is elected president.
19967 FebruaryAristide leaves office and is succeeded by René Préval.
2000MayLegislative, municipal and local elections are held. The OAS disputes how the sovereign electoral council calculates the run-offs for eight Senate seats.
NovemberAristide is reelected for a second five-year term with 92% of the vote in elections boycotted by the opposition. The last UN peacekeeping forces withdraw from Haiti.

21st century

2001Aristide succeeds Préval for a second five-year term. For the next two years, and with Washington's support, Aristide's opponents use the OAS challenge to the 2000 elections to increase economic and political instability. Former Haitian soldiers carry out guerrilla attacks, primarily along the Dominican border and in the capital.
2004Haiti's 200th anniversary of independence.
4 FebruaryA revolt breaks out in the city of Gonaïves, with a local militia hostile to Aristide capturing the city and driving out the police force.
22 FebruaryRebels capture Haiti's second-largest city, Cap-Haïtien, after just a few hours of fighting, claiming their biggest prize in a two-week uprising that has driven government forces from most of the country's north.
29 FebruaryAristide resigns from office and flees Haiti aboard a U.S. military aircraft to South Africa. Boniface Alexandre is inaugurated as interim president. Aristide later claims that he was forced from office and kidnapped by the U.S. government.
MarchUN Resolution 1529 authorizes a three-month multinational interim peacekeeping force. It consists of troops from France, Canada, Chile and the U.S.
September Hurricane Jeanne kills over 1,900 people.
2006February René Préval is elected president, defeating U.S.-backed and other candidates in an election overseen by U.N. peacekeepers
2008AprilRiots break out in Les Cayes and Port-au-Prince over high food prices, forcing the ouster of Prime Minister Jacques Edouard Alexis.
August Tropical Storm Fay, Hurricane Gustav, Tropical Storm Hanna and Hurricane Ike strike within a month, leaving nearly 800 people dead and wiping out a quarter of the economy. (to September)
NovemberThe Pétion-Ville school collapse and the Grace Divine School collapse.
2009MayFormer U.S. President Bill Clinton is appointed U.N. special envoy to Haiti. He is tasked with reinvigorating the country's moribund economy after the 2008 storms.
201012 JanuaryA major earthquake, 7.0 on the moment magnitude scale, kills over 230,000 and causes massive damage to buildings and infrastructure in Port-au-Prince.
20164 October Hurricane Matthew makes landfall on the peninsula of the nation as a category 4, killing over 700 (although estimates place the toll at ~1,600) and causing massive damage in its wake
202114 August 2021 Haiti earthquake causes widespread damage as of 15 August 2021, 304 people are reported dead and another 1.800 injured.

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Haiti</span> Country in the Caribbean

Haiti, officially the Republic of Haiti, is a country on the island of Hispaniola in the Caribbean Sea, east of Cuba and Jamaica, and south of The Bahamas. It occupies the western three-eighths of the island which it shares with the Dominican Republic. Haiti is 27,750 km2 (10,714 sq mi), the third largest country in the Caribbean, and has an estimated population of 11.4 million, making it the most populous Caribbean country. The capital is Port-au-Prince.

The recorded history of Haiti began in 1492, when the European captain and explorer Christopher Columbus landed on a large island in the region of the western Atlantic Ocean that later came to be known as the Caribbean. The western portion of the island of Hispaniola, where Haiti is situated, was inhabited by the Taíno and Arawakan people, who called their island Ayiti. The island was promptly claimed for the Spanish Crown, where it was named La Isla Española, later Latinized to Hispaniola. By the early 17th century, the French had built a settlement on the west of Hispaniola and called it Saint-Domingue. Prior to the Seven Years' War (1756–1763), the economy of Saint-Domingue gradually expanded, with sugar and, later, coffee becoming important export crops. After the war which had disrupted maritime commerce, the colony underwent rapid expansion. In 1767, it exported indigo, cotton and 72 million pounds of raw sugar. By the end of the century, the colony encompassed a third of the entire Atlantic slave trade.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Port-au-Prince</span> Capital of Haiti

Port-au-Prince is the capital and most populous city of Haiti. The city's population was estimated at 1,200,000 in 2022 with the metropolitan area estimated at a population of 2,618,894. The metropolitan area is defined by the IHSI as including the communes of Port-au-Prince, Delmas, Cite Soleil, Tabarre, Carrefour, and Pétion-Ville.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Timeline of Chinese history</span>

This is a timeline of Chinese history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in China and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of China. See also the list of Chinese monarchs, Chinese emperors family tree, dynasties of China and years in China.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">La Dessalinienne</span> National anthem of Haiti

"La Dessalinienne" is the national anthem of Haiti. This march was written by Justin Lhérisson and composed by Nicolas Geffrard.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">United States occupation of Haiti</span> 1915–1934 military occupation

The United States occupation of Haiti began on July 28, 1915, when 330 U.S. Marines landed at Port-au-Prince, Haiti, after the National City Bank of New York convinced the President of the United States, Woodrow Wilson, to take control of Haiti's political and financial interests. The July 1915 invasion took place following years of socioeconomic instability within Haiti that culminated with the lynching of President of Haiti Vilbrun Guillaume Sam by a mob angered by his decision to order the executions of political prisoners. The invasion and subsequent occupation was promoted by growing American business interests in Haiti, especially the National City Bank of New York, which had withheld funds from Haiti and paid rebels to destabilize the nation through the Bank of the Republic of Haiti with an aim at inducing American intervention.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Operation Uphold Democracy</span> International military intervention in Haiti following the 1991 coup detat

Operation Uphold Democracy was a multinational military intervention designed to remove the military regime led and installed by Raoul Cédras after the 1991 Haitian coup d'état overthrew the elected President Jean-Bertrand Aristide. The operation was effectively authorized by the 31 July 1994 United Nations Security Council Resolution 940.

This is a timeline of Australian history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Australia and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see history of Australia. See also the list of prime ministers of Australia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Haitian Revolution</span> 1791–1804 slave revolt in Saint-Domingue

The Haitian Revolution was a successful insurrection by self-liberated slaves against French colonial rule in Saint-Domingue, now the sovereign state of Haiti.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Paul Magloire</span> President of Haiti (1950–1956)

Paul Eugène Magloire, nicknamed Kanson Fè, was the Haitian president from 1950 to 1956.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Timeline of Russian history</span> Timeline of notable events in the history of Russia and its predecessor states

This is a timeline of Russian history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Russia and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Russia. See also the list of leaders of Russia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Outline of Haiti</span> Overview of and topical guide to Haiti

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Haiti:

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Index of Haiti-related articles</span>

The following is an alphabetical list of topics related to Haiti.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Religion in Haiti</span>

Haiti is a majority Christian country. For much of its history and up to the present day, Haiti has been prevailingly a Christian country, primarily Roman Catholic, although in practice often profoundly modified and influenced through syncretism. A common syncretic religion is Vodou, which combined the Yoruba religion of enslaved Africans with Catholicism and some Native American strands; it shows similarities, and shares many deity-saints, with Cuban Santería and Brazilian Candomblé. The constitution of Haiti establishes the freedom of religion and does not establish a state religion, although the Catholic Church receives some preferential treatment.

Tourism in Haiti is an industry that generated just under a million arrivals in 2012, and is typically one of the main sources of revenue for the nation. With its favorable climate, second-longest coastline of beaches, and most mountainous ranges in the Caribbean, waterfalls, caves, colonial architecture and distinct cultural history, Haiti has had its history as an attractive destination for tourists. However, unstable governments have long contested its history and the country's economic development throughout the 20th century.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2010 Haiti earthquake</span> Magnitude 7.0 Mw earthquake

The 2010 Haiti earthquake was a catastrophic magnitude 7.0 Mw earthquake that struck Haiti at 16:53 local time on Tuesday, 12 January 2010. The epicenter was near the town of Léogâne, Ouest department, approximately 25 kilometres (16 mi) west of Port-au-Prince, Haiti's capital.

"Stranded (Haiti Mon Amour)" is a song recorded by Jay-Z, Bono, The Edge and Rihanna for Hope for Haiti Now, a live album by various artists to benefit the campaign of the same name to alleviate the 2010 Haiti earthquake. The song was written by Jay-Z, The Edge and Bono and produced by Swizz Beatz.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">History of rail transport in Haiti</span> Rail services that existed between 1876 and the 1970s

There are currently no functioning railways in Haiti, and there have never been any rail connections with the neighbouring Dominican Republic. However, between 1876 and the 1970s, various tramways and railways ran in the country. A tram network operated in the capital, Port-au-Prince, between 1897 and 1932. Three railway lines, along with some industrial lines, constituted the Haitian national rail network. The first horse drawn street tramway opened in 1876, with rural railways constructed later.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1804 Haitian massacre</span> Massacre of the White French people in Haiti by Black Haitians following the Haitian Revolution

The 1804 Haiti massacre, sometimes referred to as the Haitian genocide, was carried out by Afro-Haitian soldiers, mostly former slaves, under orders from Jean-Jacques Dessalines against much of the remaining European population in Haiti, which mainly included French people. The Haitian Revolution defeated the French army in November 1803 and the Haitian Declaration of Independence happened on 1 January 1804. From February 1804 until 22 April 1804, squads of soldiers moved from house to house throughout Haiti, torturing and killing entire families. Between 3,000 and 5,000 people were killed.