Timeline of LGBT history

Last updated
Rainbow flags in the Netherlands where Queen Beatrix signed a law to make it the first country to legalize same-sex marriage. Coming-Out Day 2020 in The Hague - Rainbow flags at Hofvijver next to the national parlement of the Netherlands - img 07.jpg
Rainbow flags in the Netherlands where Queen Beatrix signed a law to make it the first country to legalize same-sex marriage.

The following is the timeline of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) history.


Before the Common Era

9th millennium BCE – 3rd millennium BCE

101th century BCE – 50th century BCE

  • c. 9,600 BCE – c, 5,000 BCE Mesolithic rock art in Sicily depicts phallic male figures in pairs that have been interpreted variously, including as hunters, acrobats, religious initiates, and depictions of male homosexual intercourse. [2] [3]

70th century BCE – 17th century BCE

  • c. 7,000 BCE –1700 BCE – Among the sexual depictions in Neolithic and Bronze Age drawings and figurines from the Mediterranean area, as one author describes it, a "third sex" human figure having female breasts and male genitals or without distinguishing sex characteristics. In Neolithic Italy, female images are found in a domestic context, while images that combine sexual characteristics appear in burials or religious settings. In Neolithic Greece and Cyprus, figures are often dual-sexed or without identifying sexual characteristics. [4]

3rd millennium BCE

29th century BCE – 25th century BCE

  • c. 2900 BCE – c. 2500 BCE – A burial of a suburb of Prague, Czech Republic, a male is buried in the outfit usually reserved for women. Archaeologists speculate that the burial corresponds to a transgender person or someone of the third sex. [5]

24th century BCE

23rd century BCE or 23rd century BCE – 22nd century BCE

2nd millennium BCE

18th century BCE

15th century BCE – 12th century BCE

"If a man tells another man, either privately or in a brawl, "Your wife is promiscuous; I will bring charges against her myself," but he is unable to substantiate the charge, and cannot prove it, he is to be caned, be sentenced to a month's hard labor for the king, be cut off, and pay one talent of lead."

Code of Assura , §18

"If a man has secretly started a rumor about his neighbor saying, "He has allowed men to have sex with him," or in a quarrel has told him in the presence of others, "Men have sex with you," and then, "I will bring charges against you myself," but is then unable to substantiate the charge, and cannot prove it, that man is to be caned, be sentenced to a month's hard labor for the king, be cut off, and pay one talent of lead."

Code of Assura , §19

"If a man has had sex with his neighbor he has been charged and convicted, he is to be considered defiled and made into a eunuch."

Code of Assura , §20

"If a man violates his own mother, it is a capital crime. If a man violates his daughter, it is a capital crime. If a man violates his son, it is capital crime."

Code of Assura , §189

1st millennium BCE

10th century BCE – 6th century BCE

  • c. 1000 BCE – c. 500 BCE – The Vendidad dates from this period [20] [21] and within the text it states the following:

"Ahura Mazda answered: 'The man that lies with mankind as man lies with womankind, or as woman lies with mankind, is the man that is a Daeva; this one is the man that is a worshipper of the Daevas, that is a male paramour of the Daevas, that is a female paramour of the Daevas, that is a wife to the Daeva; this is the man that is as bad as a Daeva, that is in his whole being a Daeva; this is the man that is a Daeva before he dies, and becomes one of the unseen Daevas after death: so is he, whether he has lain with mankind as mankind, or as womankind." [22]

Avesta , Vendidad , Fargard 8. Funerals and purification, unlawful sex, Section V (32) Unlawful lusts.

The guilty may be killed by any one, without an order from the Dastur, and by this execution an ordinary capital crime may be redeemed. [22]

7th century BCE

  • c. 700 BCE – The custom of castrating homosexual (and straight) slaves and house servants is introduced into Anshan from conquered territories of the Neo-Assyrian Empire and the Median Empire. [23]
  • c. 630 BCE Dorian aristocrats in Crete adopt formal relations between adult aristocrats and adolescent boys; an inscription from Crete is the oldest record of the social institution of paiderastia among the Greeks [24] (see Cretan pederasty). Marriage between men in Greece was not legally recognized, but men might form lifelong relationships originating in paiderastia ("pederasty," without the pejorative connotations of the English word). These partnerships were not dissimilar to heterosexual marriages except that the older person served as educator or mentor. [25]
  • Sappho, a Greek lyric poet born on the island of Lesbos, was born between 630 and 612 BCE, and died around 570 BCE. The Alexandrians included her in the list of nine lyric poets. She was famous for her lesbian themes, giving her name and that of her homeland to the very definition of lesbianism (and the lesser used term of "sapphism"). She was exiled c. 600 BCE unrelated to lesbianism. She was later permitted to return.

6th century BCE

  • 534 – 492 BCE Duke Ling of Wey and Mizi Xia had a loving same-sex relationship, where various plays and stories have commemorated their love story in the phrase, "the bitten peach". [26]
  • c. 540 – 530 BCE – Wall paintings from the Etruscan Tomb of the Bulls (Italian: Tomba dei Tori), found in 1892 in the Monterozzi necropolis, Tarquinia, depict homosexual intercourse. The tomb is named for the pair of bulls who watch human sex scenes, one between a man and a woman, and the other between two men; these may be apotropaic, or embody aspects of the cycle of regeneration and the afterlife. The three-chamber tomb was inscribed with the name of the deceased for whom it was originally built, Aranth Spurianas or Arath Spuriana, and also depicts Achilles killing the Trojan prince Troilus, along with indications of Apollo cult. [27]
  • 521 BCE – The Achaemenid Empire crucifies Polycrates and suppresses pederasty in Samos, which causes pederastic poets Ibycus and Anacreon to flee Samos. [28] [29]

6th century BCE – 4th century

  • c. 538 – 330 BCE – The Book of Leviticus is written during this period and within the text it states the following:

"You shall not lie with a male as with a woman; it is an abomination." [30]

Torah / Bible, Book of Leviticus, Chapter 18, Verses 22

"If a man lies with a male as with a woman, both of them have committed an abomination; they shall be put to death; their blood is upon them." [31]

Torah / Bible, Book of Leviticus, Chapter 20, Verses 13

5th century BCE

4th century BCE

  • 385 BCE – Plato publishes Symposium in which Phaedrus, Eryximachus, Aristophanes and other Greek intellectuals argue that love between males is the highest form, while sex with women is lustful and utilitarian. [34] Socrates, however, differs. [35] He demonstrates extreme self-control when seduced by the beautiful Alcibiades. [36]
  • 350 BCE – Plato publishes Laws in which the Athenian stranger and his companions criticize homosexuality as being lustful and wrong for society because it does not further the species and may lead to irresponsible citizenry. [37]
  • 346 BCE - Aeschines' speech Against Timarchus, who was on trial for male prostitution, reveals Athenian attitudes to homosexuality. [38]
  • 338 BCE – The Sacred Band of Thebes, a previously undefeated elite battalion made up of one hundred and fifty pederastic couples, is destroyed by the forces of Philip II of Macedon who bemoans their loss and praises their honour. [39]
  • 330 BCE Bagoas, favorite catamite to King Darius III, becomes catamite to King Alexander III of Macedon. [23] [40]

3rd or 2nd century BCE

1st century BCE

  • c. 90s – 80s BCE Quintus Lutatius Catulus was among a circle of poets who made short, light Hellenistic poems fashionable in the late Republic. Both his surviving epigrams address a male as an object of desire, signaling a new homoerotic aesthetic in Roman culture. [43]
  • 57 – 54 BCE Catullus writes the Carmina, including love poems to Juventius, boasting of sexual prowess with youth and violent invectives against "passive" homosexuals.
  • c. 50 BCE – The Lex Julia de vi publica , a Roman Republic law, was passed to define rape as forced sex against "boy, woman, or anyone" and the rapist was subject to execution. Men who had been raped were exempt from the loss of legal or social standing suffered by those who submitted their bodies to use for the pleasure of others; a male prostitute or entertainer was infamis and excluded from the legal protections extended to citizens in good standing. As a matter of law, a slave could not be raped; he was considered property and not legally a person. The slave's owner, however, could prosecute the rapist for property damage. [44] [45] [46] [43]
  • 46 BCE Lucius Antonius, the brother of Mark Antony, accuses Gaius Octavius for having "given himself to Aulus Hirtius in Spain for three hundred thousand sesterces." [47]
  • 44 BCE – After the assassination of Dictator and Consul Gaius Julius Caesar, Gaius Octavius is publicly named in Caesar's will as his adopted son and heir. According to Mark Antony, he charged that Octavius had earned his adoption by Caesar through sexual favors. [47]
  • 42 – 39 BCE Virgil writes the Eclogues , with Eclogue 2 a notable example of homoerotic Latin literature.
  • 27 BCE – The Roman Empire is established under the rule of Augustus. The first recorded same-sex marriage occurs during his reign, homosexual prostitution is taxed, and if someone is caught being sexually passive with another male, a Roman citizen could lose his citizenship. [48]
  • 26, 25 and 18 BCE Tibullus writes his elegies, with references to homosexuality.
  • 7 – 1 BCE Emperor Ai of Han had a loving same-sex relationship with Dong Xian. In one historical record, Emperor Ai cut his own sleeves to not wake up his beloved Dong Xian. [49]

Common Era

1st millennium

1st century

  • Philo of Alexandria and Marcus Manilius provided descriptions of transgender people during the early Roman Empire. Philo stated: "Expending every possible care on their outward adornment, they are not ashamed even to employ every device to change artificially their nature as men into women". [50] [51] He also attested that some members of this group, to that end, had their penises removed. [51]
  • 5 –15 CE – The Warren Cup is made – a Roman silver drinking cup decorated in relief with two images of male same-sex acts.
Wall painting of female couple from the Suburban Baths at Pompeii Pompeii - Terme Suburbane - Apodyterium - Scene V.jpg
Wall painting of female couple from the Suburban Baths at Pompeii
Publius Cornelius Tacitus writes Germania . In Germania, Tacitus writes that the punishment for those who engage in "bodily infamy" among the Germanic peoples is to "smother in mud and bogs under an heap of hurdles." Tacitus also writes in Germania that the Germanic warrior-chieftains and their retinues would "in times of peace, beauty, and in times of war, a defense". Tacitus later wrote in Germania that priests of the Swabian sub-tribe, the Naharvali [55] or Nahanarvali, who "dress as women" to perform their priestly duties. [56]

2nd century

  • c. 200 – The Outlines of Pyrrhonism is published. In the book, Sextus Empiricus states that "amongst the Persians it is the habit to indulge in intercourse with males, but amongst the Romans it is forbidden by law to do so". He also stated in the book that "amongst us sodomy is regarded as shameful or rather illegal, but by the Germanic they say, it is not looked on as shameful but as a customary thing. It is said, too, that in Thebes long ago this practice was not held to be shameful, and they say that Meriones the Cretan was so called by way of indicating the Cretans' customed and some refer to this the burning love of Achilles for Patroclus. And what wonder, when both the adherents of the Cynic philosophy and the followers of Zeno of Citium, Cleanthes and Chrysippus, declare that this practice is indifferent?". [57] [58]

2nd century – 3rd century

3rd century

4th century

  • 305 – 306 Council of Elvira (now Granada, Spain). This council was representative of the Western European Church and among other things, it barred pederasts the right to Communion.
  • 314 Council of Ancyra (now Ankara, Turkey). This council was representative of the Eastern European Church and it excluded the Sacraments for 15 years to unmarried men under the age of 20 who were caught in homosexual acts, and excluded the man for life if he was married and over the age of 50. [67]
  • 306 – 337 – The Life of Constantine mentions a temple at Aphaca in Phoenicia, on a remote summit of Mount Libanus, being used by effeminate homosexual pagan priests, and says that this temple was destroyed by the command of Roman emperor Constantine I. It also states that Constantine passed a law ordering the extermination of effeminate homosexual pagan priests in Egypt. [68] [43]
  • 337 Constantius II and Constans I become the 62nd Emperor of the Roman Empire. During their reigns, they both engaged in same-sex relationships. [69] [70] [71]
  • 342 – The Roman emperors Constantius II and Constans I issue the following imperial decree for the Roman Empire: [72] [73]

"When a man marries in the manner of a woman, a woman about to renounce men, what does he wish, when sex has lost all its significance; when the crime is one which it is not profitable to know; when Venus is changed to another form; when love is sought and not found? We order the statutes to arise, the laws to be armed with an avenging sword, that those infamous persons who are now, or who hereafter may be, guilty may be subjected to exquisite punishment."

Theodosian Code 9.7.3
  • 350 – Roman emperor Constans I is assassinated.
  • 361 – Roman emperor Constantius II dies.
  • c. 380s Ammianus Marcellinus publishes Res Gestae. In Res Gestae, Marcellinus writes that the Persians "are extravagantly given to venery, and are hardly contented with a multitude of concubines; they are far from immoral relations with boys." Also in Res Gestae, Marcellinus writes that "We have learned that these Taifali were a shameful folk, so sunken in a life of shame and obscenity, that in their country the boys are coupled with the men in a union of unmentionable lust, to consume the flower of their youth in the polluted intercourse of those paramours." [74] [75]
  • 390 – The Roman emperors Valentinian II, Theodosius I and Arcadius issue the following imperial decrees for the Roman Empire: [76]

"We cannot tolerate the city of Rome, mother of all virtues, being stained any longer by the contamination of male effeminacy, nor can we allow that agrarian strength, which comes down from the founders, to be softly broken by the people, thus heaping shame on the centuries of our founders and the princes, Orientius, dearly and beloved and favoured. Your laudable experience will therefore punish among revenging flames, in the presence of the people, as required by the grossness of the crime, all those who have given themselves up to the infamy of condemning their manly body, transformed into a feminine one, to bear practices reserved for the other sex, which have nothing different from women, carried forth – we are ashamed to say – from male brothels, so that all may know that the house of the manly soul must be sacrosanct to all, and that he who basely abandons his own sex cannot aspire to that of another without undergoing the supreme punishment."

Collatio Mosaic and Roman Laws [43]

"All persons who have the shameful custom of condemning a man's body, acting the part of a woman's to the sufferance of alien sex (for they appear not to be different from women), shall expiate a crime of this kind in avenging flames in the sight of the people."

Theodosian Code 9.7.6
  • 390 – 405 Nonnus' Dionysiaca is the last known piece of Western literature for nearly 1,000 years to celebrate homosexual passion. [37]

6th century

"In criminal cases public prosecutions take place under various statutes, including the Lex Julia de adulteris, "...which punishes with death, not only those who violate the marriages of others, but also those who dare to commit acts of vile lust with men."

7th century

  • 654 – The Visigothic Kingdom criminalized sodomy and the punishment for it is castration. This is the first European secular law to criminalize sodomy. [83] [84]
  • 693 – In Iberia, Visigothic ruler Egica of Hispania and Septimania, demanded that a Church council confront the occurrence of homosexuality in the Kingdom. The Sixteenth Council of Toledo issued a statement in response, which was adopted by Egica, stating that homosexual acts be punished by castration, exclusion from Communion, hair shearing, one hundred lashes, and banishment into exile. [85]

8th century

9th century

2nd millennium

11th century

  • 1007 – The Decretum of Burchard of Worms equates homosexual acts with sexual transgressions such as adultery and argues, therefore, that it should have the same penance (generally fasting). [37]
  • 1051 Peter Damian writes the treatise Liber Gomorrhianus , in which he argues for stricter punishments for clerics failing their duty against "vices of nature." [87]
  • 1061 – Pedro Dias and Muño Vandilas are married by a priest at a chapel in the Kingdom of León. [88]
  • 1100 Ivo of Chartres tries to convince Pope Urban II about homosexuality risks. Ivo accused Rodolfo, archbishop of Tours, of convincing the King of France to appoint a certain Giovanni as bishop of Orléans. Giovanni was well known as Rodolfo's lover and had relations with the king himself, a fact of which the king openly boasted. Pope Urban, however, didn't consider this as a decisive fact: Giovanni ruled as bishop for almost forty years, and Rodolfo continued to be well known and respected. [89]

12th century

13th century

  • 1232 Pope Gregory IX starts the Inquisition in the Italian City-States. Some cities called for banishment and/or amputation as punishments for 1st- and 2nd-offending sodomites and burning for the 3rd or habitual offenders.[ citation needed ]
  • 1260 – In the Kingdom of France, first-offending sodomites lost their testicles, second offenders lost their member, and third offenders were burned. Women caught in same-sex acts could be mutilated and executed as well. [37]
  • 1265 Thomas Aquinas argues that sodomy is second only to bestiality in the ranking of sins of lust.
  • 1283 – The Coutumes de Beauvaisis dictats that convicted sodomites should not only be burned but also that their property would be forfeited.

14th century

  • 1308–14 Philip IV of France orders the arrest of all Templars on charges of heresy, idolatry and sodomy, but these charges are only a pretext to seize the riches of the order. Order leaders are sentenced to death and burned at the stake on 18 March 1314 by Notre Dame.
  • 1321 – Dante's Inferno places sodomites in the Seventh Circle.
  • 1327 – The deposed King Edward II of England is killed, allegedly by forcing a red-hot poker through his rectum. Edward II had a history of conflict with the nobility, who repeatedly banished his former lover Piers Gaveston, the Earl of Cornwall.[ citation needed ]
  • 1347 – Rolandino Roncaglia is tried for sodomy, an event that caused a sensation in Italy. He confessed he "had never had sexual intercourse, neither with his wife nor with any other woman, because he had never felt any carnal appetite, nor could he ever have an erection of his virile member". After his wife died of plague, Rolandino started to prostitute himself, wearing female dresses because "since he has female look, voice and movements – although he does not have a female orifice, but has a male member and testicles – many persons considered him to be a woman because of his appearance". [90]
  • 1351 – Buddhist temple murals depicting same-sex relationships were commissioned and painted in Thailand. [91]
  • 1357 – King Gongmin of Goryeo, known for having male lovers, ascended to the throne in Korea. [85]
  • 1370s – Jan van Aersdone and Willem Case were two men executed in Antwerp in the 1370s. The charge against them was same sex intercourse which was illegal and strenuously vilified in medieval Europe.[ citation needed ] Aersdone and Case stand out because records of their names have survived. One other couple still known by name from the 14th century were Giovanni Braganza and Nicoleto Marmagna of Venice. [92]
  • 1395 John Rykener, known also as Johannes Richer and Eleanor, was a transvestite prostitute working mainly in London (near Cheapside), but also active in Oxford. He was arrested in 1395 for cross-dressing and interrogated.

15th century

  • 1424 Bernardino of Siena preached for three days in Florence, Italy, against homosexuality and other forms of lust, culminating in a pyre in which burned cosmetics, wigs and all sorts of articles for the beautification. He calls for sodomites to be ostracized from society, and these sermons alongside measures by other clergy of the time strengthens opinion against homosexuals and encourages the authorities to increase the measures of persecution [93]
  • 1431 Nezahualcoyotl, Tlatoani of Texcoco, enacted laws making homosexuality a capital punishment by hanging in Texcoco. [94] [95]
  • 1432 – In Florence the first organization specifically intended to prosecute sodomy is established, the "Night Officials", which over the next 70 years arrest about 10,000 men and boys, succeeding in getting about 2,000 convicted, with most then paying fines.
  • 1436 Royal Noble Consort Sun is banished from the Joseon court after it is discovered that she has been sleeping with her maid. The official decree blames her demotion on receiving visitors without her husband's permission and instructing her maids to sing men's songs. [96]
  • 1451 Pope Nicholas V enables the papal Inquisition to persecute men who practice sodomy.
  • 1471 1493 – According to Garcilaso de la Vega's Real Reviews of the Incas, during the reign of Sapa Inca Topa Inca Yupanqui or Túpac Inca Yupanqui, he persecuted homosexuals. Yupanqui's general, Auqui Tatu, burned alive in public square all those for whom there was even circumstantial evidence of sodomy in [H]acari valley, threatening to burn down whole towns if anyone engaged in sodomy. In Chincha, Yupanqui burned alive large numbers, pulling down their houses and any trees they had planted. [97]
  • 1475 – In Peru, a chronicle written under the Capac Yupanqui government describes the persecution of homosexuals with public burnings and destruction of homes (a practice usually reserved for conquered tribes).
  • 1476 – Florentine court records of 1476 show that Leonardo da Vinci and three other young men were charged with sodomy twice, and acquitted. [98]
  • 1483 – The Spanish Inquisition begins. Sodomites were stoned, castrated, and burned. Between 1540 and 1700, more than 1,600 people were prosecuted for sodomy. [37]
  • 1492 Desiderius Erasmus writes a series of love letters to a fellow monk while at a monastery in Steyn in the Netherlands. [99]
  • 1494 Girolamo Savonarola criticizes the population of Florence for its "horrible sins" (mainly homosexuality and gambling) and exhorts them to give up their young and beardless lovers.
  • 1497 – In Spain, the King of Aragon Ferdinand and Queen of Castile and León Isabella strengthen the sodomy laws hitherto applied only in the cities. An increase is made in the severity of the crime equating to treason or heresy, and the amount of evidence required for conviction is lowered, with torture permitted to extract confession. The property of the defendant is also confiscated.

15th century – 16th century

  • 1493 1525 – According to Garcilaso de la Vega's Real Reviews of the Incas, during his reign, Sapa Inca Huayna Capac merely "bade" the people of Tumbez to give up sodomy and did not take any measures against the Matna, who "practiced sodomy more openly and shamelessly than all the other tribes." [97]

16th century

  • 1502 – A charge is brought against the Italian artist Sandro Botticelli on the grounds of sodomy. [100]
  • 1505 1521 – The Zhengde Emperor of the Ming dynasty had a same-sex relationship with the Muslim leader Sayyid Husain. [101] [102]
  • 1512 – Revolt of the Compagnacci in Florence [103]
  • 1513 Vasco Núñez de Balboa, a conquistador in modern-day Panama is described as throwing forty homosexual Indians to his dogs. [104]
  • 1519' Ferdinand Magellan sentences the death penalty against his own crew when they arrived it Rio de Janeiro, after he deemed them as having a homosexual relationship [105]
  • 1523 – First of several charges of sodomy brought against the Florentine artist Benvenuto Cellini. [106]
  • 1526 – The founder and first emperor of the Mughal Empire, Emperor Babur, had a long-term loving relationship with his male lover Baburi Andijani, who was already an adult when Emperor Babur founded his dynasty. [107] }}
  • 1532 – The Holy Roman Empire makes sodomy punishable by death. [37] The Florentine artist Michelangelo begins writing over 300 love poems dedicated to Tomasso dei Cavalieri. [108]
  • 1533 – King Henry VIII passes the Buggery Act 1533 making anal intercourse punishable by death throughout England. [109]
  • 1542 – Alvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca documents same sex marriages and men "who dress like women and perform the office of women, but use the bow and carry big loads" among a Native American tribe in his publication, The Journey of Alvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca and His Companions from Florida to the Pacific 1528–1536.
  • 1543 – Henry VIII gives royal assent to the Laws in Wales Act 1542, extending the buggery law into Wales.
  • 1553 Mary Tudor ascends the English throne and removes all of the laws that had been passed by Henry VIII during the English Reformation of the 1530s.
  • 1558–1563 Elizabeth I reinstates Henry VIII's old laws, including the Buggery Act 1533. [37]
  • 1561 – process of Wojciech z Poznania, who married Sebastian Słodownik, and lived with him for 2 years in Poznań. Both had female partners. On his return to Kraków, he married Wawrzyniec Włoszek. Wojciech, considered in public opinion as a woman, was burned for 'crimes against nature'. [110]
  • 1590 – The Boxer Codex records same-sex marriage as normalized in pre-colonial Philippines [111]

17th century

  • 17th century – Hu Tianbao of Fujian was executed by the Chinese government. The people of Fujian later deified him as the god of homosexual love, building a temple in his honor and calling him Tu'er Shen. [112]
  • 1610 – The Colony of Virginia enacts a military order that criminalizes male sodomy, making it punishable by death. [113] This order ends later the same year, when martial law is terminated upon the change in control of the Virginia Colony. [113]
  • 1620 Brandenburg-Prussia criminalizes sodomy, making it punishable by death. [37]
  • 1624 Richard Cornish of the Virginia Colony is tried and hanged for sodomy. [114]
  • 1648 – The first known prosecution for lesbian activity in North America occurs in March when Sarah White Norman is charged with "Lewd behaviour with each other upon a bed" with Mary Vincent Hammon in Plymouth, Massachusetts. Hammon was under 16 and not prosecuted. [115]
  • 1648 – In Canada's first-ever criminal trial for the crime of homosexuality, a gay military drummer stationed at the French garrison in Ville-Marie, New France is sentenced to death by the local Sulpician priests. [116] After an intervention by the Jesuits in Quebec City, the drummer's life is spared on the condition that he accept the position of New France's first permanent executioner. [116]
  • 1655 – The Connecticut Colony passes a law against sodomy, which includes a punishment for lesbian intercourse as well. [117]
  • 1661 – The Colony of Virginia enacts English common law, thus criminalizing male-to-male sodomy again. [113]
  • 1683 – The Kingdom of Denmark criminalizes "relations against nature", making it punishable by death. [118]
  • 16881704 – Kagemachaya(ja), a Japanese gay bar, first opens in Japan. [119]

18th century

  • 1721 Catharina Margaretha Linck is executed for female sodomy in Germany.
  • 1726 Mother Clap's molly house in London is raided by police, resulting in the execution of three men. [120]
  • 1740  Kiangxi Emperor of Qing Dynasty passed the first legislation criminalizing consensual nonprofit homosexual sex in Chinese history. [121] :144
  • 1781  Jens Andersson of Norway, assigned female at birth but identifying as male, was imprisoned and put on trial after marrying Anne Kristine Mortensdotter in a Lutheran church. When asked about his gender, the response was "Hand troer at kunde henhøre til begge Deele" ("He believes he belongs to both"). [122]
  • 1785 – Prince Kraison of Thailand became the first openly queer member of the Chakri dynasty since the dynasty's royal enthronment under its first ruler Rama I, who was Prince Kraison's father. He had a loving relationship with theatre actors Khun Thong and Yaem. [123]
  • 1785 Jeremy Bentham is one of the first people to argue for the decriminalization of sodomy in England. [37]
  • 1786 – King Frederick the Great of Prussia dies. [124] (See: Sexuality of Frederick the Great )
  • 1791 – The Kingdom of France (Andorra, and Haiti) adopts the French Penal Code of 1791, which no longer criminalizes sodomy. France thus becomes the first West European country to decriminalize homosexual acts between consenting adults. [125]
  • 1791 – The novel Dream of the Red Chamber by Cao Xueqin is published in China. It includes an openly bisexual character as well as an account of a gay bashing. [126]
  • 1793 Monaco decriminalizes sodomy.
  • 1794 – The Kingdom of Prussia abolishes the death penalty for sodomy. [37]
  • 1794 Luxembourg decriminalizes sodomy.
  • 1795 Belgium decriminalizes sodomy.

19th century

20th century

3rd millennium

21st century

See also

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This is a list of notable events in the history of LGBT rights that took place in the year 1998.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">LGBT history</span> History of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people

LGBT history dates back to the first recorded instances of same-sex love and sexuality of ancient civilizations, involving the history of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) peoples and cultures around the world. What survives after many centuries of persecution—resulting in shame, suppression, and secrecy—has only in more recent decades been pursued and interwoven into more mainstream historical narratives.

Christian leaders have written about male homosexual activities since the first decades of Christianity; female homosexual behaviour was almost entirely ignored. Throughout the majority of Christian history, most Christian theologians and denominations have considered homosexual behavior as immoral or sinful.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">LGBT rights in Iran</span>

Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people in Iran face severe challenges not experienced by non-LGBT residents. Sexual activity between members of the same sex is illegal and can be punishable by death, and people can legally change their assigned sex only through a sex reassignment surgery. Currently, Iran is the only country confirmed to execute gay people federally, though death penalty for homosexuality might be enacted in Afghanistan.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">LGBT rights in Spain</span>

Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) rights in Spain have undergone several significant changes over the last decades to become ranked among the highest in the world.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">LGBT rights in Turkmenistan</span>

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons in Turkmenistan face active discrimination and stigmatization compared to non-LGBT residents. Turkmenistan is one of the only three post-Soviet countries where male homosexual activity remains criminalised, along with Uzbekistan and Chechnya.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">LGBT rights in the 19th century</span>

This is a list of important events relating to the LGBT community from 1801 to 1900. The earliest published studies of lesbian activity were written in the early 19th century.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sodomy</span> Anal or oral sex with people, any sex with an animal, non-procreative sex

Sodomy, also called buggery in British English, generally refers to either anal sex between people, or any sexual activity between a human and another animal (bestiality). It may also mean any non-procreative sexual activity. Originally, the term sodomy, which is derived from the story of Sodom and Gomorrah in the Book of Genesis, was commonly restricted to homosexual anal sex. Sodomy laws in many countries criminalized the behavior. In the Western world, many of these laws have been overturned or are routinely not enforced. A person who practices sodomy is sometimes referred to as a sodomite.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sodomy law</span> Laws criminalising certain sexual acts

A sodomy law is a law that defines certain sexual acts as crimes. The precise sexual acts meant by the term sodomy are rarely spelled out in the law, but are typically understood by courts to include any sexual act deemed to be "unnatural" or "immoral". Sodomy typically includes anal sex, oral sex, manual sex, and bestiality. In practice, sodomy laws have rarely been enforced against heterosexual couples, and have mostly been used to target homosexual couples.

This is a timeline of notable events in the history of the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) community in the United Kingdom. There is evidence that LGBT activity in the United Kingdom existed as far back as the days of Celtic Britain.

This is a list of events in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer and Intersex (LGBTQ+) history in Germany.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">LGBT history in Italy</span>

This article is about lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) history in Italy.

The study of homosexuality in Mexico can be divided into three separate periods, coinciding with the three main periods of Mexican history: pre-Columbian, colonial, and post-independence, in spite of the fact that the rejection of homosexuality forms a connecting thread that crosses the three periods.

In medieval Europe, attitudes toward homosexuality varied from region to region, determined by religious culture; the Catholic Church, which dominated the religious landscape, considered, and still considers, sodomy as a mortal sin and a "crime against nature". By the 11th century, "sodomy" was increasingly viewed as a serious moral crime and punishable by mutilation or death. Medieval records reflect this growing concern. The emergence of heretical groups, such as the Cathars and Waldensians, witnesses a rise in allegations of unnatural sexual conduct against such heretics as part of the war against heresy in Christendom. Accusations of sodomy and "unnatural acts" were levelled against the Order of the Knights Templar in 1307 as part of Philip IV of France's attempt to suppress the order. These allegations have been dismissed by some scholars.

The history of LGBT people in Iran spans thousands of years. Homosexuality has been viewed as a sin in Islam, and is outlawed in almost all Muslim-majority countries, including Iran. In pre-Islamic Iran, a tradition of homosexuality existed, however most were intolerant of pederasty and sexual activity between two men, especially the Zoroastrians. According to Ammianus Marcellinus, Iranians were “far from immoral relations with boys”.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">LGBT rights in the Middle East</span>

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people generally have limited or highly restrictive rights in most parts of the Middle East, and are open to hostility in others. Sex between men is illegal in 9 of the 18 countries that make up the region. It is punishable by death in five of these 18 countries. The rights and freedoms of LGBT citizens are strongly influenced by the prevailing cultural traditions and religious mores of people living in the region – particularly Islam.

This is a list of important events relating to the LGBT community from 1701 to 1800.

The Christian tradition has generally proscribed any and all noncoital genital activities, whether engaged in by couples or individuals, regardless of whether they were of the same or different sex. The position of the Roman Catholic Church with regards to homosexuality developed from the writings of Paul the Apostle and the teachings of the Church Fathers. These were in stark contrast to contemporary Greek and Roman attitudes towards same-sex relations which were more relaxed.


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Further reading