Timeline of Polish science and technology

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Nikolaus Kopernikus.jpg
Marie Curie c1920.jpg
Benoit Mandelbrot, TED 2010.jpg
Stanislaw Ulam.tif
Polish scientists who played a key role in their disciplines (clockwise): Nicolaus Copernicus, Maria Skłodowska-Curie, Stanisław Ulam, and Benoit Mandelbrot

Education has been of prime interest to Poland's rulers since the early 12th century. The catalog of the library of the Cathedral Chapter in Kraków dating from 1110 shows that Polish scholars already then had access to western European literature. In 1364, King Casimir III the Great founded the Cracow Academy, which would become one of the great universities of Europe. [1] The Polish people have made considerable contributions in the fields of science, technology and mathematics. [2] The list of famous scientists in Poland begins in earnest with the polymath, astronomer and mathematician Nicolaus Copernicus, who formulated the heliocentric theory and sparked the European Scientific Revolution. [3]


In 1773 King Stanisław August Poniatowski established the Commission of National Education (Polish : Komisja Edukacji Narodowej, KEN), the world's first ministry of education. [4]

After the third partition of Poland, in 1795, no Polish state existed. [5] The 19th and 20th centuries saw many Polish scientists working abroad. One of them was Maria Skłodowska-Curie, a physicist and chemist living in France. Another noteworthy one was Ignacy Domeyko, a geologist and mineralogist who worked in Chile. [6]

In the first half of the 20th century, Poland was a flourishing center of mathematics. Outstanding Polish mathematicians formed the Lwów School of Mathematics (with Stefan Banach, Hugo Steinhaus, Stanisław Ulam) [7] [8] and Warsaw School of Mathematics (with Alfred Tarski, Kazimierz Kuratowski, Wacław Sierpiński). The events of World War II pushed many of them into exile. Such was the case of Benoît Mandelbrot, whose family left Poland when he was still a child. An alumnus of the Warsaw School of Mathematics was Antoni Zygmund, one of the shapers of 20th-century mathematical analysis. According to NASA, Polish scientists were among the pioneers of rocketry. [9]

Today Poland has over 100 institutions of post-secondary education — technical, medical, economic, as well as 500 universities — which are located in most major cities such as Gdańsk, Kraków, Lublin, Łódź, Poznań, Rzeszów, Toruń, Warsaw and Wrocław. [10] They employ over 61,000 scientists and scholars. Another 300 research and development institutes are home to some 10,000 researchers. There are, in addition, a number of smaller laboratories. All together, these institutions support some 91,000 scientists and scholars.


From 2001

ESO accession agreement with Poland 2014. The Signing Ceremony with Poland.jpg
ESO accession agreement with Poland 2014.


Staszic Palace, the seat of the Polish academy of sciences, and Copernicus Monument. Warszawa, ul. Nowy Swiat 72-74 20170517 003.jpg
Staszic Palace, the seat of the Polish academy of sciences, and Copernicus Monument.
Mandelbrot Set Newton-lplane-Mandelbrot.jpg
Mandelbrot Set
Aleksander Wolszczan is credited with discovering the first extrasolar planet PSR B1257+12. Artist's concept of PSR B1257+12 system.jpg
Aleksander Wolszczan is credited with discovering the first extrasolar planet PSR B1257+12.
OGLE telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory. Warszawskie Obserwatorium Poludniowe.jpg
OGLE telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory.
Ball and stick model of a single layer of the Kevlar crystal structure. Kevlar-3D-balls.png
Ball and stick model of a single layer of the Kevlar crystal structure.
A diagram by the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research showing the measured (boxed) and predicted half-lives of superheavy nuclides, ordered by number of protons and neutrons. The expected location of the island of stability around Z = 112 is circled. Island of Stability derived from Zagrebaev.svg
A diagram by the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research showing the measured (boxed) and predicted half-lives of superheavy nuclides, ordered by number of protons and neutrons. The expected location of the island of stability around Z = 112 is circled.
Diagram showing the Lagrangian points of the Earth-Moon system. Kordylewski clouds exist in the regions of L4 and L5. Lagrange points Earth vs Moon.jpg
Diagram showing the Lagrangian points of the Earth–Moon system. Kordylewski clouds exist in the regions of L4 and L5.


Marian Rejewski, Jerzy Rozycki and Henryk Zygalski, Polish mathematicians and cryptologists who worked at breaking the German Enigma ciphers before and during World War II. Rejewski&Rozycki&Zygalski.jpg
Marian Rejewski, Jerzy Różycki and Henryk Zygalski, Polish mathematicians and cryptologists who worked at breaking the German Enigma ciphers before and during World War II.
Ivy Mike, the first full test of the Teller-Ulam design (a staged fusion bomb), with a yield of 10.4 megatons on 1 November 1952. IvyMike2.jpg
Ivy Mike, the first full test of the Teller–Ulam design (a staged fusion bomb), with a yield of 10.4 megatons on 1 November 1952.
Lwow School of Mathematics in 1930. Lwowscy matematycy1930.jpg
Lwów School of Mathematics in 1930.
PZL.37 Los twin-engine medium bomber PZL-37 Los.jpg
PZL.37 Łoś twin-engine medium bomber
Drzewiecki-designed submarine built in 1881 and now in the Central Naval Museum, Saint Petersburg. PL Dzhevetskogo 1.jpg
Drzewiecki-designed submarine built in 1881 and now in the Central Naval Museum, Saint Petersburg.
Chemical element Protactinium (Pa) was discovered by Kazimierz Fajans in 1913. Protactinium-233.jpg
Chemical element Protactinium (Pa) was discovered by Kazimierz Fajans in 1913.
Illustration of the Banach-Tarski paradox. Banach-Tarski Paradox.svg
Illustration of the Banach-Tarski paradox.
Cover of Argonauts of the Western Pacific (1922), a seminal work of Bronislaw Malinowski. Argonauts.jpg
Cover of Argonauts of the Western Pacific (1922), a seminal work of Bronisław Malinowski.
The Maurzyce Bridge designed by Stefan Bryla in 1928, is the first welded road bridge in the world. Maurzyce most 2009.jpg
The Maurzyce Bridge designed by Stefan Bryła in 1928, is the first welded road bridge in the world.


Maria Sklodowska-Curie Nobel Prize Diploma from 1911. Marie Sklodowska-Curie's Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1911.jpg
Maria Skłodowska-Curie Nobel Prize Diploma from 1911.
Ignacy Lukasiewicz Monument in Bobrka, where he established the world's first oil field in 1854. Bobrka Ignacy Lukasiewicz Monument 2018 P02.jpg
Ignacy Łukasiewicz Monument in Bóbrka, where he established the world's first oil field in 1854.
Frames from Rink in Lazienki film shot in the 1890s by Kazimierz Proszynski with his pleograph device. Slizgawka film Pleograf.jpg
Frames from Rink in Łazienki film shot in the 1890s by Kazimierz Prószyński with his pleograph device.
Ball-and-stick model of the zwitterionic form of adrenaline. The hormone was discovered by Napoleon Cybulski in 1895. Adrenaline-from-xtal-3D-bs-17.png
Ball-and-stick model of the zwitterionic form of adrenaline. The hormone was discovered by Napoleon Cybulski in 1895.
Flag of Esperanto. Created by L.L. Zamenhof, Esperanto is the world's most successful constructed language. Flag of Esperanto.svg
Flag of Esperanto. Created by L.L. Zamenhof, Esperanto is the world's most successful constructed language.
Ludwik Rydygier Monument in Chelmno, where he performed his pioneering surgical procedures in the 1880s. CHELMNO, AB-094.jpg
Ludwik Rydygier Monument in Chełmno, where he performed his pioneering surgical procedures in the 1880s.
Ferrocarril Central Andino, constructed by Ernest Malinowski between 1871-1876, was the world's highest railway line at the time. FCCA GE C30-7 Rio Blanco - San Mateo.jpg
Ferrocarril Central Andino, constructed by Ernest Malinowski between 1871–1876, was the world's highest railway line at the time.




Engraving of Hevelius' 46 m (150 ft) focal-length telescope. Houghton Typ 620.73.451 - Johannes Hevelius, Machinae coelestis, 1673.jpg
Engraving of Hevelius' 46 m (150 ft) focal-length telescope.
Michal Sedziwoj, who discovered that air is not a single substance and contains a life-giving substance (later called oxygen), on a painting by Jan Matejko. Alchemik Sedziwoj Matejko.JPG
Michał Sędziwój, who discovered that air is not a single substance and contains a life-giving substance (later called oxygen), on a painting by Jan Matejko.


Nicolaus Copernicus on a painting by Jan Matejko. Jan Matejko-Astronomer Copernicus-Conversation with God.jpg
Nicolaus Copernicus on a painting by Jan Matejko.

Middle Ages

Collegium Maius, Jagiellonian University, Krakow. Jagiellonian University 12.jpg
Collegium Maius, Jagiellonian University, Kraków.

See also

Related Research Articles

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jagiellonian University</span> Academic institution in Kraków, Poland

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