Timeline of the Chagatai Khanate

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Chagatai Khanate, late 13th century. Chagatai Khanate map en.svg
Chagatai Khanate, late 13th century.
Moghulistan in 1372 Eastern Chagatai 1372.jpg
Moghulistan in 1372
After the collapse of the Chagatai Khanate, 1490. Chagatai Khanate (1490).png
After the collapse of the Chagatai Khanate, 1490.
Yarkent Khanate and Turpan Khanate in 1517 1517 Yarkent and Turpan.png
Yarkent Khanate and Turpan Khanate in 1517

This is a timeline of the Chagatai Khanate (1226–1348) and its successor states, Moghulistan (1347–1462), Yarkent Khanate (1514–1696), and the Turpan Khanate (1462–1680).


12th century


118322 December Chagatai is born

13th century


1208 Qocho, Qayaligh, and Almaliq submit to Genghis Khan; Almaliq and the Issyk-Kul region given to Chagatai [1]


1211 Mongol conquest of the Jin dynasty : Jochi, Ögedei, and Chagatai invade Inner Mongolia [2]
1213autumn Mongol conquest of the Jin dynasty : Jochi, Ögedei, and Chagatai ravage Hebei and Shanxi [3]
1219fall Mongol conquest of Khwarezmia : Ögedei and Chagatai take Otrar and massacres its population; Genghis Khan dispatches Jochi to conquer Syr Darya and another army to conquer Fergana [4]
Chagatai oversees the road construction for the Mongol Empire [2]


1220 Mongol conquest of Khwarezmia : Genghis Khan takes Bukhara and Samarkand (given to Chagatai along with Jimsar County) and Muhammad II of Khwarezm flees to Nishapur; Genghis Khan dispatches Jebe and Subutai to destroy the sultan [4]
1221April Mongol conquest of Khwarezmia : Jochi, Chagatai, and Ögedei destroy Urgench while Tolui takes Nishapur and Herat [4]
Siege of Bamyan (1221) : Genghis Khan takes Bamyan; Chagatai's son Mutukan dies in the process [2]
1227 Mongol conquest of Western Xia : Chagatai takes Taiyuan and gains the advisors Vajir the Uyghur and Qutb-ud-Din Habash 'Amid [2]
1229 Chagatai supports Ögedei's enthronement and is granted Transoxiana [2]


12421 July Chagatai Khan dies and his grandson Qara Hülegü succeeds him [5]
1246 Güyük Khan appoints Yesü Möngke as head of the Chagatai Khanate [6]


1251 Möngke Khan appoints Qara Hülegü as head of the Chagatai Khanate, who dies soon after, and his wife Orghana becomes regent for her young son Mubarak Shah [6]


1260 Toluid Civil War : Alghu, a grandson of Chagatai Khan, deposes Mubarak Shah, an appointee to the Chagatai Khanate of the Mongol Empire, and sets up court in Kashgar while attacking Otrar and Afghanistan [7]
1262 Toluid Civil War : Alghu betrays Ariq Böke and allies with Kublai Khan [6]
1266 Alghu dies and is succeeded by Mubarak Shah, who is deposed by Ghiyas-ud-din Baraq [8]
1269 Ghiyas-ud-din Baraq is defeated by the Golden Horde and loses a third of Transoxiana [6]


1270 Ghiyas-ud-din Baraq of the Chagatai Khanate invades the Ilkhanate but suffers defeat at the battle of Qara-Su near Herat [6]
1271 Ghiyas-ud-din Baraq dies and Kaidu takes control of the Chagatai Khanate, installing Negübei as puppet khan [6]
1275 Chagatai Khanate gains Ghazni [9]
1276 Chagatai Khanate secures control of Almaliq [9]


1282 Kaidu enthrones Duwa as khan of the Chagatai Khanate [6]
1286 Chagatai Khanate secures control of the Tarim Basin [9]


1291 Chagatai Khanate raids Ilkhanate [10]
1292 Chagatai Khanate raids India [9]
1295 Chagatai Khanate secures control of Turpan and Hami [9]
1298winter Kaidu–Kublai war : Duwa of the Chagatai Khanate defeats Yuan forces in Mongolia and captures Temür Khan's son in law, Körgüz [11]

14th century


1301September Kaidu–Kublai war : Duwa and Kaidu suffer injuries in battle with Yuan forces east of the Altai Mountains and Kaidu dies soon after [12]
1304 Temür Khan, Chapar Khan of the House of Ögedei, and Duwa of the Chagatai Khanate send envoys to the Ilkhanate to establish peace and restore unity among Mongols; Chagatai Khanate becomes a Yuan tributary [12]
1306 Temür Khan sends Külüg Khan to aid Duwa in his war against Chapar Khan [13]
1307 Chapar Khan is defeated and Duwa installs his brother Yangichar as puppet [13]
Duwa dies and his son Könchek succeeds him [10]
1308 Könchek dies and Taliqu, a Muslim grandson of Büri, succeeds him [10]
1309 Kebek, son of Duwa, murders Taliqu and enthrones his brother Esen Buqa I [10]


1312 Ilkhanate seizes Ghazni [10]
1316 Esen Buqa–Ayurbarwada war : Conflict breaks out between the Chagatai Khanate and the Yuan dynasty and Ilkhanate [13]
1318 Esen Buqa–Ayurbarwada war : Esen Buqa I dies and Kebek succeeds him [13]


1326 Kebek dies and his brother Eljigidey succeeds him [10]
1328 Chagatai Khanate invades India, reaching as far as Delhi [10]


1330 Eljigidey is deposed by his brother Duwa Temür [14]
1331 Duwa Temür is deposed by his brother Tarmashirin, who converts to Islam [14]
1334Rebels discontent with the conversion to Islam killTarmashirin, who is succeeded by Buzan, his nephew [14]
1335 Buzan is overthrown by his cousin Changshi [14]
1338 Changshi is murdered by his brother Yesun Temur, who succeeds him [14]
Black Death strikes the Chagatai Khanate [14]


1342 Yesun Temur is deposed by 'Ali-Sultan [14]
1347 Qazan Khan ibn Yasaur is defeated by Amir Qazaghan, who sets up Danishmendji, an Ögedeiid prince, as puppet khan; effective end of the united Chagatai Khanate [14]
The Chagatai Khanate is split in two, with Amir Qazaghan taking control of the western portion (Transoxania) and Tughlugh Timur the eastern portion (Moghulistan) [14]
1348 Transoxania : Danishmendji is killed by Amir Qazaghan, who enthrones Bayan Qulï as khan [15]


1350 Moghulistan : Tughlugh Timur gets circumsized and becomes a Muslim [16]
1351 Transoxania : Amir Qazaghan attacks the Kart dynasty and sacks Herat [15]
1357 Transoxania : Amir Qazaghan is assassinated and his son Abdullah succeeds him [15]
1358 Transoxania : Abdullha had Bayan Qulï killed, angering Hajji Beg, Timur's uncle, the lord of Kesh, who drove him into exile and his death [15]


1360March Moghulistan : Tughlugh Timur invades Transoxania and forces Hajji Beg to retreat to Khorasan; where he is assassinated at Shindand; Timur becomes head of the Barlas clan due to the death of Hajji Beg [17]
1363 Transoxania : Amir Husayn and Timur invade and take Transoxania from Moghulistan; while fleeing Ilyas Khoja learns of his father Tughlugh Timur's death [18]
1364 Transoxania : Amir Husayn and Timur enthrone Khabul Shah [18]
1365 Moghulistan : Ilyas Khoja invades Transoxania and lays siege to Samarkand but is forced to retreat after his army is hit by an epidemic [19]
1368 Moghulistan : Qamar-ud-din Khan Dughlat murders Ilyas Khoja and usurps the title of khan [20]


137010 April Transoxania : Timur crowns himself king in Balkh after defeating Amir Husayn and enthrones Suurgatmish as khan, killing Khabul Shah [21]
1375 Transoxania : Timur invades Moghulistan, devastating the Ili region, to which Qamar-ud-din Khan Dughlat responds by invading Fergana and ambushing Timur, who barelly escapes [22]


1388 Transoxania : Timur declares himself sultan and enthrones Sultan Mahmud as khan after Suurgatmish dies [23]
1389 Transoxania : Timur invades Moghulistan reaching almost Turpan and defeating Khizr Khoja [24]


1390 Transoxania : Timur invades Moghulistan and drives Qamar-ud-din Khan Dughlat into hiding, enabling Khizr Khoja to gain control of the region [25]
1397 Moghulistan : Khizr Khoja's daughter marries Timur [25]
1399 Moghulistan : Khizr Khoja dies and his son Shams-i-Jahan succeeds him [25]

15th century


1400 Transoxania : Timur sends his grandson Mirza Iskander to invade Moghulistan, seizing Aksu and Khotan [26]
1402 Transoxania : Sultan Mahmud dies; effective end of the Western Chagatai Khanate [23]
1408 Shams-i-Jahan is succeeded by his brother Muhammad Khan [25]


1415 Muhammad Khan is succeeded by his brother Naqsh-i-Jahan [25]
1418 Naqsh-i-Jahan is succeeded by Uwais Khan [27]


1421 Uwais Khan is succeeded by Sher Muhammad [28]
1425 Shah Rukh sends his son Ulugh Beg to invade Moghulistan and defeats Sher Muhammad; Uwais Khan becomes ruler of Moghulistan again [28]
1429 Uwais Khan is killed by Satuq Khan; two factions supporting his sons Esen Buqa II and Yunus Khan go to war with Esen winning [29]


1433 Moghulistan recovers Kashgar from the Timurid Empire [29]


1451 Esen Buqa II raids the Timurid Empire; in response Abu Sa'id Mirza lends Yunus Khan troops to occupy Moghulistan near the Ili River, splitting the western portion into what would come to be known as the Yarkent Khanate [30]


1462 Esen Buqa II dies and is succeeded by his son Dost Muhammad [30]
1469 Dost Muhammad dies and is succeeded by his son Kebek Sultan [30]


1472 Kebek Sultan is assassinated, leaving Yunus Khan sole ruler of Moghulistan [30]
1473 Ming–Turpan conflict : Yunus Khan occupies Hami [31]
1479 Mirza Abu Bakr Dughlat rebels and takes possession of Yarkand, defeating Yunus Khan twice [31]


1482 Ming–Turpan conflict : Hami is retaken by Qanšin [32]
1484Taking advantage of the conflict between Umar Shaikh Mirza II and Sultan Ahmed Mirza, Yunus Khan occupies Fergana and Sayram [31]
1484 Ahmad Alaq founds the Kyrgyz Khanate [33]
1486 Yunus Khan dies and is succeeded by his sons Ahmad Alaq (Turpan Khanate) and Mahmud Khan (Yarkent Khanate) [32]
1488 Yarkent Khanate : Mahmud Khan defeats a Timurid invasion [34]
Ming–Turpan conflict : Ahmad Alaq kills Qanšin and takes control of Hami [34]
1489 Ming–Turpan conflict : Engke Bolad retakes Hami [34]


1493 Ming–Turpan conflict : Ahmad Alaq captures Šamba and occupies Hami [34]
1497 Ming–Turpan conflict : Ahmad Alaq abandons Hami [34]
1499 Turpan Khanate : Ahmad Alaq seizes Kashgar and Yengisar from Mirza Abu Bakr Dughlat [32]

16th century


1502 Muhammad Shaybani captures both Ahmad Alaq and Mahmud Khan in battle [34]
1503 Turpan Khanate : Muhammad Shaybani releases the Moghul khans but Ahmad Alaq dies soon after and is succeeded by his son Mansur Khan [34]
1508 Yarkent Khanate : Mahmud Khan is defeated by his nephew Sultan Said Khan, flees to Muhammad Shaybani, who executes him [34]
1509 Mirza Abu Bakr Dughlat captures Kashgar [35]


1513 Ming–Turpan conflict : Kara Del submits to Mansur Khan [36]
1514 Yarkent Khanate : Sultan Said Khan overthrows Mirza Abu Bakr Dughlat and takes all of his territory, ruling it in his own right; so ends the unified Moghulistan [35]
1517 Ming–Turpan conflict : Mansur Khan launches raids into the Ming dynasty [36]


1529 Yarkent Khanate : Sultan Said Khan invades Badakhshan [37]


1533 Yarkent Khanate : Sultan Said Khan dies while trying to invade Tibet and is succeeded by his son Abdurashid Khan - during his reign he loses the northern pastures to nomads [36]


1543Makhdum-i-Azam dies and his sons create the Aq Taghliq and Qara Taghliq religious orders [38]
1545 Turpan Khanate : Mansur Khan is succeeded by his son Shah Khan [36]


1558 Yarkent Khanate : Kazakh Khanate invades but is repelled [39]


1565 Yarkent Khanate : Abdurashid Khan is succeeded by his son Abdul Karim Khan [40]


1570 Turpan Khanate : Shah Khan dies and is succeeded by his brother Muhammad Khan ibn Mansur Khan; records don't mention much of the Turpan Khanate after this [36]


1593 Yarkent Khanate : Abdul Karim Khan is succeeded by his brother Muhammad Sultan [40]

17th century


1610 Yarkent Khanate : Muhammad Sultan is succeeded by his son Shudja ad Din Ahmad Khan [39]
1619 Yarkent Khanate : Shudja ad Din Ahmad Khan is assassinated and succeeded by Abd al-Latif (Afak) Khan [39]


1631 Yarkent Khanate : Abd al-Latif (Afak) Khan is succeeded by his nephew Sultan Ahmad Khan (Pulat Khan) [39]
1636 Yarkent Khanate : Sultan Ahmad Khan (Pulat Khan) is overthrown by Abdallah (Moghul Khan) [39]


1655 Yarkent Khanate : Yarkent becomes a tributary of the Qing dynasty [38]


1667 Yarkent Khanate : Abdallah (Moghul Khan) is overthrown by his son, YuIbars Khan [41]


1670 Yarkent Khanate : Yulbars Khan is overthrown and his uncle Ismail Khan is enthroned [41]
1678 Dzungar conquest of Altishahr : Ismail Khan drives out to the Aq Taghliq Khoja Afaq Khoja, who seeks help from the 5th Dalai Lama, who in turn writes a letter to the Dzungar Khanate for help. [42]


1680 Dzungar conquest of Altishahr : The Dzungars invade and kill Ismail's family. Abd ar-Rashid Khan II is installed as ruler. [41]
1682Riots break out, forcing Abd ar-Rashid Khan II to flee; his brother Muhammad Imin Khan succeeds him [43]


1693Muhammad Imin Khan invades the Dzungar Khanate but is overthrown by Afaq Khoja, whose son Yahiya Khoja is enthroned [43]
1695 Afaq Khoja and Yahiya Khoja are killed in a rebellion [43]
1696 Akbash Khan is enthroned but the begs of Kashgar refuse to acknowledge him. Dzungar troops are brought in by Akbash to enforce his rule. However the Dzungars install Mirza Alim Shah Beg; so ends the Yarkent Khanate and Chagatai rule [44]

See also

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  2. 1 2 3 4 5 Atwood 2004, p. 81.
  3. Atwood 2004, p. 416.
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  19. Grousset 1970, p. 412.
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  22. Grousset 1970, p. 423.
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