This is a timeline of events involving the Golden Horde (1242–1502), from 1459 also known as the Great Horde.
For pre-1242 events involving Mongols in Europe, see Timeline of the Mongol Empire § 13th century
|1242||Mongol invasion of Europe : Mongol Empire forces the Second Bulgarian Empire to pay tribute|
|spring||Mongol invasion of Europe : Mongol forces retreat after receiving news of Ögedei Khan's death; Batu Khan stays at the Volga River and his brother Orda Khan returns to Mongolia|
|The Golden Horde stretches from the Chu River to the Danube|
|Yaroslav II of Vladimir visits Batu Khan for confirmation of his office|
|1245||Daniel of Galicia undergoes ceremonial purification at Batu Khan's court|
|Golden Horde carries out census of Ruthenian lands|
|1246||20 September||Michael of Chernigov refuses to show obeisance and is executed|
|Yaroslav II of Vladimir is poisoned by Oghul Qaimish in Karakorum and dies|
|1248||20 April||Güyük Khan dies on his way to confront Batu Khan and his wife Oghul Qaimish becomes regent|
|1251||Möngke Khan grants Berke Georgia|
|1255||Batu Khan constructs Sarai|
|Batu Khan dies and is succeeded by his son Sartaq Khan, who dies soon after, and then Ulaghchi|
|1256||Daniel of Galicia expels Mongol garrisons from his territory|
|Golden Horde carries out census of Ruthenian lands|
|1257||Ulaghchi dies and Berke, a Muslim, succeeds him|
|1258||Novgorod rebels and is defeated|
|1259||Second Mongol invasion of Poland : Berke and Boroldai invade Poland and Daniel of Galicia flees, however his sons and brother Vasilko of Galicia join the Mongols to plunder Lithuania and Polish territories|
|Golden Horde elements in Bukhara rebel and Alghu suppresses them|
|1260||2 February||Sack of Sandomierz (1260) : Berke and Boroldai sack Sandomierz|
|Toluid Civil War : Berke of the Golden Horde allies with Ariq Böke and declares war on Hulagu Khan|
|1262||Berke–Hulagu war : Berke of the Golden Horde allies with the Mamluks and invades Azerbaijan|
|Suzdal rebels and is defeated|
|1263||13 January||Berke–Hulagu war : Berke defeats Hulagu Khan's army on the Terek River|
|1264||Mongol invasion of Byzantine Thrace : Berke attacks Thrace and secures the release of Kayqubad II|
|1265||Mongol invasion of Byzantine Thrace : Nogai Khan attacks Thrace and secures the release of Kayqubad II|
|1266||summer||Berke dies in Tbilisi and is succeeded by his grandnephew Mengu-Timur|
|Byzantine–Mongol alliance : Michael VIII Palaiologos marries Euphrosyne Palaiologina to Nogai Khan|
|1267||Mengu-Timur grants Genoa Caffa|
|1269||Ghiyas-ud-din Baraq is defeated by the Golden Horde and loses a third of Transoxiana|
|Golden Horde assists Vladimir-Suzdal in evicting the Germans from Narva|
|1273||Golden Horde carries out census of Ruthenian lands|
|Byzantine–Mongol alliance : Nogai Khan assists the Byzantines against Bulgaria|
|1279||Byzantine–Mongol alliance : Nogai Khan assists the Byzantines against Bulgaria|
|1280||Mengu-Timur dies and his brother Tode Mongke succeeds him|
|George I of Bulgaria submits to the Golden Horde|
|1282||Byzantine–Mongol alliance : Nogai Khan sends forces to Byzantium to assist them against Thessaly|
|1283||Tode Mongke converts to Islam and starts neglecting state affairs and as a result Köchü and Nogai Khan become co-khans|
|1284||Golden Horde invades Bulgaria and annexes Isaccea|
|1285||Second Mongol invasion of Hungary : Golden Horde invades Hungary and reaches as far as Pest before being defeated and forced to retreat|
|1287||6 December||Third Mongol invasion of Poland : Golden Horde invades Poland|
|Köchü is overthrown and Talabuga becomes khan|
|1288||February||Third Mongol invasion of Poland : Mongol forces are defeated and forced to retreat|
|1289||Rostov rebels and is defeated|
|1291||Mengu-Timur's fifth son Toqta flees to the Ilkhanate which helps him seize the throne|
|Serbian conflict with the Nogai Horde : Serbia submits to the Golden Horde|
|1293||Golden Horde sacks Sandomierz|
|1295||Golden Horde invades Bulgaria|
|1296||Nogai Khan rebels against Toqta|
|1298||Nogai Khan sacks Caffa|
|1299||Toqta defeats Nogai Khan|
|1300||Chaka, son of Nogai Khan, is murdered by Theodore Svetoslav of Bulgaria to appease Toqta|
|1305||Golden Horde raids Leles|
|1308||Toqta sacks Caffa|
|1313||Toqta's nephew Öz Beg Khan seizes the throne, prohibits Buddhism among the elite, and applies Islamization among the Mongols.|
|1318||Öz Beg Khan attacks the Ilkhanate|
|1320||Mubarak Khwaja of the White Horde converts to Islam|
|Golden Horde attacks Thrace|
|1321||Golden Horde attacks Thrace|
|1324||Öz Beg Khan attacks Thrace and the Ilkhanate|
|1326||Golden Horde raids Hungary|
|1327||Tver Uprising of 1327 : citizens of the Principality of Tver rebelled against the Golden Horde. The Golden Horde and its Muscovite and Suzdalian allies organised a punitive expedition to the Tver principality and put the revolt down.|
|1330||Basarab I of Wallachia allies with the Golden Horde|
|1335||Öz Beg Khan attacks the Ilkhanate|
|1338||Golden Horde is ravaged by the Black Death|
|1339||Golden Horde starts receiving 24,000 ding of paper currency annually from the Yuan dynasty|
|1340||Golden Horde sacks Sandomierz|
|1341||Öz Beg Khan dies and is succeeded by his son Tini Beg|
|1342||Tini Beg is overthrown by his brother Jani Beg|
|1345||Hungary attacks the Golden Horde|
|1346||Hungary forces the Golden Horde back to the Black Sea coasts|
|1347||Siege of Caffa : The Genoese possession of Caffa, a great trade emporium on the Crimean Peninsula, came under siege by an army of Mongol warriors under the command of Janibeg. An epidemic of bubonic plague had been ravaging Central Asia before the conflict in Caffa. Brought across the Silk Road, the Mongols used disease-infected corpses as a biological weapon. The corpses were catapulted over the city walls, infecting the inhabitants.|
|1352||March||Golden Horde and Ruthenian allies attack Poland and capture Lublin|
|1357||Jani Beg is overthrown by his son Berdi Beg|
|1359||Berdi Beg is overthrown by his brother Qulpa|
|1360||Qulpa is overthrown by his brother Nawruz Beg and the Blue Horde rebels and seizes power in Sarai|
|1361||Nawruz Beg is overthrown by Khidr Khan ibn Sasibuqa Khan|
|1362||Mamai sets up puppet khans and rules from the Sea of Azov|
|1363||Battle of Blue Waters : Grand Duchy of Lithuania defeats the Golden Horde and vassalizes Ruthenian princes in the Dnieper region|
|1373||Urus Khan overthrows the lineage of Khidr Khan ibn Sasibuqa Khan|
|1376||Tokhtamysh takes Sarai.|
|1378||11 August||Battle of the Vozha River : Dmitry Donskoy defeats a Mongol detachment|
|Tokhtamysh overthrows the lineage of Urus Khan and leads the Turkic Blue Horde west|
|1380||Golden Horde starts passing decrees in Turkish language|
|8 September||Battle of Kulikovo : A largely Muscovite army led by Dmitri Donskoi defeated Mongol warlord Mamai in a pyrrhic victory at Kulikovo field. Mamai's Tverian allies never showed up, his Lithuanian and Riazani allies arrived too late to take part, but did harass the victorious Muscovite troops as they returned to Moscow.|
|1381||Battle of the Kalka River (1381) : Tokhtamysh defeated Mamai, becoming the undisputed khan of the Golden Horde, and ending the war of succession that had been raging ever since 1359.|
|1382||26 August||Siege of Moscow (1382) : khan Tokhtamysh of the Golden Horde and his allied Rus' princes of Tver, Riazan, and Nizhniy Novgorod besieged and sacked Moscow. The princes of Nizhniy Novgorod tricked the Muscovite citizens into surrendering the city, after which Moscow was immediately sacked. Thereafter, Tokhtamysh' troops sacked surrounding towns including Serpukhov, Pereyaslavl, and Kolomna, and on their way home southwards also the principality of Riazan.|
|1383||Tokhtamysh defeats the Lithuanians at Poltava|
|1387||Golden Horde loses control of the Black Sea coast|
|1391||18 June||Battle of the Kondurcha River : Timur attacked the Golden Horde and defeats Tokhtamysh|
|1395||15 April||Battle of the Terek River : Timur sacked New Sarai and Tokhtamysh was overthrown; Edigu seized power and set up Temür Qutlugh as puppet khan|
|1397||Tokhtamysh fled to Lithuania, where Vytautas allowed him to stay at Vilnius|
|1399||12 August||Battle of the Vorskla River : Temür Qutlugh of the Golden Horde and Mongol warlord Edigu defeated the forces of grand prince Vytautas of Lithuania, Mongol warlord Tokhtamysh, and their allies. Tokhtamysh was forced to flee.|
|1405||Tokhtamysh is killed by Shadi Beg's troops.|
|1408||Edigu attacked Moscow and extracted a ransom before retreating.|
|The Nogai Horde emerges under Taibuga|
|1411||The Golden Horde starts splintering; effective end of the Golden Horde|
|1412||Jalal al-Din Khan ibn Tokhtamysh reclaims the Golden Horde with Lithuanian support|
|1413||Jalal al-Din Khan ibn Tokhtamysh is murdered by his brother Karim Berdi|
|1418||Yeremferden seizes control of the Golden Horde|
|1428||The Uzbek Khanate emerges under Abu'l-Khayr Khan|
|1430||The Great Horde emerges|
|1445||The Khanate of Kazan emerges under Ulugh Muhammad|
|1449||The Crimean Khanate emerges under Hacı I Giray|
|Year||Date||Event||1453||The Qasim Khanate emerges under Qasim Khan|
|1458||The Kazakh Khanate emerges under Janibek Khan and Kerei|
|1466||The Astrakhan Khanate emerges under Mahmud bin Küchük's descendants|
|1474||Ahmed Khan bin Küchük commands the Grand Duchy of Moscow to give tribute but is denied|
|1476||Ivan III of Moscow refuses to pay tribute to the Golden Horde|
|1480||8 October – 28 November||Great Stand on the Ugra River : armies of Muscovy and the Great Horde confronted each other without fighting and then simultaneously retreated. Although long hailed as the "end of the Tatar yoke" in traditional Russian historiography, the event changed little in Muscovite–Horde relations.|
|1502||The Crimean Khanate destroys the Great Horde|
The Golden Horde, self-designated as Ulug Ulus, lit. 'Great State' in Turkic, was originally a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate established in the 13th century and originating as the northwestern sector of the Mongol Empire. With the fragmentation of the Mongol Empire after 1259 it became a functionally separate khanate. It is also known as the Kipchak Khanate or as the Ulus of Jochi, and replaced the earlier, less organized Cuman–Kipchak confederation.
The Mongol Empire of the 13th and 14th centuries was the largest contiguous land empire in history. Originating in present-day Mongolia in East Asia, the Mongol Empire at its height stretched from the Sea of Japan to parts of Eastern Europe, extending northward into parts of the Arctic; eastward and southward into parts of the Indian subcontinent, attempted invasions of Southeast Asia and conquered the Iranian Plateau; and westward as far as the Levant and the Carpathian Mountains.
This is the timeline of the Mongol Empire from the birth of Temüjin, later Genghis Khan, to the ascension of Kublai Khan as emperor of the Yuan dynasty in 1271, though the title of Khagan continued to be used by the Yuan rulers into the Northern Yuan dynasty, a far less powerful successor entity, until 1634.
Kublai, also known by his temple name as the Emperor Shizu of Yuan and his regnal name Setsen Khan, was the founder of the Yuan dynasty of China and the fifth khagan-emperor of the Mongol Empire from 1260 to 1294, although after the division of the empire this was a nominal position. He proclaimed the empire's dynastic name "Great Yuan" in 1271, and ruled Yuan China until his death in 1294.
The Kaidu–Kublai war was a war between Kaidu and Kublai from 1268 to 1301. Kaidu was the leader of the House of Ögedei and the de facto khan of the Chagatai Khanate, while Kublai was the founder of the Yuan dynasty. The Kaidu–Kublai war followed the Toluid Civil War (1260–1264) and resulted in the permanent division of the Mongol Empire. By the time of Kublai's death in 1294, the Mongol Empire had fractured into four separate polities: the Golden Horde khanate in the northwest, the Chagatai Khanate in the middle, the Ilkhanate in the southwest, and the Yuan dynasty in the east based in modern-day Beijing. Although Temür later made peace with the three western khanates in 1304 after Kaidu's death, the four successor states of the Mongol Empire continued their own separate development and fell at different times.
The siege of Lüshun was a military conflict between the Later Jin and Ming dynasty. In the summer of 1634 the Jin attacked and conquered the port city of Lüshun from Ming.
This is a timeline of the history of the Khitans. The Khitans were a nomadic people in northeastern Asia related to the Xianbei. Following the collapse of the Tang dynasty, they established the Liao dynasty in 916, encompassing parts of modern-day northern China, Mongolia, and North Korea. The Liao dynasty was eventually conquered by the Jin dynasty in 1125. Remnants of the Liao court led by Yelü Dashi fled westward to Central Asia where they established the Western Liao dynasty. In 1211, the Western Liao throne was usurped by a Naiman called Kuchlug. In 1218, the Mongol Empire defeated and conquered the Western Liao dynasty.
This is a timeline of the Karluks. The Kara-Khanid Khanate is also included, however it is disputed whether the Karluks or Yagmas were the dominant group within the khanate.
This is a timeline of the Jurchens.
This is a timeline of the Song dynasty (960–1279). The Song dynasty was founded by Zhao Kuangyin, posthumously known as Emperor Taizu of Song, who ended the period of division known as the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. The Song dynasty is commonly separated into two historical periods, the Northern Song (960–1127) and the Southern Song (1127–1279), divided by the loss of the north to the Jurchen Jin dynasty (1115–1234). In 1279, the Mongol Yuan dynasty conquered the Song.
This is a timeline of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (907–979), which followed the collapse of the Tang dynasty in 907 AD. The Five Dynasties refer to the succession of dynasties which ruled northern China following the Tang collapse while the Ten Kingdoms, with the exception of Northern Han, ruled in southern China. This era of division ended in 979 AD with the rise of the Song dynasty under Emperor Taizu of Song, although the Song would never reconquer the northern territory lost to the Khitans, collectively known as the Sixteen Prefectures.
This is a timeline of the Yuan dynasty (1271–1368). The Yuan dynasty was founded by the Mongol warlord Kublai Khan in 1271 and conquered the Song dynasty in 1279. The Yuan dynasty lasted nearly a hundred years before a series of rebellions known as the Red Turban Rebellion resulted in its collapse in 1368 and the rise of the Ming dynasty.
This is a timeline of the Tangut people and Western Xia.
This is a timeline of Mongols prior to the Mongol Empire.
This is a timeline of the Ilkhanate.
This is a timeline of the Chagatai Khanate (1226–1348) and its successor states, Moghulistan (1347–1462), Yarkent Khanate (1514–1696), and the Turpan Khanate (1462–1680).
This is a timeline of the Qing dynasty (1636–1912).
The Jurchen unification were a series of events in the late 16th and early 17th centuries that led to the unification of the Jurchen tribes under Nurhaci, a Jianzhou Jurchen leader who had an antagonistic relationship with the Ming dynasty due to their involvement in events early on in his life that led to the death of his father and grandfather. From 1583 to the early 1600s, Nurhaci led a series of military and influence campaigns that led to the unification of the majority of the Jurchen tribes. In 1616, Nurhaci established the Later Jin dynasty and ruled as its founding khan.
This is a timeline of the Xinjiang under the rule of the Qing dynasty.
This is a timeline of the Era of Fragmentation, the period of Tibetan history lasting from the death of the Tibetan Empire's last emperor, Langdarma, in 842 until Drogön Chögyal Phagpa gained control over the three provinces of Tibet in 1253 under Mongol rule.