Timeline of the Kashmir conflict (1846–1946)

Last updated

The following is a timeline of the Kashmir conflict during the period 1846–1946.


1846–1930: Early princely state

1931–1940: Political mobilisation


1941–1946: Emerging conflict


See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jammu & Kashmir National Conference</span> Political party in Jammu and Kashmir

The Jammu & Kashmir National Conference (JKNC) is a regional political party in the Indian union territories of Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh. Founded as the All Jammu and Kashmir Muslim Conference by Sheikh Abdullah and Chaudhry Ghulam Abbas in 1932 in the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, the organisation renamed itself to "National Conference" in 1939 in order to represent all the people of the state. It supported the accession of the princely state to India in 1947. Prior to that, in 1941, a group led by Ghulam Abbas broke off from the National Conference and revived the old Muslim Conference. The revived Muslim Conference supported the accession of the princely state to Pakistan and led the movement for Azad Kashmir.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ram Chandra Kak</span> Indian politician

Ram Chandra Kak was the prime minister of Jammu and Kashmir during 1945–1947. One of the very few Kashmiri Pandits to ever hold that post, Kak had the intractable job of navigating the troubled waters of the transfer of power from British Raj to the independent dominions of India and Pakistan. He handled the activism of the state's political parties, the National Conference and Muslim Conference, and warded off pressure from the new dominions for the accession of the state. He advised the Maharaja to stay independent for at least a year before making the final decision. His actions were highly unpopular with the state's activist Muslims, and he was dismissed from the post of prime minister shortly before the independence of India and Pakistan in August 1947.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sheikh Abdullah</span> Indian politician in Jammu and Kashmir (1905–1982)

Sheikh Mohammad Abdullah was an Indian politician who played a central role in the politics of Jammu and Kashmir. Abdullah was the founding leader of the All Jammu and Kashmir Muslim Conference and the 1st elected Prime Minister of Jammu and Kashmir after its accession to India. He agitated against the rule of the Maharaja Hari Singh and urged self-rule for Kashmir. He served as the 1st elected Prime Minister of the Princely State of Jammu and Kashmir and was later jailed and exiled. He was dismissed from the position of Prime Ministership on 8 August 1953 and Bakshi Ghulam Mohammad was appointed the new Prime Minister. The expressions 'Sadr-i-Riyasat' and 'Prime Minister' were replaced with the terms 'Governor' and 'Chief Minister' in 1965. Sheikh Abdullah again became the Chief Minister of the state following the 1974 Indira-Sheikh accord and remained in the top slot till his death on 8 September 1982.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kashmir conflict</span> Territorial conflict in South Asia

The Kashmir conflict is a territorial conflict over the Kashmir region, primarily between India and Pakistan, and also between China and India in the northeastern portion of the region. The conflict started after the partition of India in 1947 as both India and Pakistan claimed the entirety of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir. It is a dispute over the region that escalated into three wars between India and Pakistan and several other armed skirmishes. India controls approximately 55% of the land area of the region that includes Jammu, the Kashmir Valley, most of Ladakh, the Siachen Glacier, and 70% of its population; Pakistan controls approximately 30% of the land area that includes Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan; and China controls the remaining 15% of the land area that includes the Aksai Chin region, the mostly uninhabited Trans-Karakoram Tract, and part of the Demchok sector.

The following is a timeline of the Kashmir conflict, a territorial conflict between India, Pakistan and, to a lesser degree, China. India and Pakistan have been involved in four wars and several border skirmishes over the issue.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bakshi Ghulam Mohammad</span> Indian politician

Bakshi Ghulam Mohammad (1907–1972) was an Indian politician belonging to the Jammu & Kashmir National Conference, who served as the Prime Minister of Jammu and Kashmir from 1953 to 1964. Bakshi was a member of the National Conference from its founding and rose to be the second in command to the principal leader Sheikh Abdullah. He served as the Deputy Prime Minister of the State of Jammu and Kashmir between 1947 and 1953, but disagreed with Abdullah's advocacy of independence for the state in 1953. He staged a 'coup' with the help of the Head of State Karan Singh, resulting in the dismissal and imprisonment of Sheikh Abdullah. Bakshi was the longest serving Prime Minister of Jammu and Kashmir, whose rule saw the formulation of the Constitution of Jammu and Kashmir and a normalisation of relations of Jammu and Kashmir with the Indian government.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">All Jammu and Kashmir Muslim Conference</span> Political party in Pakistan

The All Jammu and Kashmir Muslim Conference (Urdu: آل جموں و کشمیر مسلم کانفرنس) also shortly referred as Muslim Conference (MC) is a political party in Pakistan administrated territory of Azad Jammu and Kashmir. The party was founded by Chaudhry Ghulam Abbas in the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir as a splinter group of the Jammu & Kashmir National Conference.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mirza Afzal Beg</span> Indian politician

Mirza Mohammad Afzal Beg widely known as FAKHR-É-KASHMIR (1908–1982) was a Kashmiri politician and one of the founding members of Jammu & Kashmir National Conference. He served as a minister in the pre-independence period in the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, and as the revenue minister in the post-independence government headed by Sheikh Abdullah. In this post he led the land reforms in Jammu and Kashmir, recognised as the most successful land reforms in India.

The Jammu and Kashmir Legislative Assembly also known as the Jammu and Kashmir Vidhan Sabha is the legislature of Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Chaudhry Ghulam Abbas</span> Pakistani politician

Chaudhry Ghulam Abbas was a leading politician of Jammu and Kashmir and the President of the Muslim Conference party. After his migration to Pakistan administered Kashmir in 1947, he became the head of the Azad Kashmir (AJK) government.

Naya Kashmir is the name given to the memorandum that Sheikh Abdullah the leader of Kashmir's leading political party the National Conference submitted to Maharaja Hari Singh the ruler of Jammu and Kashmir State on his return to Kashmir after attending a meeting of the Imperial War Cabinet of Great Britain followed by a tour of Europe and Middle East in 1944. It was the outline of a plan to convert the Jammu and Kashmir state from an absolute monarchy to constitutional democracy with the Maharajah remaining as the Head of the State as the Monarch is in Britain. A detailed economic plan for the development of Jammu and Kashmir State was a part of this memorandum. It was subsequently adopted by the National Conference as its manifesto. The "Naya Kashmir" plan proved to be immensely popular in Kashmir as it was the blueprint for a welfare state far in advance of its times. The text of Naya Kashmir in Urdu language is reprinted in the book "Tehreek e Hurriyat e Kashmir"

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kashmir Martyrs' Day</span> Commemoration of the massacres of 1931

KashmirMartyrs' Day or Kashmir Day, was a former official state holiday observed in Kashmir in remembrance of 21 Muslim protesters killed on 13 July 1931 by Dogra forces of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir.

The Jammu Praja Parishad was a political party active in the Jammu Division of the Indian-administered Jammu and Kashmir. It was founded in November 1947 by the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh activist Balraj Madhok, and served as the main opposition party in the state. It maintained close ties with Bharatiya Jana Sangh during its lifetime and merged with the latter in 1963. Its main activity was to campaign for the close integration of Jammu and Kashmir with India and oppose the special status granted to the state under the Article 370 of the Indian constitution. After its merger with the Bharatiya Jana Sangh, the precursor of the present day Bharatiya Janata Party, the party gradually rose in stature. As an integral part of the Bharatiya Janata Party, it was a partner in the ruling coalition led by the People's Democratic Party.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1947 Jammu massacres</span> Genocidal massacres in Jammu

After the Partition of India, during October–November 1947 in the Jammu region of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, many Muslims were massacred and others driven away to West Punjab. The killings were carried out by extremist Hindus and Sikhs, aided and abetted by the forces of Maharaja Hari Singh. The activists of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) played a key role in planning and executing the riots. An estimated 20,000–100,000 Muslims were massacred. Subsequently, many non-Muslims were massacred by Pakistani tribesmen, in the Mirpur region of today's Pakistani administered Kashmir, and also in the Rajouri area of Jammu division.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1931 Kashmir agitation</span> 1931 Agitation in Kashmir

A widespread agitation throughout the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir in British Raj occurred in 1931 against the Maharaja's government. The Maharaja was forced to appoint the Glancy Commission to investigate the people's concerns. Various political reforms were adopted including the introduction of the Jammu and Kashmir Praja Sabha. The movement also saw the rise of Sheikh Muhammad Abdullah as the leader of Kashmiris. The movement was funded by some well-to-do Muslim Zaildars and business houses.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1947 Poonch rebellion</span> Political rebellion in the Poonch district of Kashmir at the end of British Raj

In spring 1947, an uprising against the Maharaja Hari Singh of Jammu and Kashmir broke out in the Poonch jagir, an area bordering the Rawalpindi district of West Punjab and the Hazara district of the North-West Frontier Province in the future Pakistan. The leader of the rebellion, Sardar Muhammad Ibrahim Khan, escaped to Lahore by the end of August 1947 and persuaded the Pakistani authorities to back the rebellion. In addition to the backing, Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan authorised an invasion of the state, by the ex-Indian National Army personnel in the south and a force led by Major Khurshid Anwar in the north. These invasions eventually led to the First Kashmir War fought between India and Pakistan, and the formation of Pakistan administered Kashmir. The Poonch jagir has since been divided across Azad Kashmir, administered by Pakistan and the state of Jammu and Kashmir, administered by India.

Under Dogra rule, people in the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir launched several political movements. Despite ideological differences and varying goals they aimed to improve the status of Muslims in a state ruled by a Hindu dynasty.

Mirwaiz Muhammad Yusuf Shah was a religious leader and politician in the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir during the British Raj. He served as the Imam of the Jama Masjid in Srinagar, a position that is also known as the "Mirwaiz of Kashmir". He relegated the majority of his political career to opposing the Jammu & Kashmir National Conference of Sheikh Abdullah, including siding with Pakistan during the First Kashmir War. He moved to Azad Kashmir and eventually served as the president of Azad Kashmir.

The first election for a legislative assembly called Praja Sabha was held in 1934 in the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir in the British Indian Empire. The Praja Sabha was to have 75 members, of which 12 would be officials, 33 elected members and 30 nominated members. The election was held on 3 September 1934. The All Jammu and Kashmir Muslim Conference under the leadership of Sheikh Abdullah was the largest elected party with 16 seats won. A 'Liberal Group' championed by the Dogra Sadar Sabha had the overall majority in the Assembly with 24 members.


  1. Jalal, Self and Sovereignty (2002), p. 354.
  2. 1 2 Schofield, Kashmir in Conflict 2003, p. 18.
  3. Mridu Rai, Hindu Rulers, Muslim Subjects 2004, Ch. 5, Sec. v (Constructing Kashmiriyat).
  4. 1 2 Guha, Opening a Window in Kashmir 2004, p. 80.
  5. Copland, Ian (1981), "Islam and Political Mobilization in Kashmir, 1931–34", Pacific Affairs, 54 (2): 228–259, doi:10.2307/2757363, JSTOR   2757363
  6. Parashar, Kashmir and the Freedom Movement 2004, p. 103.
  7. 1 2 3 Kapoor, Politics of Protests in Jammu and Kashmir 2014, p. 219.
  8. Kapoor, Politics of Protests in Jammu and Kashmir 2014, p. 220.
  9. 1 2 3 4 Hiro, Longest August 2015, Chapter 6.
  10. Kapoor, Politics of Protests in Jammu and Kashmir 2014, p. 221.
  11. 1 2 3 4 Kapoor, Politics of Protests in Jammu and Kashmir 2014, p. 222.
  12. 1 2 Parashar, Kashmir and the Freedom Movement 2004, p. 114.
  13. Hussain, Sheikh Abdullah – A Biography 2016, p. 248.
  14. Parashar, Kashmir and the Freedom Movement 2004, p. 115.
  15. Kapoor, Politics of Protests in Jammu and Kashmir 2014, p. 223.
  16. Khan, Freedom movement in Kashmir 1980, p. 376.
  17. Parashar, Kashmir and the Freedom Movement 2004, pp. 142–143.
  18. Snedden, Kashmir: The Unwritten History 2013, p. 327.
  19. Korbel, Danger in Kashmir 1966, p. 203.
  20. Korbel, Danger in Kashmir 1966, p. 23.