This is a timeline of the 1967–present Naxalite–Maoist insurgency in eastern India.
The People's War Group (PWG) intensified its attacks against politicians, police officers, and land and business owners in response to a July ban imposed on the group by the Andhra Pradesh government. The government responded by tightening security, allegedly ordering attacks on suspected PWG members by state police and the "Green Tigers". Police forces continued to have virtual impunity for the killing of PWG rebels during police encounters. The Maoist Communist Center rebels intensified their armed campaign against Indian security forces following the killing of their leader by police in December. An estimated 140 people were killed in fighting between the PWG and government forces throughout the year. According to government reports, 482 people have died during the conflict in 2002.
Sporadic, low:intensity fighting between the PWG and government forces continued for most of the year. Attacks on police and Telugu Desam Party officials, believed to be carried out by the PWG, accounted for most major incidents and deaths. A three:month cease:fire, announced in late June, led to failed negotiations between the government and the PWG. A few days into the cease:fire, an attack attributed to the PWG placed the cease:fire in jeopardy. More than 500 people were killed in sporadic, low:intensity fighting, a reduction from previous years. Most victims were members of the police forces or the Telugu Desam Party (a regional political party).
Violent clashes between Maoist rebels and state security forces and paramilitary groups increased following the breakdown of peace talks between the PWG and the state government of Andhra Pradesh. Rebels continued to employ a wide range of low intensity guerrilla tactics against government institutions, officials, security forces and paramilitary groups. For the first time in recent years, Maoist rebels launched two large scale attacks against urban government targets. Fighting was reported in 12 states covering most of south, central and north India with the exception of India's northeast and northwest. More than 700 people were reported killed this year in violent clashes. Over one:third of those killed were civilians.
Maoist attacks continued, primarily on government and police targets. Civilians were also impacted by landmine attacks affecting railway cars and truck convoys. Clashes between state police and rebels also resulted in deaths of members of both parties, and civilians that were caught in the firing. Fighting differs from state to state, depending on security and police force responses. In the state of Andhra Pradesh, security forces have been somewhat successful in maintaining control and combating Maoist rebels. The other state that is most affected, Chhattisgarh, has seen an increase in violence between Maoist rebels and villagers who are supported by the government. In 2006, 500 to 750 people were estimated killed, fewer than half Naxalites, and approximately one-third civilians.
Fighting continued between Naxalite Maoists and government security forces throughout the year. The majority of hostilities took place in Chhattisgarh, which turned especially deadly when over 400 Naxalites attacked a Chhattisgarh police station, seizing arms and killing dozens.
Civilians were most impacted by the ongoing fighting between Maoist rebels and government security forces. Of the 16 states affected by this conflict, Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand were the most impacted. One positive note for Chhattisgarh was that fatalities, although still high, were significantly down from 2007. Similarly, Andhra Pradesh, the state with the most Maoist activity a few years ago, has improved security with a corresponding drop in fatality rates. Unfortunately, as conditions have improved in Chhattisgarh and Andhra Pradesh, the Maoist forces seem to have shifted their operations to the state of Orissa where conditions have worsened. South Asia Terrorism Portal's fatality count across the six states that saw the majority of the fighting (Bihar, Orissa, Jharkhand, Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, and Andhra Pradesh) was 794. This included 399 civilians, 221 security force personnel and 174 insurgents.
In 2009, Naxalites were active across approximately 180 districts in ten states of India.Around 1100 people died, including 600 civilians, 300 security personnel and 200 naxals.
|15 February||Shilda camp attack . A Naxalite attack on a para military camp in West Bengal kills 24 para military personnel, with many more reported missing.||24+|
|18 February||The Maoists dragged a doctor out from his house and shot him dead. The Maoists then threatened the villagers with dire consequences if they inform the police.||1|
|18 February||At least 12 villagers were killed and 12 injured in indiscriminate firing by the Maoists in Jamui district of Bihar. 25 village houses were also burned down.||12+|
|20 February||Maoists killed a village guard by slitting his throat.[ citation needed ]||1|
|4 April||11 policemen were killed and ten wounded when rebels blew up a police bus in Orissa's Koraput district.||11|
|6 April||Dantewada ambush . Naxalite rebels killed 75 Indian paramilitary personnel and 1 state police constable in a series of attacks on security convoys in Dantewada district in the central Indian state of Chhattisgarh. The attack resulted in the biggest loss of life security forces have suffered since launching a large:scale offensive against the rebels.||76|
|30 April||2 lorry drivers were dragged out from their truck and shot dead.||2|
|2 May||A 16 year old girl who fled the Maoist camp was allegedly raped by the Maoists.||-|
|8 May||Eight Indian paramilitary troopers were killed when Naxalite rebels blew up a police vehicle in the central state of Chhattisgarh.||8|
|16 May||Six villagers were murdered by slitting their throats by the Maoists.||6|
|17 May||2010 Dantewada bus bombing||44|
|29 June||2010 Maoist attack in Narayanpur||26|
|8–10 July||Maoist rebels carried out a series of attacks, including shootings and bombings across many numerous Indian states around the country, killing eleven. Six Naxalites were also killed by police||11|
Despite the continued violence in 2011, the most recent central government campaign to contain and reduce the militant Naxalite presence appears to be having some success, the 2011 toll of 447 civilians and 142 security personnel killed having been nearly 50% lower than the 2010 toll. Some states experiencing this sharp reduction in Naxalite hostilities, such as Madhya Pradesh, attribute their success to their use of IAP funds for rural development.Soni Sori, an Indian activist and political leader, went on a hunger strike after being denied access to visit Hidme's district or her family members. She has been a vocal voice against instances of gender:related violence. The Delhi Police's Crime Branch for Chhattisgarh arrested her in 2011 on charges of acting as a conduit for Maoists.
In Mid March, Maoist rebels kidnapped two Italians in Orissa. They later released one, while the government of Orissa negotiated for the release of the second. The Maoists released the second hostage in the middle of April. The Member of the Legislative Assembly(MLA) of Laxmipur constituency (Orissa), Jhin Hikka, was abducted by the Maoists in March, who demand the release of 30 Maoist cadres (presently in jail) in exchange for the freedom of the MLA. The Orissa Government is negotiating with the cadres with the help of arbitrators to free the MLA.
On 27 March 2012, an explosion blamed on Maoists killed 15 Indian policemen in Maharashtra.
|10 June||A CRPF trooper was killed in a blast by Maoists in a forested area in Gaya.||1|
|29 June||17 men, and one woman, suspected to be Naxalites, were killed in an encounter, and seven were arrested. 6 CRPF soldiers were injured.||18|
|1 July||36 Maoist rebels were arrested in Visakhapatnam, including Lambayya, a Naxalite leader, with a bounty of Rs. 30,000 on his head.||-|
|18 Oct||Six CRPF men were killed and eight personnel, including a deputy commandant, were injured in landmine blasts and gunbattle between the cops and the Maoists that followed the explosions during an anti:Naxal operation near Barha village under the Dumaria police station in Gaya district.||6|
Total Incidents 21 happened 94 (+1) killed 20 wounded.
The Communist Party of India (Maoist) is a Marxist–Leninist–Maoist banned communist political party and militant organization in India which aims to overthrow the "semi-colonial and semi-feudal Indian state" through protracted people's war. It was founded on 21 September 2004, through the merger of the Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist) People's War (People's War Group) and the Maoist Communist Centre of India (MCCI). The party has been designated as a terrorist organisation in India under the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act since 2009.
Mahendra Karma was an Indian political leader belonging to Indian National Congress from Chhattisgarh. He was the leader of the opposition in the Chhattisgarh Vidhan Sabha from 2004 to 2008. In 2005, he played a top role in organising the Salwa Judum movement against Naxalites, a Maoist group in Chhattisgarh. He was a Minister of Industry and Commerce in the Ajit Jogi cabinet since the state formation in 2000 to 2004. He was assassinated by Naxalites on 25 May 2013 in the 2013 Naxal attack in Darbha valley while returning from a Parivartan Rally meeting organised by his party in Sukma.
Salwa Judum was a militia that was mobilised and deployed as part of counterinsurgency operations in Chhattisgarh, India, aimed at countering Naxalite activities in the region. The militia, consisting of local tribal youth, received support and training from the Chhattisgarh state government. It was outlawed and banned by a Supreme Court court order but continues to exist in the form of armed auxiliary forces, District Reserve Groups, and other vigilante groups.
The Naxalite–Maoist insurgency is an ongoing conflict between Maoist groups known as Naxalites or Naxals and the Indian government. The influence zone of the Naxalites is called the red corridor, which has been steadily declining in terms of geographical coverage and number of violent incidents, and in 2021 it was confined to the 25 "most affected" locations, accounting for 85% of Left Wing Extremism (LWE) violence, and 70 "total affected" districts across 10 states in two coal-rich, remote, forested hilly clusters in and around the Dandakaranya-Chhattisgarh-Odisha region and the tri-junction area of Jharkhand-Bihar and-West Bengal. The Naxalites have frequently targeted police and government workers in what they say is a fight for improved land rights and more jobs for neglected agricultural labourers and the poor.
COBRA is a special operation unit of the Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) of India proficient in guerrilla tactics and jungle warfare. Originally established to counter the Naxalite movement, CoBRA is deployed to address insurgent groups engaging in asymmetrical warfare. Numbering ten battalions as of 2011, CoBRA is considered to be one of the most experienced and successful law enforcement units in the country.
Operation Green Hunt is the name used by the Indian media to describe the "all-out offensive by paramilitary forces and the states forces" against the Naxalites. The operation is believed to have begun in November 2009 along five states in the "Red Corridor."
The April 2010 Dantewada Maoist attack was an 6 April 2010 ambush by Naxalite-Maoist insurgents from the Communist Party of India (Maoist) near Chintalnar village in Dantewada district, Chhattisgarh, India, leading to the killing of 76 CRPF policemen and 8 Maoists — the deadliest attack by the Maoists on Indian security forces.
The 2010 Dantewada bus bombing occurred on 17 May 2010 when a bus hit a landmine 50 km away from Dantewada, in Chhattisgarh's Dantewada district. Fatalities reports range from 31 to 44, including several Special Police Officers (SPOs) and civilians.
The Chhattisgarh Police is the law enforcement agency for the state of Chhattisgarh in India. The agency is administered by the Department of Home Affairs of the Government of Chhattisgarh. The force has specialized units to fight the Naxalite–Maoist insurgency in some districts of the state.
Vinod Kumar Choubey, KC was an Indian Police Service officer of 1998 batch who was killed in action in an encounter with naxalites in the Rajnandgaon ambush in July 2009. Choubey was posthumously awarded with peacetime gallantry award "Kirti Chakra" by Hon. President of India Smt. Pratibha Devisingh Patil in March 2011.
On 25 May 2013, Naxalite insurgents of the Communist Party of India (Maoist) attacked a convoy of Indian National Congress leaders in the Jhiram Ghati, Darbha Valley in the Sukma district of Chhattisgarh, India. The attack caused at least 27 deaths, including that of former state minister Mahendra Karma and Chhattisgarh Congress chief Nand Kumar Patel. Vidya Charan Shukla, a senior Congress leader, succumbed to his injuries on 11 June 2013.
Abujmarh is a hilly forest area, spread over 4,000 square kilometres (1,500 sq mi) in Chhattisgarh, covering Narayanpur district, Bijapur district and Dantewada district. It is home to indigenous tribes of India, including Gond, Muria, Abuj Maria, and Halbaas. It was only in 2009 that the Government of Chhattisgarh lifted the restriction on the entry of common people in the area imposed in the early 1980s. Geographically isolated and largely inaccessible, the area continues to show no physical presence of the civil administration, and is also known as "liberated-zone" as it is an alleged hub of Naxalite-Maoist insurgency, the banned Communist Party of India (Maoist) and its military wing, People's Liberation Guerilla Army (PLGA), who run a parallel government in the area.
Kadari Satyanarayan Reddy, commonly known by his nom de guerre, Kosa, was a Central Committee member of the Communist Party of India (Maoist), a banned Maoist insurgent communist party in India.
The People's Liberation Guerrilla Army (PLGA) is the armed wing of the Communist Party of India (Maoist), a banned political organisation in India which aims to overthrow the Indian Government through protracted people's war.
The 2018 Chhattisgarh Legislative Assembly election was held to elect members to the Legislative Assembly of the Indian State of Chhattisgarh. The election was held in two phases for a total of 90 seats; the first for 18 seats in South Chhattisgarh was held on 12 November 2018, and the second for the remaining 72 were held on 20 November.
The Sukma attack was an ambush carried out by the Communist Party of India (Maoist) against Indian paramilitary forces on 24 April 2017, during the Naxalite-Maoist insurgency. It was the largest ambush since a similar attack in 2010, in the neighbouring district of Dantewada.
On 13 March 2018, at least nine Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) personnel were killed and six others were injured when Maoists blew up a mine-protected vehicle with an IED in Sukma district, Chhattisgarh, India.
Madvi Hidma is the youngest member of the Central Committee of Communist Party of India (Maoist). Hidma is allegedly responsible for various attacks on the security forces in Chhattisgarh, and the 2013 Naxal attack in Darbha valley. A bounty has been placed for his capture.
The 2021 Sukma-Bijapur attack was an ambush carried out by the Naxalite-Maoist insurgents from the Communist Party of India (Maoist) against Indian security forces on 3 April 2021 at Sukma-Bijapur border near Jonaguda village which falls under Jagargunda police station area in Sukma district of Chhattisgarh, leading to the killing of 22 security personnel and 9 Naxalites. The death toll was the worst for Indian security forces fighting the Naxalites since 2017.
On 26 April 2023, a blast took place in the Indian state of Chhattisgarh's Dantewada district. While they were returning from an anti-Maoist operation undertaken based on intelligence inputs, a party of ten policemen and their driver who were members of the District Reserve Guard (DRG) of Chhattisgarh Police were killed in a blast caused by an improvised explosive device (IED) detonated by Naxals. The incident happened in the Dantewada neighborhood of the Aranpur police station.
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