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1807–1815 - Duchy of Warsaw: puppet state in ally with the First French Empire: various Polish formations fighting within the French army, the Duchy's forces took part in the invasion on the Russian state: Battle of Borodino, Battle of Berezina;
1815–1830 - the puppet Polish Kingdom, ruled by tsars (kings of Poland), with some autonomy, especially separate armed forces, which fought in the Polish-Russian War 1830–1831, largely known as the November Uprising; after the war the Kingdom became officially part of the Russian Empire, hence all Polish forces were disbanded.
The Polish under the rule of Berlin and Vienna had no military formations of their own until World War I.
Michael I was the ruler of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth as King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 29 September 1669 until his death in 1673.
Jan Karol Chodkiewicz was a military commander of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth army who was from 1601 Field Hetman of Lithuania, and from 1605 Grand Hetman of Lithuania, and was one of the most prominent noblemen and military commanders of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth of his era. His coat of arms was Chodkiewicz, as was his family name.
The term Deluge denotes a series of mid-17th-century campaigns in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. In a wider sense it applies to the period between the Khmelnytsky Uprising of 1648 and the Truce of Andrusovo in 1667, thus comprising the Polish theatres of the Russo-Polish and Second Northern Wars. In a stricter sense, the term refers to the Swedish invasion and occupation of the Commonwealth as a theatre of the Second Northern War (1655–1660) only; in Poland and Lithuania this period is called the Swedish Deluge, or less commonly the Russo–Swedish Deluge due to the Russo-Polish War. The term deluge was popularized by Henryk Sienkiewicz in his novel The Deluge (1886).
The Second Northern War was fought between Sweden and its adversaries the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1655–60), the Moscow Tsardom (1656–58), Brandenburg-Prussia (1657–60), the Habsburg Monarchy (1657–60) and Denmark–Norway. The Dutch Republic often intervened against Sweden in an informal trade war but was not a recognized part of the Polish–Danish alliance.
The Khmelnytsky Uprising, also known as the Cossack-Polish War, the Chmielnicki Uprising, the Khmelnytsky massacre or the Khmelnytsky insurrection was a Cossack rebellion that took place between 1648 and 1657 in the eastern territories of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, which led to the creation of a Cossack Hetmanate in Ukraine. Under the command of Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky, the Zaporozhian Cossacks, allied with the Crimean Tatars and local Ukrainian peasantry, fought against Polish domination and against the Commonwealth forces. The insurgency was accompanied by mass atrocities committed by Cossacks against the civilian population, especially against the Roman Catholic clergy and the Jews.
Stanisław "Rewera" Potocki (1589–1667) was a Polish noble, magnate and military leader. Together with Stefan Czarniecki he was successful in defeating the invading Swedes and Russians during The Deluge. He was the most trusted advisor of King John II Casimir.
Prince Janusz Radziwiłł, also known as Janusz the Second or Janusz the Younger was a noble and magnate in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Throughout his life he occupied a number of posts in the state administration, including that of Court Chamberlain of Lithuania, Field Hetman of Lithuania and Grand Hetman of Lithuania. He was also a voivode of Vilna Voivodeship, as well as a starost of Samogitia, Kamieniec, Kazimierz and Sejwy. He was a protector of the Protestant religion in Lithuania and sponsor of many Protestant schools and churches.
Khotyn is a city in Dnistrovskyi Raion, Chernivtsi Oblast of western Ukraine and is located south-west of Kamianets-Podilskyi. It hosts the administration of Khotyn urban hromada, one of the amalgamated hromadas of Ukraine. According to the 2001 Ukrainian census, it has a population of 11,124. Current population: 9,132 (2020 est.)
Union of Kėdainiai was an agreement between several magnates of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the king of the Swedish Empire, Charles X Gustav. It was signed on 20 October 1655 during the "Swedish Deluge", part of the Second Northern War. In contrast to the preceding Treaty of Kėdainiai of 17 August, which put Lithuania under Swedish protection, the purpose of the Swedish-Lithuanian union was to end Lithuania's union with Poland, and set up two separate principalities in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. One of these was to be ruled by the Radziwiłł (Radvila) family, while the rest of the duchy was to remain a Swedish protectorate.
The Treaty of Hadiach was a treaty signed on 16 September 1658 in Hadiach between representatives of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and Ukrainian Cossacks. It was designed to elevate the Cossacks and Ruthenians to the position equal to that of Poland and Lithuania in the Polish–Lithuanian union and in fact transforming the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth into a Polish–Lithuanian–Ruthenian Commonwealth.
The Russo-Polish War of 1654–1667, also called the Thirteen Years' War, First Northern War, War for Ukraine or Russian Deluge, was a major conflict between the Tsardom of Russia and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Between 1655 and 1660, the Swedish invasion was also fought in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and so the period became known in Poland as "The Deluge" or Swedish Deluge. Because of this, it is sometimes referred as Russo–Swedish Deluge.
The Polish–Swedish War of 1621 to 1625 was a war in a long-running series of conflicts between the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Swedish Empire. It began with a Swedish invasion of the Polish–Lithuanian fiefdom Livonia. Swedish forces succeeded in taking the city of Riga after a siege. The Commonwealth, focussed on war with the Ottoman Empire, was unable to send significant forces to stop Gustav Adolf, and signed a truce favorable to Sweden. The Commonwealth ceded Livonia north of the Dvina (Düna) river, and retained only nominal control over Riga. The new truce in Mitau was signed and lasted from November 1622 to March 1625.
The Battle of Khotyn or Battle of Chocim or Hotin War was a combined siege and series of battles which took place between 2 September and 9 October 1621 between a Polish-Lithuanian army with Cossack allies, commanded by the Grand Hetman of Lithuania Jan Karol Chodkiewicz, and an invading Ottoman Imperial army, led by Sultan Osman II, which was stopped until the first autumn snows. On 9 October, due to the lateness of the season and heavy losses - due to failed assaults on Commonwealth fortifications - the Ottomans abandoned their siege and the battle concluded with a stalemate, which is reflected in the treaty where some sections favour the Ottomans while others favoured the Commonwealth. Chodkiewicz died on 24 September 1621 shortly after concluding a treaty with the Turks.
The battle of Gródek Jagielloński or battle of Horodok took place during the Russo-Polish War (1654–67) on 29 September 1655. Russian and Ukrainian Cossack forces under Vasily Borisovich Sheremetev and Bohdan Khmelnytsky engaged a Polish–Lithuanian army under Stanisław "Rewera" Potocki near Gródek Jagielloński, which at that time was part of Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth's Ruthenian Voivodeship. Polish forces were defeated and forced to retreat, losing their supplies to the Russians. The Russians advanced, besieging Lwow, and Potocki with the remains of his army was soon forced to surrender to the invading Swedes.
The early modern era of Polish history follows the late Middle Ages. Historians use the term early modern to refer to the period beginning in approximately 1500 AD and lasting until around 1800.
The Lipka rebellion was a 1672 mutiny of several cavalry chorągwie (regiments) of Lipka Tatars, who had been serving in the forces of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth since the 14th century. The immediate cause of the rebellion was overdue pay, although increasing restrictions on their established privileges and religious freedom also played a role.
The history of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569–1648) covers a period in the history of Poland and Lithuania, before their joint state was subjected to devastating wars in the middle of the 17th century. The Union of Lublin of 1569 established the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, a more closely unified federal state, replacing the previously existing personal union of the two countries. The Union was largely run by the Polish and increasingly Polonized Lithuanian and Ruthenian nobility, through the system of the central parliament and local assemblies, but from 1573 led by elected kings. The formal rule of the proportionally more numerous than in other European countries nobility constituted a sophisticated early democratic system, in contrast to the absolute monarchies prevalent at that time in the rest of Europe.
The history of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1648–1764) covers a period in the history of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, from the time their joint state became the theater of wars and invasions fought on a great scale in the middle of the 17th century, to the time just before the election of Stanisław August Poniatowski, the last king of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
The military of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth consisted of two administratively separate armies of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania following the 1569 Union of Lublin, which joined to form the bi-conderate elective monarchy of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. The Polish army was commanded by the Hetmans of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, commanding the armies of their respective country. The most unique formation of both armies was the heavy cavalry in the form of the Polish-Lithuanian winged hussars. The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Navy never played a major role in the military structure, and ceased to exist in the mid-17th century.