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The timeline of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum (1077–1307) is summarized below.
After the battles of Pasinler in 1048 and Malazgirt in 1071 Turks founded a number of states in Anatolia. These were the vassals of Great Seljuk Empire. In fact one of the most powerful of these vassal states had been founded by a member of Seljuk house and the name of this state was the Sultanate of Rum.
The founder of the state was Süleyman I. Paternal grandfathers of the sultan Melik Shah of Great Seljuk Empire and Suleyman I were brothers. But soon, the Seljuks of Rûm began to act independently of the Great Seljuk Empire and annexed the territories of other Turkish states in Anatolia. Their history is notable for:
|1071||Alp Arslan of the Great Seljuk Empire defeats Romanos IV Diogenis of the Byzantine Empire at Malazgirt, near Muş, Byzantine Armenia.|
|1077||Suleyman I is appointed as a governor in Seljuk possessions in Anatolia, but he acts independently and founds a state.|
|1081||Suleyman takes control of Nicaea (modern İznik, Bursa Province) after supporting the rebellion of Nikephoros Melissenos, making the city his capital. Suleyman then makes a treaty with Alexios Komnenos who acknowledges his reign and both decide on the river Draco as a border river. At the same time, Tzachas an independent Turkmen bey (not a member of Seljuk house, but the father in law of Kılıç Arslan I) founds a principality in Smyrna, (modern İzmir), being the first Turkmen to content for the Aegean Sea.|
|1084||Conquest of Antioch (modern Antakya) by Suleyman. At the same time, another Turkmen warlord named Elchanes takes control of Apollonias and Kyzikios.|
|1086||Suleyman I tries to add Syria to his realm, but is defeated by his cousin Tutush I in the Battle of Ain Salm, Syria. His appointed governor of Nicaea, Abu'l-Qasim, takes control of the realm and tries unsuccessfully to expand the realm but he has to content with punitive expeditions under Bozan send by the Great Seljuk Sultan Malik Shah.|
|1092||Kılıç Arslan I escapes prison after the death of Malik Shah in November 1092 and claims Nicaea and the sultanate from Poulchanes, the brother of Abu'l-Qasim. He reigns until his death in 1107.|
|1094/1095||Kılıç Arslan I murders his father-in-law Tzachas at a banquet.|
|1096||Kılıç Arslan I defeats Walter Sans Avoir and Peter the Hermit of People's Crusade at the battles of Xerigordon and Battle of Civetot both in Northwest Anatolia.|
|1097||Bohemund of Taranto, Godfrey of Bouillon and Adhemar of Le Puy of First Crusade defeat Kılıç Arslan I two times, first in a battle before Nicaea and then in the battle of Dorylaeum (near modern Eskişehir, Central Anatolia). The capital Nicaea is lost to the Byzantines who retake the city with the help of the First Crusade. A few years later, Iconium (modern Konya), becomes the new capital.|
|1100||Danishmend Gazi, an independent bey, defeats Bohemond I of Antioch in the battle of Melitene (Malatya).|
|1101||Kılıç Arslan I defeats Stephen of Blois and Hugh of Vermandois of the second wave of First Crusades at the Battle of Mersivan (near modern Merzifon, Amasya Province, Central Anatolia.)|
|1107||Kılıç Arslan conquers Musul, Iraq, but is defeated in the battle.|
|1110||Şahinşah (1107–1116) (also called Melikşah, not to be confused with the sultan of Great Seljuk Empire with the same name) Continuous struggle with the Crusades weakens the state.|
|1116||Mesut I (1116–1156) During the early years of his reign he has to accept the dominance of Danishmends a rival Turkish state in Anatolia.|
|1142||Mehmed of Danishmends dies and the Sultanate of Rum becomes the leading power of Anatolia for the second time.|
|1147||Mesut I defeats Holy Roman Emperor Conrad III of Second Crusade in the Second battle of Dorylaeum (near modern Eskişehir)|
|1147||Mesud I defeats French king Louis VII of Second Crusade at Laodicea (near modern Denizli, West Anatolia).|
|1156||Kılıç Arslan II (1156–1192)|
|1176||Kılıç Arslan defeats Manuel I Komnenos of Byzantine Empire in the battle of Myriokephalon|
|1178||Kılıç Arslan II annexes Danishmend realm. (Sivas, and the surrounding territory, Central Anatolia.)|
|1186||Kılıç Arslan II partitions the country into 11 provinces, each governed by one of his sons|
|1190||Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa of Third Crusade crosses West Anatolia. While main Turkish army avoids conflict, several irregular troops try to fight, but are repelled. Temporary German occupation of capital Konya.|
|1190||Frederick Barbarossa of Third Crusade dies near Silifke, Mersin province in South Anatolia.|
|1192||Keyhüsrev I (1192–1196)|
|1194||After the collapse of Great Seljuk Empire, the Sultanate of Rum become the sole surviving branch of Seljuks.|
|1196||Süleyman II (1196–1204)|
|1202||Süleyman II annexes Saltukid realm (Erzurum, and the surrounding territory, Eastern Anatolia.)|
|1202||Kingdom of Georgia defeats Süleyman II at the Battle of Micingerd|
|1204||Kılıç Arslan III (1204–1205)|
|1205||Keyhüsrev I (1205–1211) (second time)|
|1207||Capture of Antalya, access to Mediterranean Sea|
|1211||Keykavus I (1211–1220)|
|1214||Capture of Sinop, Black sea coast|
|1220||Alaaddin Keykubat I (1220–1237)|
|1221||Capture of Alanya, Antalya province, Mediterranean coast|
|1223||Construction of an arsenal in Alanya, a sign of Alaaddin Keykubat's interest in maritime trade|
|1224||Alaaddin Keykubat annexes a part of Artuqid realm (Harput and surrounding territory .)|
|1227||Sudak in Crimea is captured. This is the most notable overseas campaign of Seljuks.|
|1228||Mongol conquests in Iran result in a flux of refugees to Anatolia, one of the refuges is Mevlana|
|1228||Alaaddin Keykubat I annexes Mengucek realm (Erzincan and the surrounding territory), Eastern Anatolia .|
|1230||Alaaddin Keykubat defeats Celaleddin Harzemşah of Harzemşah Empire in the Battle of Yassıçemen, near Erzincan|
|1237||Keyhüsrev II (1237–1246)|
|1238||Sadettin Köpek the vizier of the inexperienced sultan who has executed some members of Seljuk house and becomes the de facto ruler of the sultanate is killed.|
|1239||Revolt of Baba Ishak. A revolt of Turkmen (Oguz) and Harzem refugees who have recently arrived in Anatolia. The revolt is suppressed. But the sultanate loses power.|
|1240||Capture of Diyarbakır in Southeast Anatolia.|
|1243||Bayju of Mongols defeats Keyhüsrev II in the battle of Kösedağ, Eastern Anatolia. From now on, the sultanate is a vassal of Ilkhanids.|
|1246||Keykavus II (1246–1262) Governs together with his two brothers. But the real ruler is vizier Pervâne who has married to late sultan's widow Gürcü Hatun.|
|1256||Mongols defeat Seljuk Turks at the Battle of Sultanhanı, Aksaray Province, Central Anatolia.|
|1258||Mongols partition the country . Double sultanate|
|1262||Kılıç Arslan IV 1260–1266|
|1266||Keyhüsrev III 1266–1284|
|1277||Karamanoğlu Mehmet Bey, a semi independent bey, allies himself with the Mameluk sultan Baybars who invades a part of Anatolia.|
|1277||Karamanoğlu Mehmed Bey conquers Konya and enthrones his puppet Jimri. But Ilkhanids intervene and reestablish Keyhüsrev's reign. (During his short stay in Konya Mehmed Bey declares Turkish as the official language in his realm).|
|1284||Mesut II 1284–1297|
|1289||Seljuk-Ilkhanid coalition defeats the tribes of Germiyanids|
|1297||Alaaddin Kekubat III 1297–1302|
|1302||Mesut II 1302–1307 (second time)|
|1328||The Karamanids conquer the final holdings and put an end to the sultanate|
The Ottoman Turks, were a Turkic ethnic group. They founded the Ottoman Empire in the Early Modern Era and remained sociopolitically the most dominant group in the Empire for the duration.
Ertuğrul or Ertuğrul Gazi was a 13th-century bey, who was the father of Osman I. Little is known about Ertuğrul's life. According to Ottoman tradition, he was the son of Suleyman Shah, the leader of the Kayı tribe of the Oghuz Turks. These Turkomans fled from western Central Asia to Anatolia to escape the Mongol conquests, but he may instead have been the son of Gündüz Alp. According to this legend, after the death of his father, Ertuğrul and his followers entered the service of the Sultanate of Rum, for which he was rewarded with dominion over the town of Söğüt on the frontier with the Byzantine Empire. This set off the chain of events that would ultimately lead to the founding of the Ottoman Empire.
Rumelia, etymologically "Land of the Romans", at the time meaning Eastern Orthodox Christians and more specifically Christians from the Byzantine rite, was the name of a historical region in Southeastern Europe that was administered by the Ottoman Empire, corresponding to the Balkans. In its wider sense, it was used to refer to all Ottoman possessions and vassals in Europe that would later be geopolitically classified as "the Balkans". During the period of its existence, it was more often known in English as Turkey in Europe.
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Suleiman Shah I ibn Qutalmish founded an independent Seljuk Turkish state in Anatolia and ruled as Seljuk Sultan of Rûm from 1077 until his death in 1086.
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The Artuqid dynasty was a Sunni Muslim Turkoman dynasty originated from Döğer tribe that ruled in eastern Anatolia, Northern Syria and Northern Iraq in the eleventh through thirteenth centuries. The Artuqid dynasty took its name from its founder, Artuk Bey, who was of the Döger branch of the Oghuz Turks and ruled one of the Turkmen beyliks of the Seljuk Empire. Artuk's sons and descendants ruled the three branches in the region: Sökmen's descendants ruled the region around Hasankeyf between 1102 and 1231; Ilghazi's branch ruled from Mardin and Mayyafariqin between 1106 and 1186 and Aleppo from 1117–1128; and the Harput line starting in 1112 under the Sökmen branch, and was independent between 1185 and 1233.
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The Battle of Yassıçemen was a battle fought in Anatolia, in what is now Erzincan Province, Turkey in 1230.
Mongol invasions of Anatolia occurred at various times, starting with the campaign of 1241–1243 that culminated in the Battle of Köse Dağ. Real power over Anatolia was exercised by the Mongols after the Seljuks surrendered in 1243 until the fall of the Ilkhanate in 1335. Because the Seljuk sultan rebelled several times, in 1255, the Mongols swept through central and eastern Anatolia. An Ilkhanate garrison was stationed near Ankara. Remains of the Mongol cultural heritage still can be seen in Turkey, including tombs of a Mongol governor and a son of Hulagu.
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Ali of Karaman was the bey of Karamanids in what is now modern Turkey in the 15th century.
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