Timeline of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum

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The timeline of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum (1077–1307) is summarized below. [1] [2]



After the battles of Pasinler in 1048 and Malazgirt in 1071 Turks founded a number of states in Anatolia. These were the vassals of Great Seljuk Empire. In fact one of the most powerful of these vassal states had been founded by a member of Seljuk house and the name of this state was the Sultanate of Rum.

The founder of the state was Süleyman I. Paternal grandfathers of the sultan Melik Shah of Great Seljuk Empire and Suleyman I were brothers. But soon, the Seljuks of Rûm began to act independently of the Great Seljuk Empire and annexed the territories of other Turkish states in Anatolia. Their history is notable for:

11th century

1071 Alp Arslan of the Great Seljuk Empire defeats Romanos IV Diogenis of the Byzantine Empire at Malazgirt, near Muş, Byzantine Armenia.
1077 Suleyman I is appointed as a governor in Seljuk possessions in Anatolia, but he acts independently and founds a state.
1081Suleyman takes control of Nicaea (modern İznik, Bursa Province) after supporting the rebellion of Nikephoros Melissenos, making the city his capital. Suleyman then makes a treaty with Alexios Komnenos who acknowledges his reign and both decide on the river Draco as a border river. At the same time, Tzachas an independent Turkmen bey (not a member of Seljuk house, but the father in law of Kılıç Arslan I) founds a principality in Smyrna, (modern İzmir), being the first Turkmen to content for the Aegean Sea.
1084Conquest of Antioch (modern Antakya) by Suleyman. At the same time, another Turkmen warlord named Elchanes takes control of Apollonias and Kyzikios.
1086Suleyman I tries to add Syria to his realm, but is defeated by his cousin Tutush I in the Battle of Ain Salm, Syria. His appointed governor of Nicaea, Abu'l-Qasim, takes control of the realm and tries unsuccessfully to expand the realm but he has to content with punitive expeditions under Bozan send by the Great Seljuk Sultan Malik Shah.
1092 Kılıç Arslan I escapes prison after the death of Malik Shah in November 1092 and claims Nicaea and the sultanate from Poulchanes, the brother of Abu'l-Qasim. He reigns until his death in 1107.
1094/1095 Kılıç Arslan I murders his father-in-law Tzachas at a banquet.
1096Kılıç Arslan I defeats Walter Sans Avoir and Peter the Hermit of People's Crusade at the battles of Xerigordon and Battle of Civetot both in Northwest Anatolia.
1097 Bohemund of Taranto, Godfrey of Bouillon and Adhemar of Le Puy of First Crusade defeat Kılıç Arslan I two times, first in a battle before Nicaea and then in the battle of Dorylaeum (near modern Eskişehir, Central Anatolia). The capital Nicaea is lost to the Byzantines who retake the city with the help of the First Crusade. A few years later, Iconium (modern Konya), becomes the new capital.
1100 Danishmend Gazi, an independent bey, defeats Bohemond I of Antioch in the battle of Melitene (Malatya).

12th century

1101Kılıç Arslan I defeats Stephen of Blois and Hugh of Vermandois of the second wave of First Crusades at the Battle of Mersivan (near modern Merzifon, Amasya Province, Central Anatolia.)
1107Kılıç Arslan conquers Musul, Iraq, but is defeated in the battle.
1110 Şahinşah (1107–1116) (also called Melikşah, not to be confused with the sultan of Great Seljuk Empire with the same name) Continuous struggle with the Crusades weakens the state.
1116 Mesut I (1116–1156) During the early years of his reign he has to accept the dominance of Danishmends a rival Turkish state in Anatolia.
1142Mehmed of Danishmends dies and the Sultanate of Rum becomes the leading power of Anatolia for the second time.
1147Mesut I defeats Holy Roman Emperor Conrad III of Second Crusade in the Second battle of Dorylaeum (near modern Eskişehir)
1147Mesud I defeats French king Louis VII of Second Crusade at Laodicea (near modern Denizli, West Anatolia).
1156 Kılıç Arslan II (1156–1192)
1176Kılıç Arslan defeats Manuel I Komnenos of Byzantine Empire in the battle of Myriokephalon
1178Kılıç Arslan II annexes Danishmend realm. (Sivas, and the surrounding territory, Central Anatolia.)
1186Kılıç Arslan II partitions the country into 11 provinces, each governed by one of his sons
1190 Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa of Third Crusade crosses West Anatolia. While main Turkish army avoids conflict, several irregular troops try to fight, but are repelled. Temporary German occupation of capital Konya.
1190Frederick Barbarossa of Third Crusade dies near Silifke, Mersin province in South Anatolia.
1192 Keyhüsrev I (1192–1196)
1194After the collapse of Great Seljuk Empire, the Sultanate of Rum become the sole surviving branch of Seljuks.
1196 Süleyman II (1196–1204)

13th century

1202Süleyman II annexes Saltukid realm (Erzurum, and the surrounding territory, Eastern Anatolia.)
1202 Kingdom of Georgia defeats Süleyman II at the Battle of Micingerd
1204 Kılıç Arslan III (1204–1205)
1205 Keyhüsrev I (1205–1211) (second time)
1207Capture of Antalya, access to Mediterranean Sea
1211 Keykavus I (1211–1220)
1214Capture of Sinop, Black sea coast
1220 Alaaddin Keykubat I (1220–1237)
1221Capture of Alanya, Antalya province, Mediterranean coast
1223Construction of an arsenal in Alanya, a sign of Alaaddin Keykubat's interest in maritime trade
1224Alaaddin Keykubat annexes a part of Artuqid realm (Harput and surrounding territory .)
1227 Sudak in Crimea is captured. This is the most notable overseas campaign of Seljuks. [3]
1228 Mongol conquests in Iran result in a flux of refugees to Anatolia, one of the refuges is Mevlana
1228Alaaddin Keykubat I annexes Mengucek realm (Erzincan and the surrounding territory), Eastern Anatolia .
1230Alaaddin Keykubat defeats Celaleddin Harzemşah of Harzemşah Empire in the Battle of Yassıçemen, near Erzincan
1237 Keyhüsrev II (1237–1246)
1238 Sadettin Köpek the vizier of the inexperienced sultan who has executed some members of Seljuk house and becomes the de facto ruler of the sultanate is killed.
1239Revolt of Baba Ishak. A revolt of Turkmen (Oguz) and Harzem refugees who have recently arrived in Anatolia. The revolt is suppressed. But the sultanate loses power.
1240Capture of Diyarbakır in Southeast Anatolia.
1243 Bayju of Mongols defeats Keyhüsrev II in the battle of Kösedağ, Eastern Anatolia. From now on, the sultanate is a vassal of Ilkhanids.
1246 Keykavus II (1246–1262) Governs together with his two brothers. But the real ruler is vizier Pervâne who has married to late sultan's widow Gürcü Hatun.
1256Mongols defeat Seljuk Turks at the Battle of Sultanhanı, Aksaray Province, Central Anatolia.
1258Mongols partition the country . Double sultanate
1262 Kılıç Arslan IV 1260–1266
1266 Keyhüsrev III 1266–1284
1277 Karamanoğlu Mehmet Bey, a semi independent bey, allies himself with the Mameluk sultan Baybars who invades a part of Anatolia.
1277Karamanoğlu Mehmed Bey conquers Konya and enthrones his puppet Jimri. But Ilkhanids intervene and reestablish Keyhüsrev's reign. (During his short stay in Konya Mehmed Bey declares Turkish as the official language in his realm).
1284 Mesut II 1284–1297
1289Seljuk-Ilkhanid coalition defeats the tribes of Germiyanids
1297 Alaaddin Kekubat III 1297–1302

14th century

1302 Mesut II 1302–1307 (second time)
1328The Karamanids conquer the final holdings and put an end to the sultanate

See also

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  1. Prof Dr. Ali Sevim - Prof Dr. Yaşar Yücel: Türkiye tarihi I, AKDTKTTK Yayınları, İstanbul,
  2. Melik Tekin: Türk Tarih Ansiklopedisi, Milliyet yayınları, 1991
  3. A. C. S. Peacock, "The Saliūq Campaign against the Crimea and the Expansionist Policy of the Early Reign of'Alā' al-Dīn Kayqubād", Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Third Series, 16 (2006), pp. 133-149