Timișoara

Last updated

Timișoara
Timisoara collage.jpg
Timisoara Coat of Arms 2009.png
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): 
Little Vienna, City of Flowers, Heart of Banat
(Romanian: Mica Vienă, Orașul Florilor, Inima Banatului) [1]
Romania location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Timișoara
Location of Timișoara within Romania
Coordinates: 45°45′35″N21°13′48″E / 45.75972°N 21.23000°E / 45.75972; 21.23000 Coordinates: 45°45′35″N21°13′48″E / 45.75972°N 21.23000°E / 45.75972; 21.23000
Country Flag of Romania.svg  Romania
County ROU Timis County CoA.svg Timiș
Status County capital
First official record1212 (as Temesiense)
Government
   Mayor Nicolae Robu (PNL)
  Deputy MayorDan Diaconu (PNL)
  Deputy MayorImre Farkas (UDMR)
Area
   County Seat 130.5 km2 (50.4 sq mi)
  Metro
1,570 km2 (610 sq mi)
Elevation
90 m (300 ft)
Population
(2011 census) [2]
   County Seat 319,279Increase2.svg
  Estimate 
(2016) [3]
332,983
  Rank 3rd (98th in EU)
  Density2,447/km2 (6,340/sq mi)
   Metro
359,443 [4]
Demonym(s) timișorean, timișoreancă (ro)
temesvári (hu)
Time zone UTC+2 (EET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+3 (EEST)
Postal code
300001-300990
Tel. code 0256 / 0356
Car Plates TM
Climate Cfb
Website www.primariatm.ro
x Timișoara metropolitan area is a proposed project.

Timișoara (Romanian pronunciation:  [ t i m i ˈ ʃ o̯a r a ] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); German : Temeswar, also formerly Temeschburg or Temeschwar; Hungarian : Temesvár, [ˈtɛmɛʃvaːr] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); Yiddish : טעמשוואר; Serbian : Темишвар / Temišvar; Banat Bulgarian: Timišvár; Turkish : Temeşvar; Slovak : Temešvár) is the capital city of Timiș County, the 3rd largest city in Romania and the main social, economic and cultural centre in western Romania.

German language West Germanic language

German is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe. It is the most widely spoken and official or co-official language in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, South Tyrol (Italy), the German-speaking Community of Belgium, and Liechtenstein. It is also one of the three official languages of Luxembourg and a co-official language in the Opole Voivodeship in Poland. The languages which are most similar to German are the other members of the West Germanic language branch: Afrikaans, Dutch, English, the Frisian languages, Low German/Low Saxon, Luxembourgish, and Yiddish. There are also strong similarities in vocabulary with Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, although those belong to the North Germanic group. German is the second most widely spoken Germanic language, after English.

Hungarian language language spoken in and around Hungary

Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine (Subcarpathia), central and western Romania (Transylvania), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America and in Israel. Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family. With 13 million speakers, it is its largest member in terms of speakers.

Serbian language South Slavic language

Serbian is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language mainly used by Serbs. It is the official language of Serbia, the territory of Kosovo, and one of the three official languages of Bosnia and Herzegovina. In addition, it is a recognized minority language in Montenegro where it is spoken by the relative majority of the population, as well as in Croatia, North Macedonia, Romania, Hungary, Slovakia, and the Czech Republic.

Contents

The third most populous city in the country, with 319,279 inhabitants as of the 2011 census, [2] Timișoara is the informal capital city of the historical region of Banat. In September 2016, Timișoara was selected as the European Capital of Culture for 2021. [5]

This article presents the demographic history of Romania through census results. See Demographics of Romania for a more detailed overview of the country's present-day demographics.

Banat Historical region

The Banat is a geographical and historical region in Central Europe that is currently divided among three countries: the eastern part lies in western Romania ; the western part in northeastern Serbia ; and a small northern part lies within southeastern Hungary.

European Capital of Culture cities recognized by the European Union as culturally significant for Europe

The European Capital of Culture is a city designated by the European Union (EU) for a period of one calendar year during which it organises a series of cultural events with a strong pan-European dimension.

History

Antiquity

Archaeological discoveries prove that the area where Timișoara is located today has been inhabited since ancient times. The first identifiable civilization in this area were the Dacians who left traces of their past. From coin finds, it is known that the settlement was inhabited during Roman Dacia. While no record of the settlement is known from those times, it is generally agreed that the site was inhabited through the Middle Ages when the city was mentioned for the first time.

Timișoara County Seat in Timiș, Romania

Timișoara is the capital city of Timiș County, the 3rd largest city in Romania and the main social, economic and cultural centre in western Romania.

Dacians Indo-European people

The Dacians were a Thracian people who were the ancient inhabitants of the cultural region of Dacia, located in the area near the Carpathian Mountains and west of the Black Sea. This area includes the present-day countries of Romania and Moldova, as well as parts of Ukraine, Eastern Serbia, Northern Bulgaria, Slovakia, Hungary and Southern Poland. The Dacians spoke the Dacian language, a sub-group of Thracian, but were somewhat culturally influenced by the neighbouring Scythians and by the Celtic invaders of the 4th century BC.

Roman Dacia Roman province

Roman Dacia was a province of the Roman Empire from 106 to 274–275 AD. Its territory consisted of eastern and south-eastern Transylvania, the Banat and Oltenia. It was from the very beginning organized as an imperial province, fitting a border area, and remained so throughout the Roman occupation. Historians' estimates of the population of Roman Dacia range from 650,000 to 1,200,000.

Middle Ages

Timișoara was first officially mentioned as a place in either 1212 or 1266 as the Roman [6] fort of Castrum Temesiensis or Castrum regium Themes. [7] The territory later known as Banat was conquered during the Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin (895-896). The town was destroyed by the Tatars in the 13th century but Timișoara was rebuilt and grew considerably during the reign of Charles I, who, upon his visit there in 1307, ordered the fortress to be fortified with stone walls and to build a royal palace. [8] [9] Timișoara's importance also grew due to its strategic location, which facilitated control over the Banat plain. By the middle of the 14th century, Timișoara was at the forefront of Western Christendom's battle against the Muslim Ottoman Turks. French and Hungarian Crusaders met at the city before engaging in the Battle of Nicopolis in 1396. Beginning in 1443, John Hunyadi used Timișoara as a military stronghold against the Turks, having built a powerful fortress. The city was repeatedly besieged by the Ottomans in 1462, 1476, 1491, and 1522.

The Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin, also Hungarian conquest or Hungarian land-taking, was a series of historical events ending with the settlement of the Hungarians in Central Europe at the turn of the 9th and 10th centuries. Before the arrival of the Hungarians, three early medieval powers, the First Bulgarian Empire, East Francia and Moravia, had fought each other for control of the Carpathian Basin. They occasionally hired Hungarian horsemen as soldiers. Therefore, the Hungarians who dwelt on the Pontic steppes east of the Carpathians were familiar with their future homeland when their "land-taking" started.

Charles I of Hungary King of Hungary

Charles I, also known as Charles Robert was King of Hungary and Croatia from 1308 to his death. He was a member of the Capetian House of Anjou and the only son of Charles Martel, Prince of Salerno. His father was the eldest son of Charles II of Naples and Mary of Hungary. She laid claim to Hungary after her brother, Ladislaus IV of Hungary, died in 1290, but the Hungarian prelates and lords elected her cousin, Andrew III, king. Instead of abandoning her claim to Hungary, she transferred it to her son, Charles Martel, and after his death in 1295, to her grandson, Charles. On the other hand, her husband, Charles II of Naples, made their third son, Robert, heir to the Kingdom of Naples, thus disinheriting Charles.

Timișoara Fortress Historical Fortress of Timisoara (demolished)

Timișoara Fortress is a historical fortress in western Romania around which the town of Timișoara was built.

16th–19th centuries

In 1552, a 16,000-strong Ottoman army led by Kara Ahmed Pasha conquered the city and transformed it into a capital city in the region (Temeşvar Eyalet). The local military commander, István Losonczy, and other Christians were massacred on 27 July 1552 while escaping the city through the Azapilor Gate. [10]

Ottoman Empire Former empire in Asia, Europe and Africa

The Ottoman Empire, also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror.

Kara Ahmed Pasha was an Ottoman statesman of Albanian origin. He was Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire between 1553 and 1555.

Siege of Temesvár (1552) siege

The siege of Temesvár was a military conflict between the Habsburg Monarchy and the Ottoman Empire in 1552. The siege resulted with a decisive Ottoman victory and Temesvár came under Ottoman control for 164 years.

Timisoara in 1656, a map by Nicolas Sanson Timisoara1656.jpg
Timișoara in 1656, a map by Nicolas Sanson

Timișoara remained under Ottoman rule for nearly 160 years, controlled directly by the Sultan and enjoying a special status, similar to other cities in the region such as Budapest and Belgrade. During this period, Timișoara was home to a large Islamic community and produced famous historical figures such as Osman Aga of Temesvar, until Prince Eugene of Savoy conquered it in 1716 during the Ottoman-Habsburg war. Subsequently, the city came under Habsburg rule, and it remained so until the early 20th century as part of the Kingdom of Hungary, Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary, except for the Ottoman occupation between 1788–1789 during the 1787–91 Austro-Turkish War. [11] The city was defortified starting in 1892 up until 1910, [12] and several major road arteries were built to connect the suburbs with the city centre, paving the way for further expansion of the city.[ citation needed ]

Budapest Capital city in Hungary

Budapest is the capital and the most populous city of Hungary, and the tenth-largest city in the European Union by population within city limits. The city had an estimated population of 1,752,704 in 2016 distributed over a land area of about 525 square kilometres. Budapest is both a city and county, and forms the centre of the Budapest metropolitan area, which has an area of 7,626 square kilometres and a population of 3,303,786, comprising 33 percent of the population of Hungary.

Belgrade City in Serbia

Belgrade is the capital and largest city of Serbia. It is located at the confluence of the Sava and Danube rivers, where the Pannonian Plain meets the Balkans. The urban area of the City of Belgrade has a population of 1.23 million, while nearly 1.7 million people live within its administrative limits.

Islam is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God (Allah), and that Muhammad is the messenger of God. It is the world's second-largest religion with over 1.8 billion followers or 24% of the world's population, most commonly known as Muslims. Muslims make up a majority of the population in 50 countries. Islam teaches that God is merciful, all-powerful, unique and has guided humankind through prophets, revealed scriptures and natural signs. The primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, and the teachings and normative example of Muhammad.

It was the 1st mainland European city and 2nd in the world after New York to be lit by electric street lamps in 1884. [13] [14] It was also the second European and the first city in what is now Romania with horse-drawn trams in 1869. [15] It is said that Gustave Eiffel, the creator of the Eiffel Tower in Paris, drew the projects of one of Timișoara's footbridges over the Bega, the "Metal Bridge", however, it was actually planned by Róbert Tóth, the head of the Bridge Department, at the Reșița rail factory. [16]

20th century

Historical image of a streetcar in Timisoara in 1910 Timisoara 1910.jpg
Historical image of a streetcar in Timișoara in 1910

On 31 October 1918, local military and political elites established the "Banat National Council", together with representatives of the region's main ethnic groups: Germans, Hungarians, Serbs and Romanians. On 1 November they proclaimed the short-lived Banat Republic. In the aftermath of World War I, the Banat region was divided between the Kingdom of Romania and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, and Timișoara came under Romanian administration after Serbian occupation between 1918–1919. The city was ceded from Hungary to Romania by the Treaty of Trianon on 4 June 1920. In 1920, King Ferdinand I awarded Timișoara the status of a University Centre, and the interwar years saw continuous economic and cultural development. A number of anti-fascist and anti-revisionist demonstrations also took place during this time.

During World War II, Timișoara suffered damage from both Allied and Axis bombing raids, especially during the second half of 1944. On 23 August 1944, Romania, which until then was a member of the Axis, declared war on Nazi Germany and joined the Allies. Surprised, the local Wehrmacht garrison surrendered without a fight,[ citation needed ] and German and Hungarian troops attempted to take the city by force throughout September, without success.

After the war, the People's Republic of Romania was proclaimed, and Timișoara underwent Sovietization and later, Systematization. The city's population tripled between 1948 and 1992. In December 1989, Timișoara witnessed a series of mass street protests in what was to become the Romanian Revolution.[ citation needed ] On 20 December, three days after bloodshed began there, Timișoara was declared the first city free of Communism in Romania. [17]

Geography

Bega canal at night Bega Canal 1.jpg
Bega canal at night

Timișoara lies at an altitude of 90 metres (300 feet) on the southeast edge of the Banat plain, part of the Pannonian Plain near the divergence of the Timiș and Bega rivers. The waters of the two rivers form a swampy and frequently flooded land. Timișoara developed on one of few places where the swamps could be crossed. These constituted a natural protection around the fortress for a very long time, however, they also favoured a wet and insalubrious climate, as well as the proliferation of the plague and cholera, which kept the number of inhabitants at a relatively low number and significantly prevented the development of the city. With time, however, the rivers of the area were drained, dammed and diverted. Due to these hydrographical projects undertaken in the 18th century, the city no longer lies on the Timiș River, but on the Bega canal. This improvement of the land was made irreversible by building the Bega canal (started in 1728) and by the complete draining of the surrounding marshes. However, the land across the city lies above a water table at a depth of only 0.5 to 5 metres (1.6–16.4 feet), a factor which does not allow the construction of tall buildings. The rich black soil and relatively high water table make this a fertile agricultural region.

This is a relatively active seismic area, and earthquakes up to 6 on the Richter scale have been recorded.

Climate

Climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, and there is adequate rainfall year-round. The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfb" (oceanic climate). [18]

The climate which defines Timișoara city is the temperate oceanic climate (Köppen: Cfb) and can be regarded as humid continental (Dfb) when using an isotherm of 0 °C (32 °F). The city characterises the South-Eastern part of The Pannonian Basin.

Climate data for Timișoara, Romania (1961–1990)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)17.4
(63.3)
20.5
(68.9)
28.2
(82.8)
32.0
(89.6)
34.5
(94.1)
38.4
(101.1)
41.1
(106.0)
41.0
(105.8)
39.7
(103.5)
33.8
(92.8)
27.1
(80.8)
20.2
(68.4)
41.1
(106.0)
Average high °C (°F)2.3
(36.1)
5.6
(42.1)
11.9
(53.4)
17.6
(63.7)
22.8
(73.0)
25.7
(78.3)
27.8
(82.0)
27.6
(81.7)
24.0
(75.2)
18.1
(64.6)
10.3
(50.5)
4.2
(39.6)
16.5
(61.7)
Daily mean °C (°F)−1.6
(29.1)
1.2
(34.2)
5.8
(42.4)
11.2
(52.2)
16.3
(61.3)
19.4
(66.9)
21.1
(70.0)
20.4
(68.7)
16.5
(61.7)
11.0
(51.8)
5.6
(42.1)
0.8
(33.4)
10.6
(51.1)
Average low °C (°F)−4.8
(23.4)
−2.3
(27.9)
1.2
(34.2)
5.8
(42.4)
10.1
(50.2)
13.4
(56.1)
14.6
(58.3)
14.3
(57.7)
11.2
(52.2)
6.2
(43.2)
2.1
(35.8)
−1.7
(28.9)
5.8
(42.4)
Record low °C (°F)−35.3
(−31.5)
−29.2
(−20.6)
−20.0
(−4.0)
−5.2
(22.6)
−5.0
(23.0)
2.2
(36.0)
5.9
(42.6)
5.0
(41.0)
−1.9
(28.6)
−6.8
(19.8)
−15.4
(4.3)
−24.8
(−12.6)
−35.3
(−31.5)
Average precipitation mm (inches)40
(1.6)
36
(1.4)
37
(1.5)
48
(1.9)
65
(2.6)
76
(3.0)
64
(2.5)
50
(2.0)
40
(1.6)
39
(1.5)
48
(1.9)
50
(2.0)
593
(23.3)
Average snowfall cm (inches)9.8
(3.9)
9.3
(3.7)
4.4
(1.7)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
3.7
(1.5)
7.2
(2.8)
34.4
(13.6)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)777891076658989
Average relative humidity (%)90867973737473757681858979
Mean monthly sunshine hours 72.192.2155.4186.4242.4262.3300.6280.2217.5177.386.456.92,129.7
Source #1: NOAA, [19] Deutscher Wetterdienst [20]
Source #2: Romanian National Statistic Institute (extremes 1901–2000) [21]
  • Highest recorded temperature: 42 °C (108 °F) – 5 August 2017
  • Lowest recorded temperature: −35.3 °C (−32 °F) – 24 January 1963
  • Snow stays on the ground 30 days a year on average
  • Highest precipitation: June: 91.0 mm(3.589 in)
  • Lowest precipitation: February: 44.5 mm(1.737 in)

Climatic general features consist of various and irregular weather conditions. The dominating temperate air masses during spring and summer are of oceanic origin and come with great precipitations. Frequently, even during winter period, the Atlantic humid air masses bring rainy and snowy weather, rarely cold weather.

From September until February, frequent continental polar air masses coming from the East invade the area. In spite of all that, the Banat climate is also influenced by the presence of cyclones and warm air masses which come from the Mediterranean. Their characteristic feature is that of complete snow thaw during the winter period and stifling heat during the summer period.

Freak measurable snowfalls have occurred as early as late October and as late as early April, but snow in those months is rare, and significant falls do not usually occur until first of November. The median date for the first freeze is 22 October, while that of the last freeze is 15 April. [ citation needed ]

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1787 9,479    
1847 18,103+91.0%
1869 32,725+80.8%
1880 33,694+3.0%
1890 39,884+18.4%
1900 53,033+33.0%
1910 72,555+36.8%
1920 82,689+14.0%
1930 91,580+10.8%
1941 110,840+21.0%
1948 111,987+1.0%
1956 142,257+27.0%
1966 174,243+22.5%
1977 269,353+54.6%
1992 334,115+24.0%
2002 317,660−4.9%
2011 319,279+0.5%
2016 332,983+4.3%
Source: Census data, Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition
Central Timisoara (November 2012) Central Timisoara.jpg
Central Timișoara (November 2012)

As of 2011 census data, Timișoara has a population of 319,279, [2] while the proposed Timișoara metropolitan area would have a population of 418,415. As defined by Eurostat, the Timișoara functional urban area has a population of 359,443 residents (as of 2015). [4]

Of this population, 86.79% were ethnic Romanians, while 5.12% were Hungarians, 1.37% Germans, 1.3% Serbs, 0.69% Romani, 0.18% Ukrainians, 0.17% Slovaks, 0.11% Jews and 0.76% others. [22] 14.2% of the population are under 15 years of age, 4.0% are over 75.

Since 1990, Timișoara saw a slight population decline owing to migration and a drop in birthrates. Notably, the Hungarian and German communities experienced significant decline, with the latter being reduced by half between 1992 and 2002. [23] On the other hand, the Ukrainian community has grown, partly due to the presence of Ukrainian language educational facilities. In recent years, local investment by Italian companies has spurred the creation of an Italian community, [24] even leading to calls for an Italian Cultural Center. [25]

Historical populations

In 1910, according to the Austro-Hungarian census (based on the first language in daily use), Timișoara had 72,555 inhabitants. Of these, 31,644 (43.6%) used German language, 28,552 (39.4%) used Hungarian language, 7,566 (10.4%) used Romanian language, 3,482 (4.8%) used Serbian language, and 1,311 (1.8%) used other languages as everyday language. [26]

Economy

The economy of Timișoara has historic tradition in manufacturing, commerce, transport, education, communications and tourism.

Timișoara has been an important economic centre since the 18th century when the Habsburg administration was installed. Due to Austrian colonisation, ethnic and religious diversity and innovative laws, the economy began to develop. The technicians and craftsmen that settled in the city established guilds and helped develop the city's economy. In 1717, Timișoara became host to the first beer factory in Banat. [27]

During the Industrial Revolution, numerous modern innovations were introduced. It was the first city in Austria-Hungary with street lighting, and the first city in mainland Europe illuminated by electric light. The Bega river was also channelled during this time. It was the first navigable canal on current Romanian territory. This way, Timișoara had contact with Europe, and even with the rest of the world through the Black Sea, leading to the local development of commercialism. [28] [29] [30] In the 19th century, the railway system of the Hungarian Kingdom reached Timișoara.

City Business Centre City Business Center Timisoara Romania.jpg
City Business Centre
Regional Business Centre Timisoara - Regional Business Centre.jpg
Regional Business Centre

Timișoara was the first city in the country with international routes economic boom as the amount of foreign investment, especially in high-tech sectors, has risen. In an article in late 2005, French magazine L'Expansion called Timișoara Romania's economic showcase, and referred to the increased number of foreign investments as a "second revolution". In 2016, Timișoara was awarded by Forbes as the most dynamic city and the best city for business in Romania. [31]

Apart from domestic local investment, there has been significant foreign investment from the European Union, particularly from Germany and Italy. Continental AG has produced tires since opening a plant in 1998. [32] In the years that followed, Continental also established an automotive software engineering division in Timișoara. All in all, as of 2015 Continental AG employed about 8000 people in Timișoara, and the company keeps expanding. [33] The Linde Group produces technical gases, and a part of the wiring moulds for BMW and Audi vehicles are produced by the company Dräxlmaier Group. Wiring for Volkswagen and other vehicles are produced at the German company Kromberg & Schubert. Also, Swiss company FM Logistic, already present in Timiș County for Alcatel-Lucent, Nestlé, P&G, Smithfield and in Bucharest for Cora, L'Oréal, Sanofi Aventis and Yves Rocher, and for companies like PROFI Rom Foods, BIC, Kraft Foods or SCA Packaging—offering them domestic transport services and international transport services for Bricostore, Arctic, Danone, Unilever or Contitech, the growth of FM Logistic in Romania and in Dudești through its first warehouse in Romania (Dudeștii Noi gives FM the opportunity). Nestlé produces waffles here. [ citation needed ]

The city has two shopping malls: Iulius Mall Timișoara [34] and Shopping City Timișoara. [35] A third one will be completed in 2018, Timișoara Centrum. [36] A fourth is planned to be built, Timișoara Plaza. [37]

The USA company Flextronics maintains a workplace in the west of the city for the production of mobile telephony and government inspection department devices. In 2009, the company laid off 640 workers. [38] The American company Procter & Gamble manufactures washing and cleaning agents in Timișoara. Smithfield Foods—the world's largest pork processor and hog producer—has two subsidiaries in Timișoara and Timiș County: Smithfield Ferme and Smithfield Prod.

Transport

Tramway and trolleybus routes Map of the Timisoara tramway and trolleybus routes.png
Tramway and trolleybus routes

Timișoara has a complex system of regional transportation, providing road, air and rail connections to major cities in Romania and Europe.

Mass transit

Timișoara's public transport network consists of 9 tram lines, 9 trolleybus lines and 21 bus lines and it is operated by STPT (Societatea de Transport Public Timișoara), a company owned by the City Hall. The system covers all the important areas of the city and it also connects Timișoara with some of the communes of the metropolitan area.

Waterbus public transport in Timisoara DaciaAmonte2.jpg
Waterbus public transport in Timișoara

In 2015, Timișoara became the first city in Romania to offer public transport by bike. The bicycle-sharing system has 25 stations and 300 bikes which can be used by locals and tourists for free. [39] Starting from October 4, 2018, STPT also offers vaporetto public transport on the Bega canal, resulting in Timișoara being the only city in Romania with 5 types of public transportation. [40] [41]

Road

Timișoara is on two European routes (E70 and E671) in the European road network. At a national level, Timișoara is located on four different national roads: DN6, DN69, DN59 and DN59A. The Romanian Motorway A1, under construction on some sections, will link the city with Bucharest and the eastern part of the country. The A1 is currently the only Romanian motorway that crosses a border, linking Timișoara with Hungarian motorway M43. The Timișoara Coach Station (Autogara) is used by several private transport companies to provide coach connections from Timișoara to a large number of locations from all over the country. [42]

Air

The city is served by Romania's third busiest airport, Traian Vuia International Airport, located 12.3 km (7.6 mi) northeast away from the city centre. It used to be the hub of Romanian airline Carpatair, and it serves now as an operating base for low-cost airlineWizz Air.

Railway

Timișoara is a major railway centre and is connected to all other major Romanian cities, as well as local destinations, through the national CFR network. Timișoara is directly linked by train service with Budapest, Belgrade and Vienna. The main railway station of the city is Timișoara North railway station. More than 130 trains use this station daily. The other three railway stations of the city are mainly used by commuter trains.

Cityscape

Metropolitan Cathedral Catedrala din Timisoara.jpg
Metropolitan Cathedral

Currently, the tallest building is the Timișoara Orthodox Cathedral, at 91 metres (299 feet) and the tallest office building is the Fructus Tower, at 65 metres (213 feet). Other tall buildings, over 60 metres (200 feet), include: Asirom Financial Centre, Bosch Center, Continental Hotel and United Business Center 2. Another proposed building, the United Business Center 0, should be completed by the end of 2017 [ citation needed ] and will be part of the mixed use urban regeneration project: Openville. When completed, the building will have a height of 155 metres (509 feet) becoming the tallest building in Romania.

Government

Nicolae Robu, mayor of Timisoara Nicolae Robu 2017.jpg
Nicolae Robu, mayor of Timișoara
Timisoara City Hall Timisoara 9 iulie 2016 (006) Primaria Timisoara.jpg
Timișoara City Hall
Administrative Palace, Timis Prefecture headquarters Palatul Administrativ Timisoara.jpg
Administrative Palace, Timiș Prefecture headquarters

The first free local elections in post-communist Timișoara took place in 1992. The winner was Viorel Oancea, of the Civic Alliance Party (PAC), which later merged with the Liberal Party. He was the first officer who spoke to the crowd of revolutionaries gathered in Opera Square. The 1996 elections were won by Gheorghe Ciuhandu, of the Christian Democrats. He had four terms, also winning elections in 2000, 2004 and 2008. Meanwhile, Ciuhandu took over the Christian Democratic Party and ran for president of Romania in 2004. Timișoara's mayor, elected in 2012 and again in 2016, is Nicolae Robu. Deputy mayors are Dan Diaconu (PNL) and Farkas Imre (UDMR).

Like all other local councils in Romania, the Timișoara local council, the county council and the city's mayor are elected every four years by the population. Decisions are approved and discussed by the local council (consiliu local) made up of 27 elected councillors. [43] Local council composition after 2016 local elections: [44]

   PartySeatsCurrent Council
  National Liberal Party (PNL) 12            
  Social Democratic Party (PSD) 9            
  People's Movement Party (PMP) 2            
  Democratic Alliance of Hungarians in Romania (UDMR/RMDSZ) 2            
  Alliance of Liberals and Democrats (ALDE) 1            
 Adrian Orza (independent)1            

Additionally, as Timișoara is the capital of Timiș County, the city hosts the palace of the prefecture, the headquarters of the county council (consiliu județean) and the prefect, who is appointed by Romania's central government. The prefect is not allowed to be a member of a political party, and his role is to represent the national government at the local level, acting as a liaison and facilitating the implementation of National Development Plans and governing programmes at the local level. County council composition after 2016 local elections: [45]

   PartySeatsCurrent Council
  Social Democratic Party (PSD) 16                
  National Liberal Party (PNL) 14                
  People's Movement Party (PMP) 5                
  Alliance of Liberals and Democrats (ALDE) 2                

Currently, the city is the largest in the West development region, which is equivalent to NUTS-II regions in the European Union and is used by the European Union and the Romanian Government for statistical analysis and regional development. The West development region is not, however, an administrative entity. [43]

Districts

Temesvar keruletei-hu.svg

Timișoara city traditionally divided into ten parts, but now they have no administrative function.

DistrictArea (ha)Romanian nameGerman nameHungarian nameInstitution
I480CetateInnere StadtBelváros1718
II1017FabricFabrikstadtGyárváros1718
III668ElisabetinElisabethstadtErzsébetváros1890
IV442IosefinJosefstadtJózsefváros1744
V205MehalaMehalaMehala1910
VI231FrateliaFrateliaÚjkissoda1948
VII156FreidorfFreidorfSzabadfalu1950
VIII67PlopiKardos-KolonieKardostelep1951
IX72Ghiroda NouăNeu-GirodaErzsébetpuszta1951
X102Ciarda RoșieRote TschardaVörös Csárda1953

In the 21st century, Timișoara city is divided into quarters (cartiere):

Listed alphabetically

Culture and contemporary life

St. George Roman Catholic Dome Domul romano-catolic ,,Sf. Gheorghe".jpg
St. George Roman Catholic Dome

The city centre largely consists of buildings from the Austrian Empire era. The old city consists of several historic areas. These are: Cetate (Belváros in Hungarian, Innere Stadt in German), Iosefin (Józsefváros, Josephstadt), Elisabetin (Erzsébetváros, Elisabethstadt), Fabric (Gyárváros, Fabrikstadt). Numerous bars, clubs and restaurants have opened in the old Baroque square (Unirii Square).

Religious buildings

Cultural buildings and sites

Performing arts

Festivals and Conferences

European Capital of Culture

On 16 September 2016, Timișoara was selected as Romanian host city of European Capital of Culture in 2021. [54] The city will co-host the event with Novi Sad and Eleusis.

Shopping and commerce

Due to high demand for business space, new commercial buildings have been built. The commercial sector is developing very quickly. Timișoara has two large shopping centres:

Education

Timișoara is the main educational and academic centre in west of Romania. Timișoara has four public universities and four private universities. The number of students of higher education institutions reached 60,000 in 2015.

Public

Private

Sport

Association soccer

Historic

Basketball

Handball

Rugby union

International relations

Twin towns – Sister cities

Timișoara has 17 twin towns and sister cities, as listed below: [56]

Consulates

Panorama

See also

Related Research Articles

Timiș County County in Vest, Romania

Timiș is a county (județ) of western Romania on the border with Hungary and Serbia, in the historical region Banat, with the county seat at Timișoara. It is the westernmost and the largest county in Romania in terms of land area. The county is also part of the Danube–Criș–Mureș–Tisa Euroregion.

Sânnicolau Mare Place in Timiș, Romania

Sânnicolau Mare is a town in Timiș County, Romania and the westernmost of the country. Located in the Banat region, along the borders with Serbia and Hungary, it has a population of just under 12,000.

North Banat District District of Serbia in Vojvodina

The North Banat District is one of seven administrative districts of the autonomous province of Vojvodina, Serbia. It lies in the geographical regions of Banat and Bačka. According to the 2011 census, the district has a population of 146,690 inhabitants. The administrative center of the district is the city of Kikinda.

Temes County county of the Kingdom of Hungary

County of Temes was an administrative county (comitatus) of the Kingdom of Hungary, Austria-Hungary. Its territory is now in southwestern Romania and northeastern Serbia. The capital of the county was Temesvár.

This article is about the History of Timișoara, the largest and most important city in the Romanian Banat. Timișoara listen  is also known by the following names: Hungarian: Temesvár, German: Temeswar / Temeschwar / Temeschburg, Serbo-Croatian: Temišvar / Темишвар, Turkish: Tamışvar / Temeşvar.

Banat Republic former country

The Banat Republic was a short-lived state proclaimed in Timișoara in November 1918, shortly after the dissolution of Austria-Hungary. The Republic claimed as its own the multi-ethnic territory of the Banat, in a bid to prevent its partition among competing nationalisms. Openly endorsed by the local communities of Hungarians, Swabians and Jews, it had the German-speaking socialist Otto Roth as its nominal leader. This project was openly rejected from within by communities of Romanians and Serbs, which were centered in the eastern and western halves of the region, respectively. The short-lived entity was recognized only by the neighboring Hungarian Republic, with which it sought a merger. Its military structures were inherited from the Common Army, and placed under the command of a Hungarian officer, Albert Bartha.

Banat of Temeswar

The Banat of Temeswar or Banat of Temes was a Habsburg province that existed between 1718 and 1778. It was located in the present day region of Banat, which was named after this province. The province was abolished in 1778 and incorporated into the Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary.

Bega Canal

The Bega Canal or Begej Canal is a navigation canal of Romania and Serbia. It is the first navigation canal built on the present-day territory of Romania, and serves the city of Timișoara. Its name comes from the Bega river. It crosses the territory of Timiș County in western Romania and proceeds into the territory of Serbia, merging with Begej river near the village of Klek.

Sânandrei Commune in Timiș, Romania

Sânandrei is a commune in Timiș County, Banat, Romania. It is composed of three villages: Carani, Covaci and Sânandrei.

Cenad Commune in Timiș, Romania

Cenad is a commune in Timiș County, Banat, Romania. It is composed of a single village, Cenad. The village serves as a customs point on the border with Hungary.

Bega (Tisza) river in Romania and Serbia

The Bega is a 244 km long river in Romania (169 km) and Serbia (75 km). It rises in the Poiana Ruscă Mountains in Romania, part of the Carpathian Mountains, and it flows into the Tisa river near Titel, Vojvodina, Serbia. Its drainage basin covers an area of 4,458 km2 (1,721 sq mi), of which 2,362 km2 (912 sq mi) in Romania.

Roman Catholic Diocese of Timișoara diocese of the Catholic Church

The Roman Catholic Diocese of Timișoara is a diocese in Romania established on 5 June 1930 by Pope Pius XI. The Diocese of Cenad, corresponding to approximately the same region, had been created in 1030 by Stephen I of Hungary.

Szilárd Bogdánffy Roman Catholic bishop

Szilárd Ignác Bogdánffy was a Roman Catholic auxiliary bishop of Satu Mare and Oradea of the Latins. On 30 October 2010 he was proclaimed blessed in a ceremony held in the Cathedral Basilica of St. Mary, Oradea, Romania, being recognized as a martyr of the Communist period.

Timiș-Torontal County County in Romania

Timiș-Torontal was a county in the Kingdom of Romania. Its capital was Timișoara. The territory of the county had been transferred to Romania in 1920 from the Kingdom of Hungary under the Treaty of Trianon.

Transport in Timișoara transport company

The SC Societatea de Transport Public Timișoara SA, abbreviated STPT, is the public transport company of the Romanian city Timișoara. STPT covers the entire urban public transport, it operates the tram, the trolleybus, the urban bus transport, the waterbus public transport on the Bega Canal and the VeloTM bicycle-sharing system. 90 million passengers are transported annually, of which 52 million by tram.

Banatul Timișoara was a former football club in Timisoara, Romania. The team is named after the region Banat. The team was founded in 1923 and played in the County Championship in Timis County. The best season for them is 1928–1929. In 1927, former players at Sparta-Unirea CFR joined the team and created a stronger team winning the regional championship to qualify in 1928–29 Divizia A, the Romanian first division. The best performance of Banatul is to reach the semi-final in this season and be eliminated by Victoria Cluj. After World War II, they played in the Third League of Romania without notable performances. Banatul Timișoara disbanded in 1950.

Siege of Temeşvar (1716)

The Siege of Temeşvar (1716) was a siege during the Austro-Turkish War (1716–1718). The siege lasted from 31 August to 12 October, with a decisive victory for the Habsburg Monarchy, led by Prince Eugene of Savoy. The city fell after multiple failed attempts to break the siege, and multiple rounds of heavy bombardment of the fortress' defenses, which were mostly made of earth strengthened by palisades made of tree trunks. The city remanined under military administration until 6 June 1778, when it was handed over to the administration of Kingdom of Hungary.

Aurel Cosma Romanian lawyer and politician

Aurel Cosma was a Romanian lawyer and politician. A leader of the National Party in Timișoara before World War I, Cosma was a representative of the Banat in the Alba Iulia National Assembly that voted for the Union of Transylvania with Romania on 1 December 1918.

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