|Timmaraja Wodeyar I|
|3rd Raja of Mysore|
|Predecessor||Chamaraja Wodeyar I (father)|
|Successor||Chamaraja Wodeyar II (son)|
|Issue||Chamaraja Wodeyar II|
|Father||Chamaraja Wodeyar I|
Timmaraja Wodeyar I (Raja Appana Thimmaraja, 1433 –1478), was the third raja of the Kingdom of Mysore. At the age of 26, he was coroneted as the third raja of the Kingdom of Mysore following his father's death in 1459.
The beginnings of the terms of almost all the first five rajas of Mysore are similar in the sense that they represented the Vijayanagara Empire, and in the prosperity of the Vijayanagara Empire lied that of their Mysore Kingdom. Like his father and grandfather, soon after Thimmaraja's becoming Mysore's raja, his boss died. The inefficient and corrupt Vijayanagara Emperor Mallikarjuna Raya died. Both the Vijayaranagar Empire and Mysore Kingdom had begun to witness continual rule of kings. However, with the death of Mallikarjuna Raya, his cousin Virupaksha Raya II took the opportunity to seize the throne, though he failed to prove a better ruler. His rule continued through Thimmaraja's reign.
The Mughal rulers had occupied most of North India, ravaging through Hindu kingdoms one after another. Muhammad Shah Bahmani II of the Bahmani Sultanate had voraciously expanded his domain, beginning to march down South. His intimidation of Vijayanagara was imminent. To the empire's east was the Kalinga king Raja Purushottama Gajapati Kapilendra of Odisha. He successfully invaded parts of the empire, which Virupaksha could not keep in check. This was also the time the Portuguese arrived in India, marking the beginning of onslaught of European invasions. They began seizing ports from both the peripheries of southern India: present-day coastal Andhra and Karnataka. Virupaksha lost several ports to the Portuguese.
This was a reckoning for Mysore to contemplate and act swiftly. Before Thimmaraja could act strongly, he died in 1478, having served under two emperors: Mallikarjuna Raya and his cousin, Virupaksha Raya II. His 19-year kingship was akin to his forefathers' in terms of incorporating more villages and townships. However, stronger actions were called for during his last times.
The Vijayanagara Empire was a medieval Indian Empire that covered much of the region of South India, controlling the lands of the modern states of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Goa, and some parts of Telangana and Maharashtra. It was established in 1336 by the brothers Harihara I and Bukka Raya I of the Sangama dynasty, members of a pastoralist cowherd community that claimed Yadava lineage. The empire rose to prominence as a culmination of attempts by the southern powers to ward off Perso-Turkic Islamic invasions by the end of the 13th century. At its peak, it subjugated almost all of South India's ruling families and pushed the sultans of the Deccan beyond the Tungabhadra-Krishna river doab region, in addition to annexing Gajapati Kingdom (Odisha) till Krishna river, thus becoming a notable power. It lasted until 1646, although its power declined after a major military defeat in the Battle of Talikota in 1565 by the combined armies of the Deccan sultanates. The empire is named after its capital city of Vijayanagara, whose ruins surround present day Hampi, now a World Heritage Site in Karnataka, India. The wealth and fame of the empire inspired visits by and writings of medieval European travelers such as Domingo Paes, Fernão Nunes, and Niccolò de' Conti. These travelogues, contemporary literature and epigraphy in the local languages, and modern archeological excavations at Vijayanagara have provided ample information about the history and power of the empire.
The history of southern India covers a span of over four thousand years during which the region saw the rise and fall of a number of dynasties and empires.
The Wadiyar dynasty, is a late-medieval/early-modern South Indian Hindu royal family of former kings of Mysore from the Urs clan originally based in Mysore city.
Krishnadevaraya was an emperor of the Vijayanagara Empire reigning from 1509 to 1529. He was the third monarch of the Tuluva dynasty, and is considered to be one of the greatest rulers in Indian history. He ruled the largest empire in India after the fall of the Islamic Delhi Sultanate. Presiding over the empire at its zenith, he is regarded as an icon by many Indians. Krishnadevaraya earned the titles Andhra Bhoja, Karnatakaratna Simhasanadeeshwara, Yavana Rajya Pratistapanacharya, Kannada Rajya Rama Ramana, Gaubrahmana Pratipalaka and Mooru Rayara Ganda. He became the dominant ruler of the peninsula by defeating the sultans of Bijapur, Golconda, the Bahmani Sultanate and the Gajapatis of Odisha, and was one of the most powerful Hindu rulers in India.
BukkaRaya I was an emperor of the Vijayanagara Empire from the Sangama Dynasty. He was a son of Bhavana Sangama, the chieftain of a cowherd pastoralist community, who claimed Yadava descent.
Harihara II was a emperor of the Vijayanagara Empire from the Sangama Dynasty. He patronised Kannada poet Madhura, a Jaina. An important work on Vedas was completed during his time. He earned the titles Vaidikamarga Sthapanacharya and Vedamarga Pravartaka.
Mallikarjuna Raya was an emperor of the Vijayanagara Empire from the Sangama Dynasty.
The Sangama dynasty was a dynasty of the Vijayanagara Empire founded in the 14th century by two brothers: Harihara I and Bukka Raya I. They were the sons of Bhavana Sangama, members of a pastoralist cowherd community that claimed Yadava lineage.
Virupaksha Raya II (1465–1485) was a king of the Vijayanagara Empire from the Sangama Dynasty.
Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya was an emperor of the Vijayanagara Empire from the Saluva Dynasty. A patron of the Madhwa saint Sripadaraya, he authored the Sanskrit work Rama Bhyudayam. He also patronised Kannada poet Kavi Linga.
The History of Karnataka goes back several millennia. Several great empires and dynasties have ruled over Karnataka and have contributed greatly to the history, culture and development of Karnataka as well as the entire Indian subcontinent. The Chindaka Nagas of central India Gangas, Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta, Chalukyas of Vengi, Yadava Dynasty of Devagiri were all of Kannada origin who later took to encouraging local languages.
The Madurai Nayaks were a Telugu dynasty who ruled most of modern-day Tamil Nadu, India, with Madurai as their capital. The Nayak reign which lasted for over two centuries from around 1529 to 1736 was noted for its achievements in arts, cultural and administrative reforms, revitalization of temples previously ransacked by the Delhi Sultans, and the inauguration of a unique architectural style.
The political history of the region on the Deccan Plateau in west-central peninsular India that was later divided into Mysore state and Coorg province saw many changes after the fall of the Hindu Vijayanagara Empire in 1565. The rise of Sultan Haidar Ali in 1761 introduced a new period.
The name Karnataka is derived from Karunadu, meaning "lofty land" or "high plateau," due to its location on the Deccan Plateau. The name can also mean "land of black soil" in Kannada. See other possible roots of the name. The recorded history of Karnataka goes back to the Ramayana and Mahabharata epics. The capital of "Baali" and "Sugriva" referenced in the Ramayana is said to be Hampi. Karnataka is mentioned in the Mahabharata as "Karnata Desha." Historically, the region was also called "Kuntala Rajya."
Chamaraja Wodeyar I was the second raja of the Kingdom of Mysore from 1423, right after his father's death, until his own in 1459. He was the elder son of Yaduraya.
Chamarajara Wodeyar II was fourth raja of the Kingdom of Mysore from 1478 until 1513.
Chamaraja Wodeyar III was fifth raja of the Kingdom of Mysore and the last one to rule as feudal king under the Vijayanagara Empire. He reigned after his father's demise in 1513 until his death in 1553.
Timmaraja Wodeyar II, was the sixth maharaja of the Kingdom of Mysore, who ruled between 7 February 1553 and 1572. He was eldest son of Chamaraja Wodeyar III, the fifth raja of Mysore. On 17 February 1553, he succeeded on the death of his father. Thimmaraja Wodeyar II was the first 'maharaja' to rule as absolute monarch and denounce Mysore Kingdom's vassalage to the Vijayanagara Empire.
Hamvira Deva was an Odia prince of the Gajapati Empire in India and Gajapati ruler for a brief period. He was the eldest son of Kapilendra Deva, founder of the Gajapati Empire. He played a vital role in the military expansion of the Gajapati Empire but was bypassed in the succession order in favour of his younger half-brother Purushottama Deva.