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|16th & 18th Head of State of El Salvador
6 January 1838 –23 May 1838
|Diego Vigil Cocaña
23 May 1837 –7 June 1837
|Diego Vigil Cocaña
|Diego Vigil Cocaña
Ahuachapán,New Spain,Spanish Empire
Timoteo Menéndez (born in Ahuachapán) was a Salvadoran politician who served twice (1837 and 1838 to 1839) as head of state of El Salvador when it was a state within the Federal Republic of Central America.
He first took over the office from Diego Vigil Cocaña on 23 May 1837,serving for a little over two weeks until 7 June 1837. During these days he continued the fight against the cholera epidemic that had struck the country. He also fought Indigenous insurgents at Zacatecoluca and Cojutepeque,who had attacked the garrison at San Vicente. Because of the revolt he suspended constitutional guarantees in the departments of Cuscatlán and San Vicente. Vigil returned to office on 23 May.
Once again on 6 January 1838,Vigil turned over authority to Menéndez who governed this time for more than a year until 23 May 1839. On 24 February 1838,the Legislative Assembly merged the municipalities of Asunción and Dolores Izalco under the name of Villa Izalco .
On 28 October 1838,conservative General Rafael Carrera,in command of 600 infantry and 200 cavalry from Guatemala,invaded the State of El Salvador. His forces took the cities of Santa Ana and Ahuachapán and committed atrocities. Liberal General Francisco Morazán defeated Carrera at Chiquimula,taking prisoners and capturing military equipment.
On 23 February 1839,forces from Honduras and Nicaragua invaded El Salvador. Menéndez named Morazán General-in-Chief of the Salvadoran Army. On 6 April 1839,Morazán defeated the invading force in the battle of Espiritu Santo.
In accordance with a legislative decree of 22 April 1839,Menéndez prohibited the circulation of coins named maquiquinas and morlacos.
On 23 May 1839 he turned over power to Colonel Antonio JoséCañas.
José Francisco Morazán Quesada was a Central American politician who was president of the Federal Republic of Central America from 1830 to 1839. Before he was president of Central America he was the head of state of Honduras. He rose to prominence at the Battle of La Trinidad on November 11, 1827. Morazán then dominated the political and military scene of Central America until his execution in 1842.
José Rafael Carrera y Turcios was the president of Guatemala from 1844 to 1848 and from 1851 until his death in 1865, after being appointed President for life in 1854. During his military career and presidency, new nations in Central America were facing numerous problems: William Walker's invasions, liberal attempts to overthrow the Catholic Church and aristocrats' power, the Civil War in the United States, Mayan uprising in the east, Belize boundary dispute with the United Kingdom, and the wars in Mexico under Benito Juarez. This led to a rise of caudillos, a term that refers to charismatic populist leaders among the indigenous people.
The State of Los Altos, commonly known as Los Altos, was the state of the Federal Republic of Central America from 1838 to 1840 and a short-lived independent republic from 1848 to 1849. Its capital was Quetzaltenango. Los Altos occupied eight departments in the west of present-day Guatemala as well as the Soconusco region in the Mexican state of Chiapas.
José Trinidad Cabañas Fiallos served as President of Honduras for two separate terms: From 1 March to 6 July 1852. And 31 December 1853 to 6 June 1855. He was a General and liberal politician whose role in Honduran history began during the Civil War 1826-29. He became a Central America hero, when he attempted to reunite Central America, during Francisco Morazán's tenure and after the unionist's death.
Ahuachapán is a city, and municipality, and the capital of the Ahuachapán Department in western El Salvador. The municipality, including the city, covers an area of 244.84 km² and as of 2007 has a population of 110,511 people. Situated near the Guatemalan border, it is the westernmost city in the country and is the center of an agricultural region producing primarily coffee.
Francisco Gómez de Altamirano y de Elizondo was a Central American licenciado, military officer and Liberal politician. From November 15, 1835 to February 1, 1836 he was chief of state of the state of El Salvador within the Central American Federation.
José Gregorio Salazar was a general and a Liberal politician in Central America. He was acting president of the Federal Republic of Central America from September 16, 1834 to February 14, 1835, in between two administrations of Francisco Morazán. In 1838 he was assassinated by a mob supporting rebel General Rafael Carrera.
Diego Vigil Cocaña was a Central American politician. He was the last president of the Federal Republic of Central America (1839–40), during its disintegration. He was also chief of state of the federal states of Honduras (1829) and El Salvador.
José Felipe Mariano Gálvez was a jurist and Liberal politician in Guatemala. For two consecutive terms from August 28, 1831, to March 3, 1838, he was chief of state of the State of Guatemala, within the Federal Republic of Central America. In 1836, he was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society.
José María Cornejo Merino was a Salvadoran politician. Two times he served as chief of state of El Salvador.
Carlos Salazar Castro was a Central American military officer and Liberal politician. Briefly in 1834 he was provisional president of El Salvador, and in 1839 he was provisional president of Guatemala.
Joaquín Escolán y Balibrera was a nineteenth-century Salvadoran politician. Briefly in 1834 he was chief of state of the State of El Salvador, within the Federal Republic of Central America.
Licenciado José María Silva was a Liberal Salvadoran politician. He was twice briefly chief of state of the State of El Salvador, within the Federal Republic of Central America.
Antonio José Cañas Quintanilla was a Salvadoran military officer, diplomat, and politician. For two brief periods he was head of state of the State of El Salvador, within the Federal Republic of Central America.
Mariano Rivera Paz was Head of State of Guatemala and its first president.
Agustín Guzmán was a Mexican military officer, who was appointed as Army Commander in Chief of Los Altos when this new State was formed as part of the Central American Federation on 2 March 1838. He was defeated by Rafael Carrera on 19 March 1840, the same date on which the Los Altos State ceased to exist. Trying to create Los Altos once again while Carrera was briefly in exile in 1848, he tried to occupy Guatemala City along with rebel leader Agustín Reyes, and after setting fire to Carrera's house, he was killed by enemy fire in the Plaza de Armas.
The First Central American Civil War was a civil political and military conflict within the Federal Republic of Central America which lasted from 1826 until 1829. The civil war was fought between Liberal and Conservative lines with Francisco Morazán leading the Liberals and Manuel José Arce, a former Liberal, leading the Conservatives.
The Battle of Coatepeque was a battle fought between the forces of El Salvador and Guatemala from 22 to 24 February 1863.
Barrios' War of Reunification was a war initiated by President Justo Rufino Barrios of Guatemala. His goal was to reunify Central America with himself as President. He died in battle on 2 April 1885 and peace was reached on 14 April.
The War of 1863 was a conflict fought between El Salvador and Guatemala from 23 February 1863 to 26 October 1863.