|Genres||Ancient Greek music|
|Years active||350s - 320s BC|
Timotheus (Greek : Τιμόθεος) was a famous aulos player from Thebes, who flourished in Macedon during the reigns of Philip II and Alexander the Great. He later accompanied Alexander in his campaigns. After his death, a story about the effect of his music on Alexander became a familiar reference point in literature on the power of music to influence emotion.
According to Didymus, Timotheus was the son of Oeniades.He participated in musical competitions under Philip. When Philip lost an eye after Timotheus and others had performed a flute song about the cyclops, this was interpreted as an omen. Athenaeus says that Timotheus was noted for his long beard.
According to Suda, a later Byzantine source, Timotheus excited the young Alexander so much with a battle hymn to Athena that he jumped from his seat and grabbed his weapons ready to fight, declaring that the music was kingly. Timotheus was apparently using the "steep-rising" style.
Timotheus joined Alexander in Memphis, Egypt where he took part in the musical competitions held there. He also performed at the mass-marriage organised by Alexander in Susa in 324.[ citation needed ]
He is the principal figure in Lucian's dialogue Harmonides, in which Timotheus discusses musicianship with Harmonides, a pupil of his. Harmonides wants to achieve fame. Timotheus advises him to impress the experts within his profession rather than seek popular approval in big public venues. If leading musicians admire him, popular approval will follow.
Dio Chrysostom, in a speech on ideal kingship addressed to Trajan, refers to the story of how Timotheus' music inspired martial thoughts in Alexander. For Chrysostom, Timotheus's skill was in "adapting his playing to the king's character by selecting a piece that was not languishing or slow nor of the kind that would cause relaxation or listlessness, but rather, I fancy, the ringing strain which bears Athena's name and none other." Other rulers, such as Sardanapalus who was of languid temperament, would not have responded to such music, but being of a highly volatile nature, Alexander did.
Quintilian reports that "Timotheus is said to have demanded from those who had previously been under another master a fee double the amount which he charged for those who came to him untaught."
In later literature Timotheus the flautist is sometimes confused with the famous Macedonian singer, poet and lyre player Timotheus of Miletus.In fact Timotheus of Miletus lived earlier, during the reign of Archelaus I of Macedon.
The Renaissance music theorist Vincenzo Galilei refers to the story that Timotheus aroused Alexander's passions with his music. Galilei suggests that Timotheus must have acted out the feelings he was conveying during his performance,
When he roused the great Alexander with the difficult mode of Minerva [Athena] to combat with the armies of his foes, not only did the circumstances mentioned reveal themselves in the rhythms, the words and the conceptions in the entire song in conformity with his desire, but in my opinion at least, his habit, the aspect of his countenance and each particular gesture and member must have shown on this occasion that he was burning with desire to fight, to overcome and conquer the enemy. For this reason Alexander was forced to cry out for his arms and to say that this should be the song of kings.
Timotheus's apparent ability to manipulate Alexander's emotions through music is also the subject of John Dryden's poem "Alexander's Feast, or the Power of Music", later set to music by Handel. However, the portrayal of the musician singing and playing the lyre fits the earlier Timotheus. Dryden appears to merge the two, referring to "his breathing flute / And sounding lyre". He is also mentioned in Alexander Pope's poem An Essay on Criticism , in which "Timotheus' varied lays surprise", so that "the world's Victor stood subdued by sound."
Andriscus, also often referenced as Pseudo-Philip, was a Greek pretender who became the last independent king of Macedon in 149 BC as Philip VI, based on his claim of being Philip, a now-obscure son of the last legitimate Macedonian king, Perseus. His reign lasted just one year and was toppled by the Roman Republic during the Fourth Macedonian War.
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Archilochus was a Greek lyric poet of the Archaic period from the island of Paros. He is celebrated for his versatile and innovative use of poetic meters, and is the earliest known Greek author to compose almost entirely on the theme of his own emotions and experiences.
An aulos or tibia (Latin) was a wind instrument in ancient Greece, often depicted in art and also attested by archaeology.
Vincenzo Galilei was an Italian lutenist, composer, and music theorist. His children included the astronomer and physicist Galileo Galilei and the lute virtuoso and composer Michelagnolo Galilei. Vincenzo was a figure in the musical life of the late Renaissance and contributed significantly to the musical revolution which demarcates the beginning of the Baroque era.
Girolamo Mei was an Italian historian and humanist, famous in music history for providing the intellectual impetus to the Florentine Camerata, which attempted to revive ancient Greek music drama. He was born in Florence, and died in Rome. He also used the pseudonym Decimo Corinella da Peretola.
The Florentine Camerata, also known as the Camerata de' Bardi, were a group of humanists, musicians, poets and intellectuals in late Renaissance Florence who gathered under the patronage of Count Giovanni de' Bardi to discuss and guide trends in the arts, especially music and drama. They met at the house of Giovanni de' Bardi, and their gatherings had the reputation of having all the most famous men of Florence as frequent guests. After first meeting in 1573, the activity of the Camerata reached its height between 1577 and 1582. While propounding a revival of the Greek dramatic style, the Camerata's musical experiments led to the development of the stile recitativo. In this way it facilitated the composition of dramatic music and the development of opera.
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Timotheus of Miletus was a Greek musician and dithyrambic poet, an exponent of the "new music." He added one or more strings to the lyre, whereby he incurred the displeasure of the Spartans and Athenians. He composed musical works of a mythological and historical character.
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Alexander's Feast is an ode with music by George Frideric Handel set to a libretto by Newburgh Hamilton. Hamilton adapted his libretto from John Dryden's ode Alexander's Feast, or the Power of Music (1697) which had been written to celebrate Saint Cecilia's Day. Jeremiah Clarke set the original ode to music.
"Alexander's Feast, or the Power of Music" (1697) is an ode by John Dryden. It was written to celebrate Saint Cecilia's Day. Jeremiah Clarke set the original ode to music, but the score is now lost.
Melanippides of Melos, one of the most celebrated lyric poets in the use of dithyramb, and an exponent of the "new music."
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Phrynnis or Phrynis of Mytilene was a celebrated dithyrambic poet of ancient Greece, who lived roughly around the time of the Peloponnesian War. His career began no later than 446 BCE.