Timotheus (in Greek Tιμoθεoς, Timotheos; died 338 BC) was son of Clearchus, the tyrant of Heraclea on the Euxine (Black Sea). After the death of his father in 353 BC, he succeeded to the sovereignty, under the guardianship, at first, of his uncle Satyrus, and held the rule for fifteen years. There is extant a letter addressed to him by Isocrates, in which the rhetorician commends him for his good qualities, gives him some very common-place advice, and recommends to his notice a friend of his, named Autocrator, the bearer of the epistle.
Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning more than 3000 years of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Cyrillic, Armenian, Coptic, Gothic, and many other writing systems.
Clearchus was a citizen of Heraclea on the Euxine who was recalled from exile by the oligarchy of that city to aid them in quelling the growing discontent and demands of the people. According to Justin, Clearchus reached an agreement with Mithridates of Cius to betray the city to him on the condition that Clearchus would hold the city for Mithridates as governor. But, Clearchus then came to the conclusion that he could make himself master of the city without the aid of Mithridates. So he not only broke his agreement with the Mithridates, but also captured him and compelled him to pay a large sum for his release.
A tyrant, in the modern English-language usage of the word, is an absolute ruler unrestrained by law, or one who has usurped legitimate sovereignty. Often portrayed as cruel, tyrants may defend their position by oppressive means. The original Greek term, however, merely meant an authoritarian sovereign without reference to character, bearing no pejorative connotation during the Archaic and early Classical periods. However, Plato, the Greek philosopher, clearly saw tyrannos as a negative word, and on account of the decisive influence of philosophy on politics, its negative connotations only increased, continuing into the Hellenistic period.
Ziaelas, third king of Bithynia, was a son of Nicomedes I and Ditizele.
Ariobarzanes a Persian noble, succeeded his kinsman or father, Mithridates or alternatively succeeded another Ariobarzanes I of Cius, as ruler of the Greek city of Cius in Mysia, governing for 26 years between 363 BC and 337 BC for the Persian king. It is believed that it was he and his family which in mid-360s BC revolted from the rule of the Persian king Artaxerxes II, but ended up in defeat by 362 BC. He was succeeded as governor of Cius by Mithridates, possibly his son or possibly a kinsman such as a younger brother.
Cersobleptes, also spelled Kersobleptes, Kersebleptes, and Cersebleptes, was son of Cotys, king of Thrace, on whose death in 358 BC he inherited the kingdom in conjunction with Berisades and Amadocus II, who were probably his brothers. He was very young at the time, and the whole management of his affairs was assumed by the Euboean adventurer, Charidemus, who was connected by marriage with the royal family. The area controlled by Cersobleptes was east of the river Hebrus.
Stratonicus, of Athens, was a distinguished musician of the time of Alexander the Great, of whom scarcely anything is recorded, except the sharp and witty rebuke which he administered to Philotas, when the latter boasted of a victory which he had gained over Timotheus of Miletus. His character is also revealed by another anecdote:
And when he was once asked by some one who were the wickedest people, he said, "That in Pamphylia, the people of Phaselis were the worst; but that the Sidetae were the worst in the whole world." And when he was asked again, according to the account given by Hegesander, which were the greatest barbarians, the Boeotians or the Thessalians he said, " The Eleans."
Philotas was an ancient Greek dithyrambic poet and musician, the disciple of Philoxenus of Cythera; he is considered only worthy of notice as having once gained a victory over his great contemporary Timotheus of Miletus.
Amadocus was a ruler in Thrace, who inherited in conjunction with Berisades and Cersobleptes the dominions of Cotys, on the death of the latter in 358 BC. Amadocus was probably a son of Cotys and a brother of the other two princes, though this is not stated by Demosthenes. The area controlled by Amadocus was west of the river Hebrus.
Dionysius was a tyrant of Heraclea on the Euxine. He was a son of Clearchus, who had assumed the tyranny in his place of birth.
Diogenes was a person sent by Orophernes, usurper of Cappadocia, together with Timotheus, as ambassador to Rome in 157 BC, to carry to Rome a golden crown, and to renew the friendship and alliance with the Roman Republic. The principal object of the ambassadors, however, was to support the accusation which was brought against the deposed king Ariarathes V; and Diogenes and his coadjutor, Miltiades, succeeded in their plan, and lies and calumnies gained the victory, as there was no one to undertake the defence of Ariarathes.
Spithridates was a Persian satrap of Lydia and Ionia under the high king Darius III Codomannus. He was one of the Persian commanders at the Battle of the Granicus, in 334 BC. In this engagement, while he was aiming a blow from behind at Alexander the Great, his arm was cut off by Cleitus the Black and he subsequently died.
Antigenes was a general of Alexander the Great, who also served under Philip II of Macedon, and lost an eye at the siege of Perinthus. After the death of Alexander in 323 he obtained the satrapy of Susiana. He was one of the commanders of the Argyraspides and, with his troops, took the side of Eumenes. On the defeat of Eumenes in 316, Antigenes fell into the hands of his enemy Antigonus, and was burnt alive by him.
Hecatomnus of Mylasa or Hekatomnos was an early 4th-century BC ruler of Caria. He was the satrap (governor) of Caria for the Persian Achaemenid king Artaxerxes II. However, the basis for Hecatomnus' political power was twofold: he was both a high appointed Persian official and a powerful local dynast, who founded the hereditary dynasty of the Hecatomnids. The Hecatomnids followed the earlier autochthonous dynasty of the Lygdamids in Caria.
Idrieus, or Hidrieos was a ruler of Caria under the Achaemenid Empire, nominally a Satrap, who enjoyed the status of king or dynast by virtue of the powerful position his predecessors of the House of Hecatomnus created when they succeeded the assassinated Persian Satrap Tissaphernes in the Carian satrapy.
Aristophon was native of the deme of Azenia in Attica. He lived about and after the end of the Peloponnesian War. In 412 BC, Aristophon, Laespodias, and Melesias were sent to Sparta as ambassadors by the oligarchical government of the Four Hundred.
Abrocomas, one of the satraps of the king Artaxerxes II Mnemon, was sent with an army of 300,000 men to oppose Cyrus the Younger on his march into Upper Asia. On Cyrus's arrival at Tarsus in 401 BC, Abrocomas was said to be on the Euphrates. At Issus four hundred heavy-armed Greeks, who had deserted Abrocomas, joined Cyrus. Abrocomas did not defend the Syrian passes, as was expected, but marched to join the king. He burnt some boats to prevent Cyrus from crossing the Euphrates, but did not arrive in time for the battle of Cunaxa.
Alcetas I was a king of Epirus, the son of Tharrhypas.
Polyidus was an ancient Greek dithyrambic poet who was also skillful as a painter; he seems to have been esteemed almost as highly as Timotheus of Miletus. One of his pupils, Philotas, once defeated Timotheus in competition. According to Plutarch, Polyidus outdid Timotheus in those intricate variations, for the introduction of which the musicians of this period are so frequently attacked by contemporaries.
Lucius Caecilius Metellus Denter was consul in 284 BC, and praetor the year after. In this capacity he fell in the war against the Senones, and was succeeded by Manius Curius Dentatus.
Praxiphanes a Peripatetic philosopher, was a native of Mytilene, who lived a long time in Rhodes. He lived in the time of Demetrius Poliorcetes and Ptolemy I Soter, and was a pupil of Theophrastus, about 322 BC. He subsequently opened a school himself, in which Epicurus is said to have been one of his pupils. Praxiphanes paid special attention to grammatical studies, and is hence named along with Aristotle as the founder and creator of the science of grammar.
Alcmaeon, son of the Megacles who was guilty of sacrilege with respect to the followers of Cylon, was invited by Croesus, king of Lydia, to Sardis in consequence of the services he had rendered to an embassy sent by Croesus to consult the Delphic oracle. On his arrival at Sardis, Croesus made him a present of so much gold that he couldn't carry it all out of the treasury. Alcmaeon took the king at his word by putting on a most capacious dress, the folds of which he stuffed with gold, and then strewed in his hair gold-dust and stuffed more in his mouth. Croesus laughed at the trick, and presented him with as much again. This was supposed to have taken place around 590 BC. The wealth acquired thus is said to have contributed greatly to the subsequent prosperity of the Alcmaeonidae.
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have expired, been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable.
Sir William Smith was an English lexicographer. He also made advances in the teaching of Greek and Latin in schools.
The Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology is an encyclopedia/biographical dictionary. Edited by William Smith, the dictionary spans three volumes and 3,700 pages. It is a classic work of 19th-century lexicography. The work is a companion to Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities and Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography.