Timothy F. H. Allen (born July 6, 1942) is a British botanist and former professor of Botany and Environmental Studies at the University of Wisconsin–Madison. : 3 Allen is a leader in the fields of hierarchy theory, systems theory, and complexity.
Timothy Allen was born in 1942 in South Croydon, Surrey, U.K, and since the 1970s has been a permanent U.S. resident. He received his B.Sc. in 1964 and his Ph.D. in 1968, both at the University College North Wales of the University of Wales, Bangor, in North Wales.
Starting in 1964, Allen worked for four years as a demonstrator at the School of Plant Biology of the University College North Wales. This was followed by two years as a lecturer in the Department of Biological Science at the University of Ife in Nigeria. In 1970 he went to the United States and became an assistant professor at the Department of Botany of University of Wisconsin–Madison, being named professor in 1981. In 1980 he joined the faculty of the Department of Integrated Liberal Studies, and as member of the faculty of the Institute for Environmental Studies, Conservation and Land Management Programs. In 1988–89 he was a visiting professor at the Department of Anthropology and Cybernetic Systems at the San Jose State University.
In 2008–2009, Allen was president of the International Society for the Systems Sciences.He is also a member of the scientific advisory board of the Integral Science Institute.
Timothy Allen's research interests are in the fields: theory of complex systems and ecology, in particular hierarchy theory and problems of scale; epistemology for biological systems; resource use and biosocial dynamics; narrative in science.
Ecology is the study of the relationships among living organisms, including humans, and their physical environment. Ecology considers organisms at the individual, population, community, ecosystem, and biosphere level. Ecology overlaps with the closely related sciences of biogeography, evolutionary biology, genetics, ethology, and natural history. Ecology is a branch of biology, and it is not synonymous with environmentalism.
Human ecology is an interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary study of the relationship between humans and their natural, social, and built environments. The philosophy and study of human ecology has a diffuse history with advancements in ecology, geography, sociology, psychology, anthropology, zoology, epidemiology, public health, and home economics, among others.
Landscape ecology is the science of studying and improving relationships between ecological processes in the environment and particular ecosystems. This is done within a variety of landscape scales, development spatial patterns, and organizational levels of research and policy. Concisely, landscape ecology can be described as the science of "landscape diversity" as the synergetic result of biodiversity and geodiversity.
Complexity, Problem Solving, and Sustainable Societies is a paper on energy economics by Joseph Tainter from 1996.
Crawford Stanley "Buzz" Holling, was a Canadian ecologist, and Emeritus Eminent Scholar and Professor in Ecological Sciences at the University of Florida. Holling was one of the conceptual founders of ecological economics.
Restoration ecology is the scientific study supporting the practice of ecological restoration, which is the practice of renewing and restoring degraded, damaged, or destroyed ecosystems and habitats in the environment by active human interruption and action. Ecological restoration can reverse biodiversity loss, combat climate change and support local and global economies.
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Health ecology is an emerging field that studies the impact of ecosystems on human health. It examines alterations in the biological, physical, social, and economic environments to understand how these changes affect mental and physical human health. Health ecology focuses on a transdisciplinary approach to understanding all the factors which influence an individual's physiological, social, and emotional well-being.
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James J. Kay was an ecological scientist and policy-maker. He was a respected physicist best known for his theoretical work on complexity and thermodynamics.
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