Timothy Mason

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  • "Whatever Happened to `Fascism'?" pages 89–98 from Radical History Review, Volume 49, 1991.
  • "The Domestic Dynamics of Nazi Conquests: A Response to Critics" from Re-evaluating the Third Reich edited by Thomas Childers and Jane Caplan, 1993.
  • Nazism, Fascism, and the Working Class: Essays by Tim Mason, edited by Jane Caplan, 1995.
  • Related Research Articles

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    Nazi Germany was an overwhelmingly Christian nation with similarly overwhelmingly self-identified Christian leadership. A census in May 1939, six years into the Nazi era and after the annexation of mostly Catholic Austria and mostly Catholic Czechoslovakia into Germany, indicates that 54% of the population considered itself Protestant, 41% considered itself Catholic, 3.5% self-identified as Gottgläubig, and 1.5% as "atheist". Protestants were over-represented in the Nazi Party's membership and electorate, and Catholics were under-represented.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Economy of Nazi Germany</span> National economy of Nazi Germany

    Like many other nations at the time, Germany suffered the economic effects of the Great Depression, with unemployment soaring after the Wall Street Crash of 1929. When Adolf Hitler became Chancellor of Germany in 1933, he introduced policies aimed at improving the economy. The changes included privatization of state owned industries, import tariffs, and an attempt to achieve autarky. Weekly earnings increased by 19% in real terms from 1933 to 1939, but this was largely due to employees working longer hours, while the hourly wage rates remained close to the lowest levels reached during the Great Depression. In addition, reduced foreign trade meant rationing of consumer goods like poultry, fruit, and clothing for many Germans.

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    Nazism, the common name in English for National Socialism, is the far-right totalitarian political ideology and practices associated with Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (NSDAP) in Nazi Germany. During Hitler's rise to power in 1930s Europe, it was frequently referred to as Hitlerism. The later related term "neo-Nazism" is applied to other far-right groups with similar ideas which formed after the Second World War.



    1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Perry 1999, p. 780.
    2. 1 2 Blackbourn 1990, p. 3.
    3. 1 2 Nolan 1997, p. 244.
    4. Blackbourn 1990, p. 3; Perry 1999, p. 780.
    5. 1 2 Kershaw 2000, pp. 49–50.
    6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Kershaw 2000, p. 50.
    7. Kallis 2000, pp. 6–7.
    8. Kallis 2000, p. 7.
    9. 1 2 Kallis 2000, p. 165.
    10. 1 2 Kershaw 2000, p. 88.
    11. 1 2 Kallis 2000, pp. 165–166.
    12. Kallis 2000, p. 166.
    13. Kallis 2000, p. 151.
    14. 1 2 Mason & Overy 1997, p. 102.
    15. Overy 1999, pp. 117–118.
    16. Overy 1999, p. 108.
    17. Mason 1989, pp. 8–10.
    18. Mason 1989, pp. 12–15.
    19. Mason 1989, p. 18.
    20. Mason 1989, pp. 18–19.
    21. Mason 1993, p. 260.


    • Blackbourn, David (1990). "Tim Mason". Past & Present (128): 3–6. doi:10.1093/past/128.1.3. ISSN   1477-464X. JSTOR   651006.
    • Kallis, Aristotle (2000). Fascist Ideology. London: Routledge.
    • Kershaw, Ian (2000). The Nazi Dictatorship: Problems and Perspectives of Interpretation. London: Arnold.
    • Mason, Tim (1989). "Intention and Explanation: A Current Controversy About the Interpretation of National Socialism". In Marrus, Michael R. (ed.). The Nazi Holocaust. Part 3: The "Final Solution"; The Implementation of Mass Murder. Vol. 1. Westport, Connecticut: Meckler. pp. 3–20.
    •  ———  (1993). "Whatever Happened to 'Fascism'?". In Childers, Thomas; Caplan, Jane (eds.). Reevaluating the Third Reich. New York: Holmes & Meier. pp. 253–263.
    • Mason, Tim; Overy, R. J. (1997). "Debate: Germany, 'Domestic Crisis' and the War in 1939". In Finney, Patrick (ed.). The Origins of The Second World War. London: Arnold.
    • Nolan, Mary (1997). "Tim Mason and German Fascism". History Workshop Journal (44): 243–248. doi:10.1093/hwj/1997.44.243. ISSN   1477-4569. JSTOR   4289531.
    • Overy, Richard (1999). "Germany, 'Domestic Crisis' and War in 1939". In Leitz, Christian (ed.). The Third Reich. Oxford: Blackwell.
    • Perry, Matt (1999). "Mason, Tim". In Boyd, Kelly (ed.). The Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing. Vol. 2. London: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishing. pp. 780–781. doi: 10.4324/9780203825556 . ISBN   978-1-884964-33-6.

    Further reading

    • DiCori, Paola; Samuel, Raphael; Galleranto, Nicola (1990). "Tim Mason: l'uomo, lo studioso". Movimento Operaio e Socialista (in Italian). 13: 267–286.
    • Moltó, Ferran (2007). Tim Mason. Genocidio racial y clase obrera (1933–1945) (thesis) (in Spanish). UAB.
    • Peukert, Detlev (1982). Volksgenossen und Gemeinschaftsfremden: Anpassung, Ausmerze und Aufbegehren unter dem Nationalsozialismus (in German). Cologne: Bund Verlag.
    • Samuel, Raphael (1990). "Tim Mason: A Memorial". History Workshop Journal. 39: 129–133. doi:10.1093/hwj/30.1.129. ISSN   1477-4569.
    • Schoenbaum, David (1996). "Review of Nazism, Fascism and the Working Class, by Timothy W. Mason, edited by Jane Caplan". Contemporary European History. 5 (2): 259–265. doi:10.1017/S0960777300003805. ISSN   1469-2171. JSTOR   20081587.
    Timothy Mason
    Timothy Wright Mason

    (1940-02-02)2 February 1940
    Died5 March 1990(1990-03-05) (aged 50)
    Rome, Italy
    Other namesTim Mason
    Known forArguing for a "primacy of politics" approach to Nazi Germany and for World War II being caused by an economic crisis in Germany
    • Ursula Vogel
      (m. 1970,divorced)
    • Simonetta Piccone
      (m. 1987)
    Parent(s)Walter Wright Mason, Isabel Anna (Smith) Mason
    Academic background
    Alma mater
    Thesis National Socialist Policies Towards the German Working Classes, 1925–1939 (1971)