Timothy Alan Reuter (25 January 1947 – 14 October 2002), grandson of the former mayor of Berlin Ernst Reuter, was a German-British historian who specialized in the study of medieval Germany, particularly the social, military and ecclesiastical institutions of the Ottonian and Salian periods (10th–12th centuries).
Reuter received his D.Phil. from Oxford in medieval history under the supervision of Karl Leyser (d. 1992), another leading Anglophone scholar of German history. After a brief stint lecturing at the University of Exeter, Reuter spent more than a decade as a Mitarbeiter (academic staff member) at the Monumenta Germaniae Historica in Munich, where he worked on editing the letters of the twelfth-century abbot Wibald of Corvey and (with Dr. Gabriel Silagi) produced an important electronic database that served as the basis for a concordance to the work of the medieval canonist Gratian.
In 1994, Reuter was appointed to a professorship at the University of Southampton, where he remained until his death in 2002. At Southampton, he spearheaded a number of educational and research initiatives that promoted medieval history and scholarship.
In addition to his careful and insightful research, pioneering work on computer-assisted text editing methods and professional contributions to the historical academy in the UK and Germany, Reuter served as an important liaison between the worlds of Anglo-American and German medieval studies. Among his important contributions in this area were numerous book reviews in German and British publications, a highly regarded translation of Gerd Tellenbach's monograph on the history of the church in the High Middle Ages (The Church in Western Europe from the tenth to the early twelfth century, Cambridge, 1993) and the posthumous editing and publishing of his mentor Karl Leyser's papers (Communications and Power in Medieval Europe, 2 vols., Hambledon & London, 1992). His own monograph, Germany in the Early Middle Ages, 800-1056 (Harlow, Essex & New York, 1991) remains the standard English-language survey of the subject.
At the time of his death of brain cancer, he was working on a history of the medieval episcopacy. His collected papers are posthumously published as Medieval Polities and Modern Mentalities (Cambridge, 2006).
The collection Challenging the Boundaries of Medieval History: The Legacy of Timothy Reuter, edited by Patricia Skinner, was published in 2009 as volume 22 in the University of York Studies in the Early Middle Ages (Brepols, Turnhout, Belgium).
Henry the Fowler was the Duke of Saxony from 912 and the King of East Francia from 919 until his death in 936. As the first non-Frankish king of East Francia, he established the Ottonian dynasty of kings and emperors, and he is generally considered to be the founder of the medieval German state, known until then as East Francia. An avid hunter, he obtained the epithet "the Fowler" because he was allegedly fixing his birding nets when messengers arrived to inform him that he was to be king.
The Northern March or North March was created out of the division of the vast Marca Geronis in 965. It initially comprised the northern third of the Marca and was part of the territorial organisation of areas conquered from the Wends. A Lutician rebellion in 983 reversed German control over the region until the establishment of the March of Brandenburg by Albert the Bear in the 12th century.
Gero I, called the Great, ruled an initially modest march centred on Merseburg in the south of the present German state of Saxony-Anhalt, which he expanded into a vast territory named after him: the marca Geronis. During the mid-10th century, he was the leader of the Saxon Ostsiedlung.
Liutward was the archchancellor of the Carolingian Empire from 878 and the bishop of Vercelli from 880 by appointment of Charles the Fat. Never liked by the nobility, he was trusted by Charles as a confidant and go-between with the papacy.
Frederick I was the count of Bar and duke of Upper Lorraine. He was a son of Wigeric, count of Bidgau, also count palatine of Lorraine, and Cunigunda, and thus a sixth generation descendant of Charlemagne.
Burchard III, a member of the Hunfriding dynasty, was the count of Thurgau and Zürichgau, perhaps of Rhaetia, and then Duke of Swabia from 954 to his death.
Burchard I, a member of the Hunfriding dynasty, was a Duke of Alamannia from 909 until his death. He also held the title of a margrave of Raetia Curiensis, as well as count in the Thurgau and Baar.
Ratold was a King of Italy who reigned for a month or so in 896. He was an illegitimate son of King Arnulf of East Francia. He and his half-brother Zwentibold are described by the Annals of Fulda as being born "by concubines". Their mothers are not named, and it is possible that their status was only downgraded to that of concubinage after Arnulf's marriage to Uota in 888. They may have originally been in Friedelehen, "consent-based marriages", a kind of common-law marriage.
The Marca Geronis was a vast super-march in the middle of the tenth century. It was created probably for Thietmar and passed to his two sons consecutively: Siegfried and Gero. On Gero's death in 965 it was divided into five different marches: the Nordmark, the Ostmark, Meissen, Zeitz, and Merseburg.
Liutbert was the Archbishop of Mainz from 863 until his death. He also became Abbot of Ellwangen in 874 and is reckoned the first Archchancellor of Germany. He was one of the major organisers—along with Henry of Franconia—of the vigorous and successful defence of East Francia against Viking attack during his last decade.
Poppo II or Boppo II was the Duke of Thuringia from 880 until his deposition in 892.
Egino was a count in East Franconia and Duke of Thuringia in the late 9th century. He was a Babenberg, the younger brother of Henry of Franconia and Poppo of Thuringia. All three may have been the sons or grandsons of Poppo of Grapfeld.
Conrad, called the Old or the Elder, was the Duke of Thuringia briefly in 892–93. He was the namesake of the Conradiner family and son of Udo of Neustria. His mother (probably) was a daughter of Conrad I of Logenahe (832–860). He was the count of the Oberlahngau (886), Hessengau (897), Gotzfeldgau (903), Wetterau (905), and Wormsgau (906). He united all of Hesse under his political control and under his heirs this territory became the Duchy of Franconia.
The Wilhelminers were a noble Bavarian family of the 9th century. They rose to prominence mid-century under the brothers William and Engelschalk I, sons of William I, the founder of the family. The family held the March of Pannonia until 871, but their possession of it was the cause of a dispute, the Wilhelminer War, with the Aribonids. In the dispute the Wilhelminers had the support of Arnulf of Carinthia and Svatopluk of Moravia.
The Battle of Riade or Battle of Merseburg was fought between the troops of East Francia under King Henry I and the Magyars at an unidentified location in northern Thuringia along the river Unstrut on 15 March 933. The battle was precipitated by the decision of the Synod of Erfurt to stop paying an annual tribute to the Magyars in 932.
The Stellinga or Stellingabund was a movement of Saxon frilingi (freemen) and lazzi (freedmen) between 841 and 845. These were the middle two Saxon castes, below the nobility and above the unfree. The aim of the Stellinga was to recover those rights the two castes had possessed before their conversion from Germanic paganism in the 770s. At that time they had still possessed political privileges, but Charlemagne, having won over to his cause the Saxon nobility, had reduced them to mere peasants. The Stellinga thus despised the Lex Saxonum, which had been codified by Charlemagne, preferring to live in accordance with ancient and unwritten tribal custom. The movement was violently resisted by the uppermost caste, the nobiles (nobility), not always with the support of the Frankish kings.
Henrietta Leyser is an English historian. She is an expert on the history of medieval England, in particular the role of women.
The Counts of Stade were members of the Saxony nobility beginning in the 10th century. Stade had developed since the 8th century as a principal center of trade and communications. The Counts of Stade created their domain between the lower Elbe and Weser rivers. They extended their power northwards with the acquisition of Dithmarschen in the 11th century. They became the Margraves of the Nordmark in 1056. There is also a close political and familial relationship between the Counts of Stade and the Counts of Walbeck. The county of Stade and Northern March were replaced by the March of Brandenburg by Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony, in the 12th century. The family of Counts of Stade is referred to as the House of Udonids.
Henry I the Bald was Count of Stade. He was son of Lothar II, Count of Stade, and Swanhild of Saxony. Henry is recorded as a cousin of Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor, but their exact relationship remains a mystery. Henry was also appointed Count of Heilangau, the ancient capital of Stade, in 959.
Lothair Udo I, Margrave of Nordmark and Count of Stade, son of Siegfried II, Count of Stade, and Adela of Rhienfelden, daughter of Gero, Count of Alsleben. Lothair was the first of the House of Udonids to serve as margrave.