|Born||10 October 1845|
|Died||17 April 1919 73) (aged|
|Education||Haverfordwest Baptist College, Wales|
Dr. Ethel Tribe
|Parent(s)||Timothy and Eleanor Richard|
Timothy Richard (Chinese: 李提摩太 Li Timotai, 10 October 1845 – 17 April 1919) was a Welsh Baptist missionary to China, who influenced the modernisation of China and the rise of the Chinese Republic.
Richard was born on 10 October 1845 in Ffaldybrenin, Carmarthenshire in south Wales, the son of Timothy and Eleanor Richard, a devout Baptist farming family. Inspired by the Second Evangelical Awakening to become a missionary, Richard left teaching to enter Haverfordwest Theological College in 1865. There he dedicated himself to China, where he had an active role in relief operations during the Northern Chinese Famine of 1876–1879.He was a leader in promoting anti-foot binding and gender equality in China.
Richard applied to the newly formed China Inland Mission, but Hudson Taylor considered that he would be of better service to the denominational Baptist missions. In 1869 the Baptist Missionary Society (BMS) accepted Richard's application, and assigned him to Yantai (Chefoo), Shandong Province.
In 1897 Richard undertook a journey to India to discover the conditions of the Christian mission there. Travelling with a young missionary, Arthur Gostick Shorrock, they visited Ceylon, Madras, Agra, Benares, Delhi, Calcutta and finally Bombay.
Timothy Richard helped the Qing government to deal with the aftermath of the Taiyuan massacre during the Boxer Rebellion. He thought its main cause was lack of education of the population, so he proposed to Qing court official Li Hongzhang to establish a modern university in Taiyuan with Boxer Indemnity to the Great Britain, and his proposal was approved later. In 1902, Timothy Richard represented the British government to establish Shanxi University, one of the three earliest modern universities in China. Timothy Richard was in charge of the fund to build Shanxi University until ten years later in 1912. During that period, he also served as the head of the College of Western Studies in Shanxi University.
In China, Timothy Richard became a contributor to the monthly Wan Guo Gong Bao , or Review of the Times, which Young John Allen founded and edited from 1868 to 1907. This paper was "saidby whom?…to have done more for reform than any other single agency in China." The Review attracted a wide and influential Chinese readership throughout its thirty-nine year run. One of the ways in which the Review appealed to a broad, scholarly audience was through its discussion of current events and economics. During the First Sino-Japanese War period of 1894–1895, essay titles included: “International Intercourse, by a descendant of Confucius,” “How to Enrich a Nation, by Dr. Joseph Edkins”, “The Prime Benefits of Christianity, by the Rev. Timothy Richard,” and “On the Suppression of Doubt and the Acceptance of Christ, by Sung Yuh-kwei.” The articles attributed practical applications to the Christian faith and portrayed Christianity as a useful concept for the Chinese, one that Allen and his contributors intended to portray on an equal level to concepts such as market economics and international law. The Qing reformer Kang Youwei once said of the publication: "I owe my conversion to reform chiefly on the writings of two missionaries, the Rev. Timothy Richard and the Rev. Dr. Young J. Allen."
Richard also translated Looking Backward into Chinese as 百年一覺 Bainian Yi Jiao, [ citation needed ]and part of Wu Cheng'en's novel, Journey to the West into English.
Richard's papers are preserved in the BMS archives at Regent's Park College, Oxford.
On death in April 1919, Richard was cremated, and his ashes placed in the columbarium of Golders Green Crematorium. The memorial tablet is largely in Chinese.
Shanxi is a landlocked province of the People's Republic of China and is part of the North China region. The capital and largest city of the province is Taiyuan, while its next most populated prefecture-level cities are Changzhi and Datong. Its one-character abbreviation is "晋", after the state of Jin that existed there during the Spring and Autumn period.
Kung Hsiang-hsi, often known as Dr. H. H. Kung, also known as Dr. Chauncey Kung, was a Chinese banker and politician in the early 20th century. He married Soong Ai-ling, the eldest of the three Soong sisters; the other two married President Sun Yat-sen and the latter President Chiang Kai-shek. Together with his brother-in-law, Soong Tse-ven, he was highly influential in determining the economic policies of the Kuomintang-led Nationalist government of the Republic of China in the 1930s and 1940s.
Shanxi University is a public university located in the city of Taiyuan, Shanxi province, China. The university was selected into the Double First Class University Plan in February 2022.
BMS World Mission, officially Baptist Missionary Society, is a Christian missionary society founded by Baptists from England in 1792. The headquarters is in Didcot, England.
OMF International is an international and interdenominational Evangelical Christian missionary society with an international centre in Singapore. It was founded in Britain by Hudson Taylor on 25 June 1865.
A Review of the Times– Traditional Chinese: 萬國公報; Simplified Chinese: 万国公报; Pinyin: Wàn Guó Gōng Bào; Wade–Giles: Wan Kuo Kung Pao; Literally: "The Ten Thousand Nations' Common Newspaper") A Review of the Times was a monthly publication in China from 1868 to 1907. It was founded and edited by the American Methodist missionary the Reverend Young John Allen (林樂知) of Georgia. Its subject matter ranged from discussions on the politics of Western nation-states to the virtues and advantages of Christianity.
Young John Allen or Young J. Allen, was an American Methodist missionary in late Qing dynasty China with the American Southern Methodist Episcopal Mission. He is best known in China by his local name Lin Lezhi (林乐知).
Frederick William Baller was a British Protestant Christian missionary to China, Chinese linguist, translator, educator and sinologist.
The Berlin Missionary Society (BMS) or Society for the Advancement of evangelistic Missions amongst the Heathen was a German Protestant (Lutheran) Christian missionary society that was constituted on 29 February 1824 by a group of pious laymen from the Prussian nobility.
The Sheo Yang Mission was a Protestant Christian missionary society that was involved in sending workers to China during the late Qing dynasty. It was founded by the Pigott family in 1892, they had previously been members of the China Inland Mission (CIM). The mission was destroyed and most members murdered in 1900, the work continued through the Baptist Missionary Society.
Gregory Mary Grassi, O.F.M., was an Italian Franciscan friar and bishop who is honored as a Catholic martyr and saint.
The "China Martyrs of 1900" is a term used by some Protestant Christians to refer to American and European missionaries and converts who were murdered during the Boxer Rebellion, when Boxers carried out violent attacks targeting Christians and foreigners in northern China.
Arthur Gostick Shorrock (1861–1945) was a Baptist missionary who worked in China for 40 years. Arthur was born in 1861 in Blackburn, Lancashire, England. He entered Spurgeon's College and as a student preacher took services at the Baptist Chapel in Wraysbury. There he met his future wife, Maud Doulton, a relative of both Henry Doulton the pottery manufacturer and William Thomas Buckland the Wraysbury auctioneer. Arthur then left to become a missionary in China before returning to live in Wraysbury after his retirement.
The Taiyuan massacre took place during the Boxer Rebellion, July 9, 1900, in Taiyuan, Shanxi province, North China. Sources recall that they were killed in the presence of Yuxian, governor of Shanxi. 44 people were killed including children.
The Northern Chinese Famine of 1876–1879 was marked by drought-induced crop failures and subsequent widespread starvation. Between 9.5 and 13 million people in China died mostly in Shanxi province, but also in Zhili, Henan and Shandong. The population reduction in censuses, which include famine migration, shows a drop of 23 million people, among which Shanxi lost 48%, Shaanxi lost 25%, Henan lost 22%. The drought began in 1875 and was influenced by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation.
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Alfred George Jones was an Irish baptist missionary to China. Jones had his own business in his native town of New Ross, Ireland, but left it in the hands of a manager in order to go on his mission to China. He attended Lancashire Independent College, a dissenting academy from 1874 to 1876 and arrived in Yantai, Shandong in 1876. In the following year, he went to Qingzhou to assist Timothy Richard by keeping the accounts for an ongoing relief effort for the victims of the Northern Chinese Famine of 1876–1879. He continued to reside in Qingzhou with the exception of the period from 1889 to 1896, during which he lived in Zouping. He died when a temple building on Taishan, Tai'an in which he was sleeping collapsed during a storm.
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The Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception is the cathedral of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Taiyuan, Shanxi, China. It was founded in 1635 and rebuilt twice in 1870 and 1902, and it is the largest Catholic church building in Taiyuan.