|Timur Shah Durrani |
تیمور شاہ درانی
|Shah of the Durrani Empire|
|Emir of the Durrani Empire|
|Reign||November 1772 – 20 May 1793|
|Predecessor|| Ahmad Shah Durrani |
Humayun Mirza (disputed)
|Successor||Zaman Shah Durrani|
|Born||December 1746 |
Mashhad, Afsharid Persia
|Died||20 May 1793 (aged 46)|
Char Bagh, Durrani Empire
|Burial||21 May 1793|
Maqbara-i-Timur Shah, Kabul
Gauhar Shad Begum
|Issue|| Zaman Shah Durrani |
Mahmud Shah Durrani
Shah Shujah Durrani
|Father||Ahmad Shah Durrani|
Timur Shah Durrani (Pashto : تېمور شاه دراني; Dari : تیمور شاہ درانی;), also known as Timur Shah Abdali or Taimur Shah Abdali (December 1746 – May 20, 1793) was the second ruler of the Afghan Durrani Empire, from November 1772 until his death in 1793. An ethnic Pashtun, he was the second eldest son of Ahmad Shah Durrani.
Timur Shah was born in December 1746,in Mashhad.
He received the city of Sirhind as a wedding gift under his governorship, and was later given the title of Viceroy of Punjab, Kashmir and the Sirhind district in 1757(when he was only 11 years old), by his father Ahmad Shah Durrani for one year, from May 1757 until April 1758. Ahmad Shah Durrani had immediately appointed Toryal Khan Afridi, the eldest son of his army's commander and his most trustworthy soldier, Awalmir Khan Afridi, to teach horseback riding and swordsmanship to Timur Shah Durrani. Toryal Khan Afridi also had the responsibility for the safety and protection of Timur Shah Durrani, so he continuously stayed with Timur Shah Durrani in the royal palace.
Timur Shah had ascended to the throne of the Durrani Empire in November 1772with Shah Humayun giving up his throne.
Timur Shah went to Peshawar to spend the winter there.
A year before the death of Ahmad Shah Durrani, the Sikhs conquered Multan in 1772.Timur Shah ascended to the throne of the Durrani Empire after his father's death. Due to Sikhs having been in possession of the provinces of Lahore and Multan, these provinces served as a barrier for any attempt by Timur Shah to invade, many chiefs and nobility, dependencies of Durranis, paid no respect to the Durrani sovereignty, such as Sindh which reduced the amount of tribute and hardly paid it, mostly due to its concurrent civil war between the Talpurs, and the Kalhoras; Nasir Khan Baloch, the ruler of the Khanate of Kalat under Timur Shah did not acknowledge the authority of Afghan monarch, as a result, inducing other Durrani chiefdoms to do the same, including the chief of Bahawalpur, who treated the authority of Timur Shah with no respect. Timur Shah thereupon tried to recover Multan by diplomacy and therefore sent Haji Ali Khan, as his agent, along with companions, to the Bhangi Sikh Chiefs to negotiate, with advice to behave and be polite, but instead, Haji Ali Khan threatened the Bhangi Chiefs to retire from Multan or face the royal wrath. The Bhangis tied Haji to the tree and shot him dead whereas his companions were left unharmed and sent back to report to Timur.
Upon the news of death of his agent, Timur Shah detached a force of 18,000 men that included Yusafzais, Durranis, Mughals and Qizalbashes under general Zangi Khan, km from the Sikh camps with orders to imprison anyone who goes in the direction of the Sikh camp to make the Sikhs aware of their presence. Timur Shah positioned himself in the centre, at the head of 5,000 Yusafzai men. Little before daybreak, early morning, the Sikhs completely unaware of Afghan army's presence, were attacked, and though unorganized, the Sikhs gave tough resistance but were eventually overwhelmed. About 3000 Sikhs were killed, and 500 others drowned in river Jhelum in trying to cross it during the Sikh retreat, while 2000 escaped by successfully reaching the opposite bank of the river.with orders to march by less known routes and fall upon the Sikhs unaware and Zangi Khan gave strict orders to his army to keep the movement secret. Zangi Khan halted 25
Timur Shah also marched on Multan, besieging the city in January 1780.
Azad Khan was confirmed as successor and ruled Kashmir, beginning his rule from Srinagar in 1783, at the age of 18 years old.
By 1788, Timur Shah Durrani, attempted again to ford the plains of Punjab to rescue his brother-in-law, the Mughal emperor Shah Alam II. The emperor had been blinded by the Rohilla leader Ghulam Qadir, who occupied and plundered Delhi for two and a half months in 1788. Timur Shah prepared an invasion and wrote letters to the English authorities, including Earl Cornwallis, and pleaded for a quick restoration of Shah Alam II to the throne, but was informed that he already had been restored as emperor by the Marathas. Therefore, he retreated back again. Timur Shah ascertained this information by sending an ambassador to the Mughal court and later requested that the British protect and obey the Mughal dynasty.
After that, Shah Murad demanded that Timur Shah's governor of Aqcha and Balkh be recalled. When Timur Shah failed to comply, Shah Murad crossed the Amu Darya in the summer of 1788.
Nonetheless, Timur Shah, with his army marched north, at a slow pace to make sure Shah Murad would not be notified of this attack. Timur Shah with his armies arrived at Aqcha on the month of Dhu al-Hijjah, Shah Murad was however prepared, and drew up his men for battle.
After the death of Timur Shah, Zaman Shah Durrani ascended the throne, inheriting the Durrani Empire.
Five of his sons would eventually become rulers in their own right or contendents for power. According to Fayz Muhammad those sons were as follows (notable sons are in bold):
The Durrani Empire or the Afghan Empire, also known as the Sadozai Kingdom, was an Afghan empire that was founded by Ahmad Shah Durrani in 1747, that spanned parts of Central Asia, the Iranian plateau, and the Indian Subcontinent. At its peak, it ruled over the present-day Afghanistan, much of Pakistan, parts of northeastern and southeastern Iran, eastern Turkmenistan, and northwestern India. Next to the Ottoman Empire, the Durrani Empire is considered to be among the most significant Islamic Empires of the 18th century.
The Afghan Civil War was fought from 14 November 1928 to 13 October 1929. Rebelling, and subsequently governing Saqqawist (Saqāwīhā) forces under Habibullāh Kalakāni fought against various opposing tribes and rival monarchs in the Kingdom of Afghanistan, among whom Mohammed Nādir Khān eventually achieved a preponderant role. Despite early successes, such as the capture of Kabul and defeat of Amanullah Khan on 17 January 1929 or the capture of Kandahar on 3 June, the Saqqawists were eventually deposed by anti-Saqqawist forces led by Nadir on 13 October 1929, leading to Nadir's ascension as King of Afghanistan, who ruled until his assassination on 3 November 1933.
Emir Dost Mohammad Khan Barakzai, nicknamed the Amir-i Kabir, was the founder of the Barakzai dynasty and one of the prominent rulers of Afghanistan during the First Anglo-Afghan War. With the decline of the Durrani dynasty, he became the Emir of Afghanistan in 1826. He was the 11th son of Payendah Khan, chief of the Barakzai Pashtuns, who was killed in 1799 by King Zaman Shah Durrani.
Zaman Shah Durrani, or Zaman Shah Abdali, was ruler of the Durrani Empire from 1793 until 1801. He was the grandson of Ahmad Shah Durrani and the fifth son of Timur Shah Durrani. An ethnic Pashtun of the Sadozai clan, Zaman Shah became the third King of the Durrani Empire.
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Adina Beg Khan was a Punjabi general and administrator who served as the last governor of the Punjab region of the Mughal Empire, including the provinces of Lahore and of Multan.
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Ahmad Shah Durrani, the founder of the Durrani Empire, invaded Indian subcontinent for eight times between 1748 and 1767, following the collapse of Mughal Empire in the mid-18th century. His objectives were met through the raids and deepened the political crisis in India.
The Emirate of Afghanistan was an unrecognized state ruled by the Saqqawists that existed from January to October 1929. Habibullāh Kalakāni became the state's only emir on 18 January 1929. After the fall of Kalakāni on 13 October 1929, the Emirate ended.
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The Battle of Rohtas took place somewhere in December 1779, between Timur Shah Durrani and the Bhangi Misl. Timur Shah consolidated his rule through multiple attempts, and also attempted an earlier invasion in 1775, however realizing the weakness of his army in view of smaller in number, Timur Shah retired to Peshawar which proceeded with rebellion by Faizullah Khan, who plotted to assassinate Timur Shah but was cunningly executed. In late 1779, Timur Shah decided to conquer Multan.
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The Siege of Multan started in January 1780 and ended on 18 February 1780, it was the result Timur Shah Durrani's reconquest campaigns of Multan after it had been taken in 1772. This siege saw the Afghans successfully re-capture Multan after taking Rohtas months prior.
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The Siege of Multan took place on 20 February 1810 as part of the Afghan-Sikh Wars, which resulted with the capture of the city of Multan by the Sikh Empire from the Durrani Empire.
The Siege of Multan was a battle fought between the Sikh forces led by Jhanda Singh Dhillon and the Afghan forces led by Shuja Khan.
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Fateh Khan Barakzai or Wazir Fateh Khan or simply, Fateh Khan, was Wazir of the Durrani Empire during the reign of Mahmud Shah Durrani until his torture and execution at the hands of Kamran Shah Durrani, the son of the ruler of the Durrani Empire, and Mahmud Shah Durrani, and other prominent conspirators such as Ata Mohammad Khan. Fateh Khan was of the Barakzai tribe, and his death caused the enmity of his tribe, leading to his tribe revolting and the eventual deposition of Mahmud Shah Durrani.