Tin(IV) fluoride

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Tin(IV) fluoride
Niobtetrafluorid.png
Unit cell of tin(IV) fluoride
Names
IUPAC name
tin(IV) fluoride
Other names
stannic fluoride, tin tetrafluoride
Identifiers
  • 7783-62-2 Yes check.svgY
3D model (JSmol)
ECHA InfoCard 100.029.105 OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg
EC Number
  • 232-016-0
PubChem CID
UNII
  • InChI=1S/4FH.Sn/h4*1H;/q;;;;+4/p-4
  • [F-].[F-].[F-].[F-].[Sn+4]
Properties
SnF4
Molar mass 194.704 g/mol
Appearancewhite solid
Melting point above 700 °C (sublimes)
Structure
Tetragonal, tI10
I4/mmm, No. 139
Related compounds
Other anions
Tin(IV) chloride
Tin(IV) bromide
Tin(IV) iodide
Other cations
Carbon tetrafluoride
Silicon tetrafluoride
Germanium tetrafluoride
Tin tetrafluoride
Lead tetrafluoride
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
X mark.svgN  verify  (what is  Yes check.svgYX mark.svgN ?)
Infobox references

Tin(IV) fluoride is a chemical compound of tin and fluorine with the chemical formula SnF4 and is a white solid with a melting point above 700 °C. [1]

Contents

SnF4 can be prepared by the reaction of tin metal with fluorine gas: [2]

Sn + 2F2 → SnF4

However, a passivating metal fluoride layer will be created and the surface will eventually become unreactive. An alternative synthesis is the reaction of SnCl4 with anhydrous hydrogen fluoride: [1]

SnCl4 + 4HF → SnF4 + 4HCl

With alkali metal fluorides (e.g. KF) hexafluorostannates are produced (e.g.K2SnF6), which contain the octahedral SnF62− anion. SnF4 behaves as a Lewis acid and adducts L2·SnF4 and L·SnF4 have been produced. [2]

Structure

Unlike the other tin tetrahalides, tin(IV) chloride, tin(IV) bromide, and tin(IV) iodide, which contain tetrahedrally coordinated tin, tin(IV) fluoride contains planar layers of octahedrally coordinated tin, where the octahedra share four corners and there are two terminal, unshared, fluorine atoms trans to one another. [3] The melting point of SnF4 is much higher (700 °C) than the other tin(IV) halides which are relatively low melting, (SnCl4, −33.3 °C; SnBr4, 31 °C; SnI4, 144 °C). [1] The structure can also be contrasted with the tetrafluorides of the lighter members of group 14, (CF4, SiF4 and GeF4) which in the solid state form molecular crystals. [2]

See also

Related Research Articles

Tin Chemical element, symbol Sn and atomic number 50

Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn and atomic number 50. Tin is a silvery metal that characteristically has a faint yellow hue.

Tungsten(VI) fluoride, also known as tungsten hexafluoride, is an inorganic compound with the formula WF6. It is a toxic, corrosive, colorless gas, with a density of about 13 g/L (roughly 11 times heavier than air.) It is one of the densest known gases under standard conditions. WF6 is commonly used by the semiconductor industry to form tungsten films, through the process of chemical vapor deposition. This layer is used in a low-resistivity metallic "interconnect". It is one of seventeen known binary hexafluorides.

Manganese(III) fluoride Chemical compound

Manganese(III) fluoride (also known as Manganese trifluoride) is the inorganic compound with the formula MnF3. This red/purplish solid is useful for converting hydrocarbons into fluorocarbons, i.e., it is a fluorination agent. It forms a hydrate and many derivatives.

Organotin chemistry

Organotin compounds or stannanes are chemical compounds based on tin with hydrocarbon substituents. Organotin chemistry is part of the wider field of organometallic chemistry. The first organotin compound was diethyltin diiodide ((C2H5)2SnI2), discovered by Edward Frankland in 1849. The area grew rapidly in the 1900s, especially after the discovery of the Grignard reagents, which are useful for producing Sn-C bonds. The area remains rich with many applications in industry and continuing activity in the research laboratory.

Antimony pentafluoride is the inorganic compound with the formula SbF5. This colourless, viscous liquid is a valuable Lewis acid and a component of the superacid fluoroantimonic acid, formed when mixing liquid HF with liquid SbF5 in a 2:1 ratio. It is notable for its Lewis acidity and its ability to react with almost all known compounds.

Tellurium tetrafluoride Chemical compound

Tellurium tetrafluoride, TeF4, is a stable, white, hygroscopic crystalline solid and is one of two fluorides of tellurium. The other binary fluoride is tellurium hexafluoride. The widely reported Te2F10 has been shown to be F5TeOTeF5 There are other tellurium compounds that contain fluorine, but only the two mentioned contain solely tellurium and fluorine. Tellurium difluoride, TeF2, and ditellurium difluoride, Te2F2 are not known.

Tetrafluoroborate Anion

Tetrafluoroborate is the anion BF
4
. This tetrahedral species is isoelectronic with tetrafluoroberyllate (BeF2−
4
), tetrafluoromethane (CF4), and tetrafluoroammonium (NF+
4
) and is valence isoelectronic with many stable and important species including the perchlorate anion, ClO
4
, which is used in similar ways in the laboratory. It arises by the reaction of fluoride salts with the Lewis acid BF3, treatment of tetrafluoroboric acid with base, or by treatment of boric acid with hydrofluoric acid.

Xenon difluoride Chemical compound

Xenon difluoride is a powerful fluorinating agent with the chemical formula XeF
2
, and one of the most stable xenon compounds. Like most covalent inorganic fluorides it is moisture-sensitive. It decomposes on contact with light or water vapor but is otherwise stable in storage. Xenon difluoride is a dense, colourless crystalline solid.

Aluminium fluoride Chemical compound

Aluminium fluoride refers to inorganic compounds with the formula AlF3·xH2O. They are all colorless solids. Anhydrous AlF3 is used in the production of aluminium metal. Several occur as minerals.

Zinc fluoride Chemical compound

Zinc fluoride (ZnF2) is an inorganic chemical compound. It is encountered as the anhydrous form and also as the tetrahydrate, ZnF2 · 4H2O (rhombohedral crystal structure). It has a high melting point and has the rutile structure containing 6 coordinate zinc, which suggests appreciable ionic character in its chemical bonding. Unlike the other zinc halides, ZnCl2, ZnBr2 and ZnI2, it is not very soluble in water.

Tin(IV) sulfide Chemical compound

Tin(IV) sulfide is a compound with the formula SnS
2
. The compound crystallizes in the cadmium iodide motif, with the Sn(IV) situated in "octahedral holes' defined by six sulfide centers. It occurs naturally as the rare mineral berndtite. It is useful as semiconductor material with band gap 2.2 eV.

Technetium hexafluoride Chemical compound

Technetium hexafluoride or technetium(VI) fluoride (TcF6) is a yellow inorganic compound with a low melting point. It was first identified in 1961. In this compound, technetium has an oxidation state of +6, the highest oxidation state found in the technetium halides. The other such compound is technetium(VI) chloride, TcCl6. In this respect, technetium differs from rhenium, which forms a heptafluoride, ReF7. Technetium hexafluoride occurs as an impurity in uranium hexafluoride, as technetium is a fission product of uranium.

Antimony trifluoride is the inorganic compound with the formula SbF3. Sometimes called Swarts' reagent, is one of two principal fluorides of antimony, the other being SbF5. It appears as a white solid. As well as some industrial applications, it is used as a reagent in inorganic and organofluorine chemistry.

Fluorine Chemical element, symbol F and atomic number 9

Fluorine is a chemical element with the symbol F and atomic number 9. It is the lightest halogen and exists at standard conditions as a highly toxic, pale yellow diatomic gas. As the most electronegative element, it is extremely reactive, as it reacts with all other elements, except for argon, neon, and helium.

A hexafluoride is a chemical compound with the general formula QXnF6, QXnF6m−, or QXnF6m+. Many molecules fit this formula. An important hexafluoride is hexafluorosilicic acid (H2SiF6), which is a byproduct of the mining of phosphate rock. In the nuclear industry, uranium hexafluoride (UF6) is an important intermediate in the purification of this element.

Iridium(V) fluoride Chemical compound

Iridium(V) fluoride, IrF5, is a chemical compound of iridium and fluorine. A highly reactive yellow low melting solid, it has a tetrameric structure, Ir4F20, which contains octahedrally coordinated iridium atoms. This structure is shared with RuF5 and OsF5. It can be prepared by the controlled decomposition of IrF6 or the reduction of IrF6 with silicon powder or H2 in anhydrous HF.

Vanadium pentafluoride Chemical compound

Vanadium(V) fluoride is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula VF5. It is a colorless volatile liquid. It is a highly reactive compound, as indicated by its ability to fluorinate organic substances.

Fluorine forms a great variety of chemical compounds, within which it always adopts an oxidation state of −1. With other atoms, fluorine forms either polar covalent bonds or ionic bonds. Most frequently, covalent bonds involving fluorine atoms are single bonds, although at least two examples of a higher order bond exist. Fluoride may act as a bridging ligand between two metals in some complex molecules. Molecules containing fluorine may also exhibit hydrogen bonding. Fluorine's chemistry includes inorganic compounds formed with hydrogen, metals, nonmetals, and even noble gases; as well as a diverse set of organic compounds. For many elements the highest known oxidation state can be achieved in a fluoride. For some elements this is achieved exclusively in a fluoride, for others exclusively in an oxide; and for still others the highest oxidation states of oxides and fluorides are always equal.

Lead tetrafluoride Chemical compound

Lead tetrafluoride is a compound of lead and fluorine. The yellow solid is the only room-temperature stable tetrahalide of lead. Lead tetrafluoride is isostructural with tin(IV) fluoride and contains planar layers of octahedrally coordinated lead, where the octahedra share four corners and there are two terminal, unshared, fluorine atoms trans to one another.

Platinum tetrafluoride Chemical compound

Platinum tetrafluoride is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula PtF
4
. In the solid state, the compound features platinum(IV) in octahedral coordination geometry.

References

  1. 1 2 3 Greenwood, N. N.; Earnshaw, A. (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Oxford:Butterworth-Heinemann. pp.  381. ISBN   0-7506-3365-4.
  2. 1 2 3 Holleman, A. F.; Wiberg, E.; Wiberg, N. (2001). Inorganic Chemistry, 1st Edition. Academic Press. p. 908. ISBN   0-12-352651-5.
  3. Inorganic Chemistry [Paperback],2d Edition, Housecroft, Sharpe,2004, Pearson Education ISBN   0130399132, ISBN   978-0130399137