Tin Bigha Corridor

Last updated

Coordinates: 26°18′3″N88°59′1″E / 26.30083°N 88.98361°E / 26.30083; 88.98361


Entrance of Tin Bigha Corridor from Mainland Bangladesh. Entrance of Tin Bigha Corridor (02).jpg
Entrance of Tin Bigha Corridor from Mainland Bangladesh.

The Tin (or Teen) Bigha Corridor (Bengali : তিনবিঘা করিডর) is a strip of land belonging to India on the West BengalBangladesh border which, in September 2011, was leased to Bangladesh so the country could access its Dahagram–Angarpota enclave from the mainland. The enclave remains the only one still in existence after the 2015 resolution of the India–Bangladesh enclaves issue. It is situated in the town of Patgram Upazila.


Road connecting Dahgram-Angarpota enclave with mainland Bangladesh. Tin Bigha Corridor (tinbighaa kriddor) 03.jpg
Road connecting Dahgram-Angarpota enclave with mainland Bangladesh.
The border fence around Tin Bigha Corridor. Tin Bigha Corridor (tinbighaa kriddor) 05.jpg
The border fence around Tin Bigha Corridor.

According to the Indira Gandhi-Sheikh Mujibur Rahman treaty of 16 May 1974, India and Bangladesh were to hand over the sovereignty of the Tin Bigha Corridor (178 by 85 metres (584 ft × 279 ft)) and South Berubari (7.39 km2 (2.85 sq mi)) to each other, thereby allowing access to the Dahagram–Angarpota enclaves and the Indian enclaves adjacent to South Berubari. Bangladesh did hand over the sovereignty of the smaller South Berubari to India instantly in 1974. India, however, could not transfer the Tin Bigha Corridor to Bangladesh as it required constitutional amendment which could not be done due to political reasons. [1] [2]

After much Bangladesh government protest, India, instead of handing over sovereignty in 2011, proposed to lease the Tin Bigha Corridor to Bangladesh for a certain time. South Berubari, meanwhile, would remain in the possession of India. [3]

The total area of South Berubari Union No. 12 is 22.58 km2 (8.72 sq mi) of which 11.29 km2 (4.36 sq mi) was to go to Bangladesh. The area of the four Cooch Behar enclaves which would also have to go to Bangladesh was 6.84 km2 (2.64 sq mi) making the total area to be transferred 18.13 km2 (7.00 sq mi). The population of the area including the four enclaves to be transferred, as per 1967 data, was 90% Hindu. The Bangladesh enclaves, Dahagram and Angorpota, were to be transferred to India. Their total area was 18.68 km2 (7.21 sq mi) and as per 1967 data more than 80% of their population was Muslim. If this exchange had gone through, it would have meant a change of nationality for the population or migration of the population from Dahagram and Angorpota and South Berubari Union No. 12 and consequent serious rehabilitation problems. There were in any case major agitations by the people of Berubari protesting against the transfer.

After 1971, India proposed to Bangladesh that India may continue to retain the southern half of South Berubari Union No. 12 and the adjacent enclaves and, in exchange, Dahagram and Angorpota may be retained by Bangladesh. As part of the package a strip of land would be leased in perpetuity by India to Bangladesh, giving her access to Dahagram & Angorpota to enable her to exercise sovereignty on these two enclaves. This was accepted by Bangladesh as part of a carefully constructed Land Boundary Agreement signed by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and Prime Minister Sheikh Mujibur Rahman on 16 May 1974. The Berubari dispute was thus finally resolved by Article 1.14 of the Agreement which stated:

"India will retain the southern half of South Berubari Union No. 12 and the adjacent enclaves, measuring an area of 6.8 km2 (2.64 sq mi) approximately, and in exchange Bangladesh will retain the Dahagram and Angorpota enclaves. India will lease in perpetuity to Bangladesh an area of 178 by 85 metres (584 ft × 279 ft) near 'Tin Bigha' to connect Dahagram with Panbari Mouza (P.S. Patgram) of Bangladesh." [4]


Tin is the word for the numeral "three" in Bengali, and bigha is a unit of area ranging from 1,500 to 6,771 m2 (16,150–72,880 sq ft).

Access to corridor

Indian BSF Camp at Tin Bigha Corridor. BSF Camp at Tin Bigha Corridor (tinbighaa kriddor) 3.jpg
Indian BSF Camp at Tin Bigha Corridor.

The corridor was previously open for 12 daylight hours only, [5] [6] causing great hardships for the inhabitants of the enclave, given the fact that the enclave has no hospitals or law enforcement facilities. [6]

Following a treaty signed by the Prime Ministers of India and Bangladesh on 6 September 2011 in Dhaka, it was agreed that the corridor would be open for 24 hours for Bangladeshis in the enclave to access the mainland. [7] [8]

The corridor was officially declared open by the Bangladesh Premier Sheikh Hasina on 19 October 2011. [9]


Until recently, the enclaves had no hospitals [6] or colleges.[ citation needed ] Bangladesh Premier Sheikh Hasina inaugurated a ten-bed Dahagram Hospital and the Dahagram Union Parishad Complex on 19 October 2011. [9]

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Politics of Bangladesh</span> Political system of Bangladesh

Politics of Bangladesh takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Bangladesh is the head of government, and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and parliament. The Constitution of Bangladesh was written in 1972 and has undergone seventeen amendments.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sheikh Mujibur Rahman</span> Founding father of the Peoples Republic of Bangladesh

Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, often shortened as Sheikh Mujib or Mujib, also widely known as Bangabandhu, was the founder of Bangladesh. He first served as the titular president of the Provisional Government of Bangladesh between April 1971 and January 1972. He then served as Prime Minister of Bangladesh from the Awami League between January 1972 and January 1975. He finally served as President again during BAKSAL from January 1975 till his assassination in August 1975. In 2011, the 15th constitutional amendment in Bangladesh referred to Sheikh Mujib as the Father of the Nation who declared independence; these references were enshrined in the fifth, sixth, and seventh schedules of the constitution.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Siliguri Corridor</span> Corridor connecting Northeast India to the rest of India

The Siliguri Corridor, also known as the Chicken's Neck, is a stretch of land around the city of Siliguri in West Bengal, India. 20–22 kilometres (12–14 mi) at the narrowest section, this geo-political and geo-economical corridor connects the eight states of northeast India to the rest of India. The countries of Nepal and Bangladesh lie on each side of the corridor and the Kingdom of Bhutan lies at the northern end of the corridor. The Kingdom of Sikkim formerly lay on the northern side of the corridor, until its merging with India in 1975.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">India–Bangladesh enclaves</span> Enclaves along the Bangladesh–India border

The India–Bangladesh enclaves, also known as the chiṭmahals and sometimes called pasha enclaves, were the enclaves along the Bangladesh–India border, in Bangladesh and the Indian states of West Bengal, Tripura, Assam and Meghalaya. The main body of Bangladesh contained 102 Indian enclaves, which in turn contained 21 Bangladeshi counter-enclaves, one of which contained Dahala Khagrabari, an Indian counter-counter-enclave, the world's only third-order enclave when it existed. The Indian mainland contained 71 Bangladeshi enclaves, which in turn contained 3 Indian counter-enclaves. A joint census in 2010 found 51,549 people who were residing in these enclaves: 37,334 in Indian enclaves within Bangladesh and 14,215 in Bangladeshi enclaves within India.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lalmonirhat District</span> District of Bangladesh in Rangpur Division

Lalmonirhat is a district, situated at the northern border of Bangladesh. It is a part of the Rangpur Division. Lalmonirhat mahakuma was established as a district on 1 February 1984. It lies north of Kochbihar and Jalpaiguri of West Bengal, south of Rangpur, east of Kurigram and Kochbihar and west of Rangpur and Nilphamari district. The international border line of Lalmonirhat district is 281.6 km long.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bangladesh–India relations</span> Bilateral relations

Bangladesh–India relations are the bilateral relations between the People’s Republic of Bangladesh and the Republic of India, both of which are South Asian neighbours. Diplomatic relations between the two countries formally began in 1971 with India's recognition of an independent Bangladesh.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Enclave and exclave</span> Territory (or part of one) entirely surrounded by the territory of one other state

An enclave is a territory that is entirely surrounded by the territory of one other state or entity. Enclaves may also exist within territorial waters. Enclave is sometimes used improperly to denote a territory that is only partly surrounded by another state. Vatican City and San Marino, both enclaved by Italy, and Lesotho, enclaved by South Africa, are completely enclaved sovereign states.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tungipara Upazila</span> Upazila in Dhaka Division, Bangladesh

Tungipara is an upazila of Gopalganj District in the Division of Dhaka, Bangladesh. It is the birthplace of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, the founder of independent Bangladesh and his grave is also here. In 1995 it became an Upazila.

New Moore, also known as South Talpatti and Purbasha Island, was a small uninhabited offshore sandbar island in the Bay of Bengal, off the coast of the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta region. It emerged in the Bay of Bengal in the aftermath of the Bhola cyclone in November 1970, and disappeared around March 2010.

1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1974th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 974th year of the 2nd millennium, the 74th year of the 20th century, and the 5th year of the 1970s decade.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ganges water dispute</span>

A long-standing dispute exists between India and Bangladesh over the appropriate allocation, and development, of the water resources of the Ganges River, which flows from northern India into Bangladesh. The issue had remained a subject of conflict for almost 35 years, with several bilateral agreements and rounds of talks failing to produce results.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bangladesh–India border</span> International border between India and Bangladesh

The Bangladesh–India border, known locally as the Radcliffe line (IB), is an international border running between Bangladesh and India that demarcates the eight divisions of Bangladesh and the Indian states.

Banglabandha is a major inland port in northern Bangladesh established to provide a trade link with India, Nepal and Bhutan. The three nations are separated by 52 km (32 mi) of Indian territory, known as the Siliguri Corridor. On the Indian side of the border is Phulbari. Border crossing of vehicles between Phulbari and Banglabandha was inaugurated in January 2011.

<i>The Unfinished Memoirs</i> Autobiography by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, founding father of Bangladesh

The Unfinished Memoirs is the autobiography by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, founding father of Bangladesh.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Dahagram–Angarpota</span> Bangladeshi enclave in India

Dahagram–Angarpota is a Bangladeshi enclave in India about 200 m (660 ft) away from the border of Bangladesh. It had a population of 17,000 people in 2014. Dahagram–Angarpota was the largest and is the only remaining Bangladeshi enclave after the 2015 resolution of the India–Bangladesh enclaves issue. The enclave is connected to mainland Bangladesh by the Tin Bigha Corridor, which is situated in Patgram Upazila of Lamonirhat district. It is surrounded by Cooch Behar district of India's West Bengal state. The Teesta river flows on its western side.

Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Tunnel (or Karnaphuli Tunnel) is an underwater expressway tunnel in the port city of Chittagong, Bangladesh under the Karnaphuli river. The length of the entire route is 9.39 kilometres (5.83 mi), with the tunnel making up 3.32 kilometres (2.06 mi) of the length. The tunnel diameter will be 10.80 metres (35.4 ft). The cost of the project is estimated at US$1.1B, of which around half is financed by the Exim Bank of China. The tunnel is expected to be completed in 2023 and will be the first under-river road tunnel in South Asia. It is expected to improve the Dhaka—Chittagong—Cox's Bazar highway network. A Chinese company, China Communications Construction Company, was selected to construct it. Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina and Chinese Communist Party general secretary Xi Jinping inaugurated the construction site of the Karnaphuli Tunnel on 14 October 2017. On 24 February 2019, Sheikh Hasina also inaugurated the tunnel boring phase.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sheikh Lutfar Rahman</span>

Sheikh Lutfur Rahman was a Bangladeshi serestadar, an officer responsible for record-keeping at the Gopalganj civil court in British India. His son Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was the founder of Bangladesh. Lutfar was a religious Muslim. He was also the paternal grandfather of the Sheikh Hasina.

<i>Mujib: The Making of a Nation</i> Upcoming Bengali biopic by Shyam Benegal

Mujib: The Making of a Nation is an upcoming Indian-Bangladeshi co-produced Bengali-language biographical film directed by Shyam Benegal. It stars Arifin Shuvoo as Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, the first president of Bangladesh and father of the nation, popularly known as Bangabandhu, who was assassinated with his family during coup d'état in 1975. This is the first government produced biopic about him.

Maitri Setu is a 150-metre (490 ft) bridge on Feni River which links Tripura in India with Chittagong port in Bangladesh, thus providing a shorter and more economical alternate land route between India's eastern and western states compared to the longer route through Assam. On 9 March 2021, it was officially opened to public by the Prime Minister of India, Narendra Modi. The bridge is constructed and being maintained by NHIDCL.


  1. "Bangladeshis in Angarpota, Dahagram deserve better connectivity". The Financial Express. Dhaka. Archived from the original on 2 April 2012.
  2. "Enclaves". banglapedia.org.
  3. "Berubari plea to PM for place on map". The Telegraph. kolkata. Archived from the original on 7 September 2015.
  4. "Technical Difficulties". Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 29 May 2012.
  5. "'Tin Bigha likely to be kept open 24 hrs within a short time'". The Daily Star. 20 November 2010. Retrieved 7 September 2011.
  6. 1 2 3 "Dahagram-Angorpota's unending miseries". bdnews24.com. 30 June 2010. Archived from the original on 2 April 2012. Retrieved 7 September 2011.
  7. "Tin Bigha corridor to remain open 24 hours". Bangla News 24. 6 September 2011. Archived from the original on 22 September 2012. Retrieved 7 September 2011.
  8. "Transit tumbles into Teesta abyss". bdnews24.com. 7 September 2011. Archived from the original on 2 April 2012. Retrieved 7 September 2011.
  9. 1 2 Shakhawat Liton; Dilip Roy (20 October 2011). "2 enclaves float in joy". The Daily Star. Retrieved 20 October 2011.