Tindr Hallkelsson (Old Norse: [ˈtindz̠ ˈhɑlːˌkelsˌson] ; Modern Icelandic: Tindur Hallkelsson [ˈtʰɪntʏr ˈhatl̥ˌcʰɛlsˌsɔːn] ) was an Icelandic skald active around the year 1000. He was the court poet of earl Hákon Sigurðarson and fragments of his drápa on the earl are preserved in Jómsvíkinga saga , the kings' sagas (especially Snorri Sturluson's Saga of Óláfr Tryggvason in Heimskringla) and the Prose Edda. One strophe from the poem, relating to the battle of Hjörungavágr, is quoted in all those sources. The following is its occurrence and context in Heimskringla taken from the 1844 translation by Samuel Laing. In Laing's time skaldic poetry was poorly understood and he translated it very freely:
- Then the fleets came together, and one of the sharpest of conflicts began. Many fell on both sides, but the most by far on Hakon's side; for the Jomsborg vikings fought desperately, sharply, and murderously, and shot right through the shields. So many spears were thrown against Earl Hakon that his armour was altogether split asunder, and he threw it off. So says Tind Halkelson: --
- "The ring-linked coat of strongest mail
- Could not withstand the iron hail,
- Though sewed with care and elbow bent,
- By Norn, on its strength intent.
- The fire of battle raged around, --
- Odin's steel shirt flew all unbound!
- The earl his ring-mail from him flung,
- Its steel rings on the wet deck rung;
- Part of it fell into the sea, --
- A part was kept, a proof to be
- How sharp and thick the arrow-flight
- Among the sea-steeds in this fight."
Tindr has a role in Heiðarvíga saga where two lausavísur attributed to him are preserved. He also has a minor role in Harðar saga .
Heimskringla is the best known of the Old Norse kings' sagas. It was written in Old Norse in Iceland by the poet and historian Snorri Sturluson (1178/79–1241) c. 1230. The name Heimskringla was first used in the 17th century, derived from the first two words of one of the manuscripts.
Harald I Fairhair is portrayed by the Icelandic sagas as the first King of Norway. According to traditions current in Norway and Iceland in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, he reigned from c. 872 to 930. Supposedly, two of his sons, Eric Bloodaxe and Haakon the Good, succeeded Harald, respectively, to become kings after his death.
Magnus Olafsson, better known as Magnus the Good, was King of Norway from 1035 and King of Denmark from 1042 until his death in 1047.
The Orkneyinga saga is a narrative of the history of the Orkney and Shetland islands and their relationship with other local polities, particularly Norway and Scotland. The saga has "no parallel in the social and literary record of Scotland" and is "the only medieval chronicle to have Orkney as the central place of action". The main focus of the work is the line of jarls who ruled the Earldom of Orkney, which constituted the Norðreyjar or Northern Isles of Orkney and Shetland and there are frequent references to both archipelagoes throughout.
Ynglinga saga is a Kings' saga, originally written in Old Norse by the Icelandic poet and historian Snorri Sturluson about 1225. It is the first section of his Heimskringla. It was first translated into English and published in 1844 by Samuel Laing.
Rognvald Eysteinsson was the founding Jarl of Møre in Norway, and a close relative and ally of Harald Fairhair, the earliest known King of Norway. In the Norse language he is known as Rǫgnvaldr Eysteinsson (Mǿrajarl) and in modern Norwegian as Ragnvald Mørejarl. He is sometimes referred to with bynames that may be translated into modern English as "Rognvald the Wise" or "Rognvald the Powerful".
The Battle of Svolder was a large naval battle during the Viking age, fought in September 999 or 1000 in the western Baltic Sea between King Olaf of Norway and an alliance of the Kings of Denmark and Sweden and Olaf's enemies in Norway. The backdrop of the battle was the unification of Norway into a single independent state after longstanding Danish efforts to control the country, combined with the spread of Christianity in Scandinavia.
Hålogaland was the northernmost of the Norwegian provinces in the medieval Norse sagas. In the early Viking Age, before Harald Fairhair, Hålogaland was a kingdom extending between the Namdalen valley in Trøndelag county and the Lyngen fjord in Troms og Finnmark county.
Haakon Sigurdarson was the de facto ruler of Norway from about 975 to 995. Sometimes he is styled Hakon the Powerful through Ágrip af Nóregskonungasögum and Historia Norwegiæ gives the less flattering name Hákon Illi, that is Hakon Bad.
Eric Håkonsson was Earl of Lade, Governor of Norway and Earl of Northumbria. He was the son of Earl Hákon Sigurðarson and brother of the legendary Aud Haakonsdottir of Lade. He participated in the Battle of Hjörungavágr, the Battle of Svolder and the conquest of England by King Canute the Great.
Einarr Helgason or Einarr skálaglamm was a 10th-century Icelandic skald. He was a court poet of Lord Hákon to whom he dedicated his magnum opus, the Vellekla. Einarr's added name skálaglamm means "Bowl tinkle" and refers to a set of balances and weights with divinatory powers, given to him by Hákon.
Vigfúss Víga-Glúmsson was an Icelandic skald, active around the year 1000. He was the son of Víga-Glúmr, the protagonist of Víga-Glúms saga. According to various sources, Vígfúss was the court poet of Hákon Sigurðarson, but only two verses of his poetry, preserved in Fagrskinna, have come down to us.
Þorleifr Rauðfeldarson, known as Þorleifr jarlsskáld or jarlaskáld was an Icelandic skald in the second half of the 10th century. He was one of the court poets of Jarl Hákon Sigurðarson and composed drápur on both the earl and King Sweyn Forkbeard, but little of his work survives. He is the protagonist of Þorleifs þáttr jarlaskálds, a largely fictional tale in the Flateyjarbók version of Óláfs saga Tryggvasonar en mesta, and is also mentioned in Svarfdœla saga and as a skald in a number of other sources, including Landnámabók and Skáldatal.
Þórðr Kolbeinsson was an 11th-century Icelandic skald, or poet. He was the court poet of Eiríkr Hákonarson and some 17 stanzas of his poetry on the earl are preserved in the kings' sagas. The following example is from Eiríkr's campaign in England with Canute the Great.
Svein Knutsson was the son of Cnut the Great, king of Denmark, Norway, and England, and his first wife Ælfgifu of Northampton, a Mercian noblewoman. In 1017 Cnut married Emma of Normandy, but there is no evidence that Ælfgifu was repudiated, and in 1030 Cnut sent her and Svein as regents to rule Norway. However, their rule was considered oppressive by the Norwegians. They imposed new taxes and harsh laws that made them unpopular and they were expelled in 1034.
Sæmingr was a king of Norway according to Snorri Sturluson's euhemerized accounts or Hålogaland. He was said to be the son of Odin or Yngvi-Freyr.
Gunnhildr konungamóðir or Gunnhildr Gormsdóttir, whose name is often Anglicised as Gunnhild is a quasi-historical figure who appears in the Icelandic Sagas, according to which she was the wife of Eric Bloodaxe. She appears prominently in sagas such as Fagrskinna, Egils saga, Njáls saga, and Heimskringla.
Arson in medieval Scandinaviawas a technique sometimes employed in blood feuds and political conflicts in order to assassinate someone. In committing arson, a group of attackers would set fire to the home of an opponent, sometimes by quickly and surreptitiously piling wood, brush and other combustible materials against the exterior of a dwelling and set it on fire. Typically the attackers would surround the house to prevent the escape of its inhabitants, although women, the elderly, and small children were sometimes allowed to leave.
Þorgerðr Hölgabrúðr and Irpa are divine figures in Norse mythology. They appear together in Jómsvíkinga saga, Njáls saga, and Þorleifs þáttr jarlsskálds. Irpa's name does not appear outside of these four attestations, but Þorgerðr also appears in the Prose Edda book Skáldskaparmál, Færeyinga saga, and Harðar saga ok Hólmverja and is mentioned in Ketils saga hœngs.
Atli the Slender was a ninth-century Norwegian jarl mentioned in several Old Norse sources, including Heimskringla and Egils saga.