Tinea imbricata

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Tinea imbricata
Other namesTokelau [1]
COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Tinea Imbricata (huidschimmel) in ver gevorderde staat TMnr 10006761.jpg
Tinea imbricata
Specialty Dermatology   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg

Tinea imbricata (also known in parts of Indonesia as “Kaskado”) is a superficial fungal infection of the skin limited to southwest Polynesia, Melanesia, Southeast Asia, India, and Central America. [1] :303 [2] The skin lesions are often itchy, and mainly in the torso and limbs. [3] The name is derived from the Latin for "tiled" (imbricata) since the lesions are often lamellar. [4] It is often treated with griseofulvin or terbinafine. [4]

Contents

The risk of developing tinea imbricata is probably inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. [5] [6]

Tinea imbricata is associated with Trichophyton concentricum . [4]

Tinea pseudoimbricata

The term "tinea pseudoimbricata" synonymous with "tinea indecisiva", was coined to describe a form of tinea mimicking the concentric rings of tinea imbricata, but is caused by local or systemic immunosuppression. [7] Since then, 3 cases of Trichophyton tonsurans have been associated with it, [8] as well as Trichophyton rubrum which can trigger mycosis fungoides. [9] [10] Mixed infections with scabies have been described to produce tinea pseudoimbricata. [11] [12]

As of 2015 in India, corticosteroid–antifungal–antibacterial combinations sold as over-the-counter drug have led to an increase in chronic, recurrent, difficult to treat fungal infections of the skin, including tinea pseudoimbricata. [13]

See also

Related Research Articles

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Dermatophyte is a common label for a group of fungus of Arthrodermataceae that commonly causes skin disease in animals and humans. Traditionally, these anamorphic mold genera are: Microsporum, Epidermophyton and Trichophyton. There are about 40 species in these three genera. Species capable of reproducing sexually belong in the teleomorphic genus Arthroderma, of the Ascomycota. As of 2019 a total of nine genera are identified and new phylogenetic taxonomy has been proposed.

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tinea capitis</span> Cutaneous fungal infection of the scalp

Tinea capitis is a cutaneous fungal infection (dermatophytosis) of the scalp. The disease is primarily caused by dermatophytes in the genera Trichophyton and Microsporum that invade the hair shaft. The clinical presentation is typically single or multiple patches of hair loss, sometimes with a 'black dot' pattern, that may be accompanied by inflammation, scaling, pustules, and itching. Uncommon in adults, tinea capitis is predominantly seen in pre-pubertal children, more often boys than girls.

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Mycosis fungoides, also known as Alibert-Bazin syndrome or granuloma fungoides, is the most common form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. It generally affects the skin, but may progress internally over time. Symptoms include rash, tumors, skin lesions, and itchy skin.

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Dermatophytosis, also known as ringworm, is a fungal infection of the skin. Typically it results in a red, itchy, scaly, circular rash. Hair loss may occur in the area affected. Symptoms begin four to fourteen days after exposure. Multiple areas can be affected at a given time.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Onychomycosis</span> Medical condition

Onychomycosis, also known as tinea unguium, is a fungal infection of the nail. Symptoms may include white or yellow nail discoloration, thickening of the nail, and separation of the nail from the nail bed. Toenails or fingernails may be affected, but it is more common for toenails. Complications may include cellulitis of the lower leg. A number of different types of fungus can cause onychomycosis, including dermatophytes and Fusarium. Risk factors include athlete's foot, other nail diseases, exposure to someone with the condition, peripheral vascular disease, and poor immune function. The diagnosis is generally suspected based on the appearance and confirmed by laboratory testing.

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kerion</span> Medical condition

Kerion or kerion celsi is an acute inflammatory process which is the result of the host's response to a fungal ringworm infection of the hair follicles of the scalp that can be accompanied by secondary bacterial infection(s). It usually appears as raised, spongy lesions, and typically occurs in children. This honeycomb is a painful inflammatory reaction with deep suppurative lesions on the scalp. Follicles may be seen discharging pus. There may be sinus formation and rarely mycetoma-like grains are produced. It is usually caused by dermatophytes such as Trichophyton verrucosum, T. mentagrophytes, and Microsporum canis. Treatment with oral griseofulvin common.

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<i>Trichophyton rubrum</i> Species of fungus

Trichophyton rubrum is a dermatophytic fungus in the phylum Ascomycota. It is an exclusively clonal, anthropophilic saprotroph that colonizes the upper layers of dead skin, and is the most common cause of athlete's foot, fungal infection of nail, jock itch, and ringworm worldwide. Trichophyton rubrum was first described by Malmsten in 1845 and is currently considered to be a complex of species that comprises multiple, geographically patterned morphotypes, several of which have been formally described as distinct taxa, including T. raubitschekii, T. gourvilii, T. megninii and T. soudanense.

<i>Trichophyton</i> Genus of Fungi

Trichophyton is a genus of fungi, which includes the parasitic varieties that cause tinea, including athlete's foot, ringworm, jock itch, and similar infections of the nail, beard, skin and scalp. Trichophyton fungi are molds characterized by the development of both smooth-walled macro- and microconidia. Macroconidia are mostly borne laterally directly on the hyphae or on short pedicels, and are thin- or thick-walled, clavate to fusiform, and range from 4 to 8 by 8 to 50 μm in size. Macroconidia are few or absent in many species. Microconidia are spherical, pyriform to clavate or of irregular shape, and range from 2 to 3 by 2 to 4 μm in size.

<i>Trichophyton tonsurans</i> Species of fungus

Trichophyton tonsurans is a fungus in the family Arthrodermataceae that causes ringworm infection of the scalp. It was first recognized by David Gruby in 1844. Isolates are characterized as the "–" or negative mating type of the Arthroderma vanbreuseghemii complex. This species is thought to be conspecific with T. equinum, although the latter represents the "+" mating strain of the same biological species Despite their biological conspecificity, clones of the two mating types appear to have undergone evolutionary divergence with isolates of the T. tonsurans-type consistently associated with Tinea capitis whereas the T. equinum-type, as its name implies, is associated with horses as a regular host. Phylogenetic relationships were established in isolates from Northern Brazil, through fingerprinting polymorphic RAPD and M13 markers. There seems to be lower genomic variability in the T. tonsurans species due to allopatric divergence. Any phenotypic density is likely due to environmental factors, not genetic characteristics of the fungus.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Fungal folliculitis</span> Inflammation of hair follicles due to fungal infection

Majocchi's granuloma is a skin condition characterized by deep, pustular plaques, and is a form of tinea corporis. It is a localized form of fungal folliculitis. Lesions often have a pink and scaly central component with pustules or folliculocentric papules at the periphery. The name comes from Professor Domenico Majocchi, who discovered the disorder in 1883. Majocchi was a professor of dermatology at the University of Parma and later the University of Bologna. The most common dermatophyte is called Trichophyton rubrum.

Trichophyton concentricum is an anthropophilic dermatophyte believed to be an etiological agent of a type of skin mycosis in humans, evidenced by scaly cutaneous patches on the body known as tinea imbricata. This fungus has been found mainly in the Pacific Islands and South America.

Microsporum nanum is a pathogenic fungus in the family Arthrodermataceae. It is a type of dermatophyte that causes infection in dead keratinized tissues such as skin, hair, and nails. Microsporum nanum is found worldwide and is both zoophilic and geophilic. Animals such as pigs and sheep are the natural hosts for the fungus; however, infection of humans is also possible. Majority of the human cases reported are associated with pig farming. The fungus can invade the skin of the host; if it is scratched off by the infected animal, the fungus is still capable of reproducing in soil.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Favus</span> Medical condition

Favus or tinea favosa is the severe form of tinea capitis, a skin infectious disease caused by the dermatophyte fungus Trichophyton schoenleinii. Typically the species affects the scalp, but occasionally occurs as onychomycosis, tinea barbae, or tinea corporis.

<i>Trichophyton verrucosum</i> Species of fungus

Trichophyton verrucosum, commonly known as the cattle ringworm fungus, is a dermatophyte largely responsible for fungal skin disease in cattle, but is also a common cause of ringworm in donkeys, dogs, goat, sheep, and horses. It has a worldwide distribution, however human infection is more common in rural areas where contact with animals is more frequent, and can cause severe inflammation of the afflicted region. Trichophyton verrucosum was first described by Emile Bodin in 1902.

References

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  7. Lim S. P. R., Smith A. G. (2003). "Tinea corporis in a renal transplant recipient mimicking the concentric rings of tinea imbricata". Clinical and Experimental Dermatology. 28 (3): 332–3. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2230.2003.01281.x. PMID   12780732. S2CID   30983522.
  8. Ouchi T1, Nagao K, Hata Y, Otuka T, Inazumi T. Trichophyton tonsurans infection manifesting as multiple concentric annular erythemas. J Dermatol. 2005 Jul;32(7):565-8.
  9. Poonawalla T, Chen W, Duvic M (2006). "Mycosis fungoides with tinea pseudoimbricata owing to Trichophyton rubrum infection". J Cutan Med Surg. 10 (1): 52–6. doi:10.1007/7140.2006.00007. PMID   17241575. S2CID   208341303.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  10. Verma S, Hay RJ (2015). "Topical steroid-induced tinea pseudoimbricata: a striking form of tinea incognito". Int J Dermatol. 54 (5): e192–3. doi:10.1111/ijd.12734. PMID   25601089. S2CID   31276542.
  11. Poziomczyk CS, Köche B, Becker FL, Dornelles SI, Bonamigo RR. Tinea pseudoimbricata caused by M. gypseum associated to crusted scabies.An Bras Dermatol. 2010 Jul-Aug;85(4):558-9.[English, Portuguese]
  12. Verma S (2017). "Tinea pseudoimbricata". Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 83 (3): 344–345. doi: 10.4103/0378-6323.187686 . PMID   27506504.
  13. Bishnoi Anuradha; et al. (2018). "Emergence of recalcitrant dermatophytosis in India". The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 18 (3): 250–251. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(18)30079-3 . PMID   29485088.