Tineidae

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Tineidae
Nemapogon granella01.jpg
Adult European grain moth (Nemapogon granella: Nemapogoninae) from Graz, Austria
Scientific classification
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Tineidae

Latreille, 1810
Type genus
Tinea
Subfamilies
and see text
Diversity [1]
About 357 genera and 2,393 species

Tineidae is a family of moths in the order Lepidoptera described by Pierre André Latreille in 1810. Collectively, they are known as fungus moths or tineid moths. The family contains considerably more than 3,000 species in more than 300 genera. Most of the tineid moths are small or medium-sized, with wings held roofwise over the body when at rest. They are particularly common in the Palaearctic, but many occur elsewhere, and some are found very widely as introduced species.

Contents

Tineids are unusual among Lepidoptera as the larvae of only a very small number of species feed on living plants, the majority feeding on fungi, lichens, and detritus. The most familiar members of the family are the clothes moths, which have adapted to feeding on stored fabrics and led to their reputation as a household pest. The most widespread of such species are the common clothes moth (Tineola bisselliella), the case-bearing clothes moth (Tinea pellionella), and the carpet moth (Trichophaga tapetzella); the brown-dotted clothes moth (Niditinea fuscella) despite its name, preferentially feeds on feathers in bird nests.

One remarkable genus is Ceratophaga , whose members feed exclusively on pure keratin in the form of the horns and hooves of dead mammals and even the shells of dead tortoises.

Systematics

Subfamilies and notable genera

Some species also are listed; for others see genus accounts.

Meessiinae

Myrmecozelinae

Tineinae

Genera incertae sedis

These fungus moths have not been assigned to a subfamily with a reasonable amount of certainty:

Fossil record

Related Research Articles

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Gracillariidae Family of insects in the order Lepidoptera and the principal family of leaf miners that includes several economic, horticultural or recently invasive pest species

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Brachodidae family of insects

Brachodidae is a family of day-flying moths, commonly known as little bear moths, which contains about 135 species distributed around much of the world. The relationships and status of the presently included genera are not well understood.

Acanthoctesia or "archaic sun moths" is an infraorder of insects in the lepidopteran order, containing a single superfamily, Acanthopteroctetoidea, and a single family, Acanthopteroctetidae. They are currently considered the fifth group up on the comb of branching events in the extant lepidopteran phylogeny. They also represent the most basal lineage in the lepidopteran group Coelolepida characterised in part by its scale morphology. Moths in this superfamily are usually small and iridescent. Like other "homoneurous" Coelolepida and non-ditrysian Heteroneura, the ocelli are lost. There are variety of unique structural characteristics. There are two described genera of these primitive moths. Catapterix was originally described within its own family but Acanthopteroctetes shares with it a number of specialised structural features including similar wing morphology.

<i>Argyresthia curvella</i> Species of moth

Argyresthia curvella is a species of ermine moth. It belongs to subfamily Argyresthiinae, which is sometimes elevated to full family rank in the superfamily Yponomeutoidea. It is commonly called apple blossom tineid, reflecting the fact that it was originally believed to be a tineid moth.

<i>Monopis obviella</i> Species of moth

Monopis obviella is a species of tineoid moth. It belongs to the fungus moth family (Tineidae), and therein to the nominate subfamily Tineinae. It is the type species of Blabophanes, today treated as a junior synonym of the genus Monopis. M. crocicapitella was only separated from the present species in 1859, and is still frequently confused with it even by rather recent sources.

<i>Tinea semifulvella</i> Species of moth

Tinea semifulvella is a species of tineoid moth. It belongs to the fungus moth family (Tineidae), and therein to the nominate subfamily Tineinae. It is widespread and common in much of western Eurasia, but seems to be absent from Portugal and the Balkans as well as the outlying islands. The nocturnal adults are on the wing around May to September, depending on the location, and are easily attracted to light sources.

<i>Tinea pellionella</i> species of insect

Tinea pellionella, the case-bearing clothes moth, is a species of tineoid moth in the family Tineidae, the fungus moths. It is the type species of the genus Tinea, which in turn is the type genus of the subfamily, family, as well as the superfamily Tineoidea. Its scientific name is derived from "tinea", a generic term for micromoths, and the Latin term for a furrier, pellionellus.

<i>Niditinea fuscella</i> Species of moth

The brown-dotted clothes moth is a species of tineoid moth. It belongs to the fungus moth family (Tineidae), and therein to the nominate subfamily Tineinae. It is the type species of its genus Niditinea.

<i>Erechthias</i> genus of insects

Erechthias is a genus of the fungus moth family, Tineidae. Therein, it belongs to the subfamily Erechthiinae, of which it is the type genus. The exact circumscription of this genus is still disputed, but it may encompass more than 150 species.

Archinemapogon is a somewhat disputed genus of the fungus moth family, Tineidae. Within this group, it belongs to the subfamily Nemapogoninae. It is apparently an extremely close relative of the type genus of its subfamily, Nemapogon, and some authors include it there.

<i>Niditinea</i> genus of insects

Niditinea is a genus of the fungus moth family, Tineidae. Therein, it belongs to the nominate subfamily, Tineinae.

<i>Trichophaga</i> genus of insects

Trichophaga is a genus of the fungus moth family, Tineidae. Therein, it belongs to the moninate subfamily Tineinae.

<i>Monopis laevigella</i> Species of moth

The skin moth is a species of tineoid moth. It belongs to the fungus moth family (Tineidae), and therein to the nominate subfamily Tineinae. It is the type species of the genus Monopis and its junior objective synonym Hyalospila. As with the common clothes moth, earlier authors frequently misapplied the name Tinea vestianella to the present species.

<i>Tinea trinotella</i> Species of moth

Tinea trinotella is a species of tineoid moth. It belongs to the fungus moth family (Tineidae), and therein to the nominate subfamily Tineinae. It was once used as type species of a distinct genus Acedes, but this is synonymized today with Tinea, the type genus of Tineinae, Tineidae and the superfamily Tineoidea.

<i>Tinea</i> (moth) genus of insects

Tinea is a genus of the fungus moth family, Tineidae. Therein, it belongs to the subfamily Tineinae. As evident by its name, it is the type genus of its subfamily and family. Established as one of the very first subgroups of "Phalaena", it used to contain many species of Tineidae that are nowadays placed in other genera, as well as a few moths nowadays placed elsewhere.

Prehistoric Lepidoptera

Prehistoric Lepidoptera are both butterflies and moths that lived before recorded history. The fossil record for Lepidoptera is lacking in comparison to other winged species, and tending not to be as common as some other insects in the habitats that are most conducive to fossilization, such as lakes and ponds, and their juvenile stage has only the head capsule as a hard part that might be preserved. The location and abundance of the most common moth species are indicative that mass migrations of moths occurred over the Palaeogene North Sea, which is why there is a serious lack of moth fossils. Yet there are fossils, some preserved in amber and some in very fine sediments. Leaf mines are also seen in fossil leaves, although the interpretation of them is tricky. Putative fossil stem group representatives of Amphiesmenoptera are known from the Triassic.

Epiborkhausenites is an extinct genus of moth in the concealer moth family Oecophoridae and containing a single species Epiborkhausenites obscurotrimaculatus. The species is known only from Middle Eocene, Bartonian stage, Baltic amber deposits near the town of Palanga in Lithuania.

Nikolai or Nikolay Jakovlevice Kusnezov, also spelled Kusnetzov, Kusnetsov and Kuznetsov was a Russian entomologist, paleoentomologist and physiologist, since 1910 was member of the Russian Entomological Society. Professor Kuznetsov was very important as a pioneer in the fields of insect physiology, Lepidoptera fauna of the Arctic (Siberia) and knowledge of fossils of Lepidoptera.

<i>Ceratophaga vastella</i> species of insect

Ceratophaga vastella, or the horn moth, belongs to the clothes moth family Tineidae and is noted for its larva's ability to feed on keratin from the horns and hooves of dead ungulates, and occasionally on dried fruit or mushrooms. Keratin, a protein which makes up skin, hair, nails and feathers, is extremely resistant to proteolysis by the enzymes from specialised micro-organisms such as fungi and bacteria.

References

Further reading

Key works