Ting Kau Bridge
|Carries||6 lanes of roadway|
|Locale||Tsing Yi Island and Ting Kau|
|Official name||Ting Kau Bridge|
|Total length||1,177 metres (3,862 ft)|
|Longest span||448 metres (1,470 ft) and 475 metres (1,558 ft)|
|Opened||5 May 1998|
|Ting Kau Bridge|
Ting Kau Bridge is a 1,177-metre (3,862 ft) long cable-stayed bridge in Hong Kong that spans from the northwest of Tsing Yi Island and Tuen Mun Road. It is near the Tsing Ma Bridge which also serves as a major connector between the Hong Kong International Airport on Lantau Island and the rest of Hong Kong. It was completed on 5 May 1998. The bridge is toll-free.
The bridge is part of Route 3,connecting Northwest New Territories with Hong Kong Island. Other major structures on the road include the Tai Lam Tunnel,the Cheung Tsing Tunnel,the Cheung Tsing Bridge and the Western Harbour Crossing. The Ting Kau Bridge carries the heaviest traffic volume of the bridges on the Lantau Link,with many container trucks travelling between mainland China and the HK container port. A chromatic study and specially designed architectural lighting are intended to set the bridge off in its surroundings.
Ting Kau Contractors Joint Venture designed and built Ting Kau Bridge between 1995 and 1998. The joint venture consisted of lead partners Cubiertas Y Mzov (22%) and Entrecanales Y Tavora (22%),both of Spain (now both part of Acciona,S.A);Germany's Ed. Züblin (22%);Australia's Downer and Co (22%);and Hong Kong's Paul Y(12%). Constructing engineers were Schlaich Bergermann &Partner.
The design and construction cost of the bridge was HK$1.94 billion. It is one of the longest cable-stayed bridges in the world. Along with the Tsing Ma and Kap Shui Mun bridges,it is closely monitored by the Wind and Structural Health Monitoring System (WASHMS).
Ting Kau Bridge is the world's first major 4-span cable-stayed bridge. This meant that the central tower had to be stabilised longitudinally,which was accomplished using the longest cable stays ever used in a bridge (465 m (1,526 ft)). The design of this bridge contains special features such as single leg towers,which are stabilised by transverse cables like the masts of a sailboat. The Ting Kau Bridge and approach viaducts link the western New Territories and the mainland to the Lantau Fixed Crossing expressway,which connects the airport to Kowloon and Hong Kong. It meets the Lantau Fixed Crossing on Tsing Yi Island,500 metres (1,600 ft) from the Tsing Ma Bridge.
The Ting Kau Bridge and Approach Viaduct are 1,875 metres (6,152 ft) long while the triple tower bridge has an overall length of 1,177 metres (3,862 ft). The three towers were specially designed to withstand extreme wind and typhoon conditions,and have heights of 170 metres (560 ft),194 metres (636 ft),and 158 metres (518 ft),located on the Ting Kau headland,on a reclaimed island in Rambler Channel (which is 900 metres (3,000 ft) wide),and on the north-west Tsing Yi shoreline,respectively. The arrangement of separate decks on both sides of the 3 towers contributes to the slender appearance of the bridge while helping it act favourably under heavy wind and typhoon loads. Each deck carries 3 traffic lanes and a hard shoulder.
Tsing Ma Bridge is a bridge in Hong Kong. It is the world's 16th-longest span suspension bridge,and was the second longest at time of completion. The bridge was named after the two islands it connects,namely Tsing Yi and Ma Wan. It has two decks and carries both road and rail traffic,which also makes it the largest suspension bridge of this type. The bridge has a main span of 1,377 metres (4,518 ft) and a height of 206 metres (676 ft). The span is the longest of all bridges in the world carrying rail traffic.
A cable-stayed bridge has one or more towers,from which cables support the bridge deck. A distinctive feature are the cables or stays,which run directly from the tower to the deck,normally forming a fan-like pattern or a series of parallel lines. This is in contrast to the modern suspension bridge,where the cables supporting the deck are suspended vertically from the main cable,anchored at both ends of the bridge and running between the towers. The cable-stayed bridge is optimal for spans longer than cantilever bridges and shorter than suspension bridges. This is the range within which cantilever bridges would rapidly grow heavier,and suspension bridge cabling would be more costly.
Tsing Yi,sometimes referred to as Tsing Yi Island,is an island in the urban area of Hong Kong,to the northwest of Hong Kong Island and south of Tsuen Wan. With an area of 10.69 km2 (4.13 sq mi),the island has extended drastically by reclamation along almost all its natural shore and the annexation of Nga Ying Chau (牙鷹洲) and Chau Tsai. Three major bays or harbours,Tsing Yi Lagoon,Mun Tsai Tong and Tsing Yi Bay (青衣灣) in the northeast,have been completely reclaimed for new towns.
Ma Wan is an island of Hong Kong,located between Lantau Island and Tsing Yi Island,with an area of 0.97 square kilometres. Administratively,it is part of Tsuen Wan District.
The Lantau Link,formerly known as the Lantau Fixed Crossing,is a roadway in Hong Kong forming part of Route 8 linking Lantau Island to Tsing Yi,from which other roads lead to the urban areas of Kowloon and the rest of the New Territories. Part of the Airport Core Programme centred on the new Hong Kong International Airport on Lantau,the link was officially opened on 27 April 1997,and it opened to traffic on 22 May the same year.
Rambler Channel is a body of water in Hong Kong that separates Tsing Yi Island from Tsuen Wan and Kwai Chung in the New Territories. The channel separates the two landmasses by 900 metres at its widest point.
Tsing Yi South Bridge,opened as the Tsing Yi Bridge on 28 February 1974,was the first bridge to Tsing Yi,Hong Kong. It spans the Rambler Channel,linking Tsing Yi Island to the former Pillar Island,Kwai Chung. The bridge spans 610 metres and is 26 metres (85 feet) high. It contributed significantly to the development of Tsing Yi,particularly in the 1970s and 1980s. It is the only bridge across the channel which may be used by cycles and so is the only route connecting Tsing Yi and the Tsuen Wan/Kwai Chung area for bicyclists and tricyclists. The name "Tsing Yi South Bridge" was adopted following the 1987 opening of the second bridge to Tsing Yi,the Tsing Yi North Bridge.
The Kap Shui Mun Bridge (KSMB) in Hong Kong,part of Lantau Link of Route 8,is one of the longest cable-stayed bridges in the world that transports both road and railway traffic,with the upper deck used for motor vehicles and the lower deck used for both vehicles and the MTR. It has a main span of 430 metres (1,410 ft) and an overall length of 750 metres (2,460 ft). It spans the Kap Shui Mun marine channel between Ma Wan and Lantau and has a vertical clearance of 47 metres (154 ft) above sea level. The bridge was completed in 1997.
Tsing Yi North Bridge,also called Tsing Tsuen Bridge (青荃橋),connects the Tam Kon Shan Interchange on Tsing Yi Island to the Tsuen Tsing Interchange in Tsuen Wan,spanning the Rambler Channel. Inaugurated on 10 December 1987,the bridge was designed to improve access to Tsing Yi,which at that time was connected to Kwai Chung by only one fixed link,the heavily congested Tsing Yi Bridge.
Stonecutters Bridge is a high level cable-stayed bridge spanning the Rambler Channel in Hong Kong,connecting Nam Wan Kok,Tsing Yi to Stonecutters Island. The bridge deck was completed on 7 April 2009,and opened to traffic on 20 December that year. The bridge was the second-longest cable-stayed span in the world at the time of its completion.
The architecture of Hong Kong features great emphasis on contemporary architecture,especially Modernism,Postmodernism,Functionalism,etc. Due to the lack of available land,few historical buildings remain in the urban areas of Hong Kong. Therefore,Hong Kong has become a centre for modern architecture as older buildings are cleared away to make space for newer,larger buildings. It has more buildings above 35m and more skyscrapers above 150m than any other city. Hong Kong's skyline is often considered to be the best in the world,with the mountains and Victoria Harbour complementing the skyscrapers.
Cheung Tsing Tunnel,also spelled Cheung Ching Tunnel,is a dual tube 3-lane tunnel on Tsing Yi Island,Hong Kong. It is part of Route 3. Its east end connects to Cheung Tsing Bridge and west Cheung Tsing Highway. The tunnel was opened on 22 May 1997 and is the second toll-free tunnel in Hong Kong. Its length is about 1.6 kilometres.
The Airport Core Programme was a series of infrastructure projects centred on the new Hong Kong International Airport during the early 1990s. The programme was part of the Port and Airport Development Strategy,commonly known as the Rose Garden Project.
Route 3 is a series of expressways in Hong Kong that runs from Sai Ying Pun on Hong Kong Island to Yuen Long in the New Territories,linking West Kowloon,Kwai Chung and Tsing Yi. It was built as part of the Airport Core Programme to provide access to Hong Kong International Airport from the city,and to relieve congestion in the New Territories. The Western Harbour Crossing and Tai Lam Tunnel that form part of the route are tollways.
Tsing Long Highway is an expressway of Route 3 from North West Tsing Yi Interchange on Tsing Yi Island to Yuen Long,in Hong Kong. Ting Kau Bridge and Tai Lam Tunnel are part of the expressway. It connects with Cheung Tsing Highway and Lantau Link at its southern end,and San Tin Highway and Yuen Long Highway at its northern end. Its speed limit at parts south of Tai Lam Tunnel and Tai Lam Tunnel is 80 km/h and parts north of Tai Lam Tunnel is 100 km/h.
Tsing Yi Peak,also known as Sam Chi Heung,is a hill with three peaks occupying the southern half of the Tsing Yi Island,Hong Kong. The hill is situated on the western half of Victoria Harbour. Its peaks are good locations to observe the harbour and the channels among harbour islands. While situated in the south,a short hill Liu To Shan occupies the northwest of the island.
Schlaich bergermann partner is a nationally and internationally active structural engineering and consulting firm with headquarters in Stuttgart,Germany and branch offices in Berlin,New York City,São Paulo,Shanghai and Paris.
Tsing Ma Control Area is an area covering Lantau Link and related road networks in the New Territories,Hong Kong,including Tsing Ma Bridge,Kap Shui Mun Bridge,Ma Wan Viaduct,Cheung Tsing Highway,Cheung Tsing Tunnel,Cheung Tsing Bridge,Ting Kau Bridge,North West Tsing Yi Interchange,Tsing Kwai Highway and North Lantau Highway,but excluding the area of rails managed by the MTRCL.
Ma Wan Viaduct is a viaduct built over Ma Wan,an island in Hong Kong. The viaduct connects the Tsing Ma Bridge and Kap Shui Mun Bridge with an exit to Ma Wan Road,and is part of the Lantau Link and Route 8. It was opened on 22 May 1997 and was built to provide access to the Hong Kong International Airport as part of the Airport Core Programme.
Vidyasagar Setu,also known as the Second Hooghly Bridge,is a toll bridge over the Hooghly River in West Bengal,India,linking the cities of Kolkata and Howrah.
Cheung Tsing Highway
| Hong Kong Route 3 |
Ting Kau Bridge
Tai Lam Tunnel