Tingzhou fu (Chinese :汀州府) was a prefecture in Fujian province from the Tang Dynasty (唐朝) down to the early 20th century, when it was renamed Changting (help·info) (simplified Chinese :长汀; traditional Chinese :長汀; pinyin :Chángtīng).[ citation needed ]
As early as 3,000 to 4,000 years ago, the She people thrived along the Tingjiang river(汀江), which originates in the north and runs through the county toward the south, and enters the South China Sea in Shantou(汕头), Guangdong(广东) province. Since early history, the Tingjiang river has been serving as an important water path for travel and, more importantly, the shipping of goods between coastal areas and mountainous terrain. It was said that the early Hakka ancestors traveled from north through the same path to Guangdong and the other parts of China and overseas, so Tingjiang river also gained its name as "Hakka's Mother River".
During the Han Dynasty, county-level administration was established where Changting county is currently seated. To take on immigrating northerners, the Tingzhou fu (汀州府) prefecture administration was set up in the 24th reign-year of the Tang emperor Kaiyuan, i.e. 736 CE.
Since then and until the end of Qing Dynasty(清朝), Changting had been where Zhou(州), Jun(郡), Lu(路) and Fu(府) (all prefectural level administrations) were located, and economic and political center of western Fujian(福建). During the Ming and Qing dynasties (明清朝), Tingzhou Fu encompassed eight counties including Changting (长汀), Ninghua (宁化), often regarded as very first settlement place for Hakka people), Qingliu (清流), Guihua (归化, obsolete), Liancheng (连城), Shanghang (上杭), Wuping (武平) and Yongding (永定). Being the first such territory set up by administration for migrant resettlement and one of the main concentration places for Hakka people, Tingzhou vies with Meixian (Mei County) in nearby eastern Guangdong in being referred to as the "Capital of the Hakkas"(客家首府). Today many Hakkas can trace their origins back to Tingzhou.
Tingzhou was renamed "Changting" (长汀) in the 2nd year of the Republic of China, i.e. 1913 (Year Two of the Chinese Republic). During Chinese Civil War, the prefecture was the economic and financial centre of the Chinese Soviet Republic. Tens of thousands of people from "Changting" joined the Chinese Red Army - but not many survived the Long March.
With the founding of the People's Republic of China, the Prefecture was renamed again ("Longyan" 龙岩地区) and—minus several counties—its political center was relocated to Xinluo.
The former prefecture seat --"Tingzhou Town" (汀州镇)—now only a shiretown (or "county-town", 县城), commemorates the imperial-era prefecture. The name of its reduced purview --Changting (长汀)—recalls the prefecture in its ROC years.
Real reorganisation only came in the early years of the People's Republic (1949-- ), which established a Diqu (地区, "region") --since upgraded to the Diji Shi (地级市, "prefecture-level city")-- called Longyan. Two counties of the Imperial- and Republican eras, Ninghua and Qingliu, were detached. The remaining seven have henceforth been administered from a new centre, Xinluo (新罗), which is more accessible to the province's heavily populated coast.
By Chinese convention the prefectural name would also refer, depending on context, to the city which was the seat of its government. Thus Mao Zedong's Red Army column is said to have taken Changting in 1929, meaning that his column exercised real control over what is now Tingzhou town.
Fujian is a province on the southeastern coast of China. Fujian is bordered by Zhejiang to the north, Jiangxi to the west, Guangdong to the south, and the Taiwan Strait to the east. Its capital is Fuzhou, while its largest city by population is Quanzhou, both located near the coast of the Taiwan Strait in the east of the province.
Yongding is a district under the jurisdiction of Longyan prefecture-level city in the southwest of Fujian Province, People's Republic of China. The district is a center for Hakka culture, including the traditional Hakka tulou, and a local dialect of the Hakka Chinese called the Yongding Dialect. As of 2015, Yongding has a permanent population of about 361,000, of which more than 99% are Hakka, the rest being She people. In December 2014, the Fujian government signed legislation converting Yongding from a county to a district.
Zhangzhou is a prefecture-level city in Fujian Province, China. The prefecture around the city proper comprises the southeast corner of the province, facing the Taiwan Strait and surrounding the prefecture of Xiamen.
Ganzhou, alternately romanized as Kanchow, is a prefecture-level city in the south of Jiangxi province, China, bordering Fujian to the east, Guangdong to the south, and Hunan to the west. Its administrative seat is at Zhanggong District.
Longyan is a prefecture-level city in south-western Fujian Province, China, bordering Guangdong to the south and Jiangxi to the west.
Shaozhou Tuhua, also known as Yuebei Tuhua (粤北土话), is an unclassified Chinese variety spoken in northern Guangdong province, China. It is mutually unintelligible with Xiang, Cantonese, and Mandarin.
Changting (help·info), also known as Tingzhou or Tingchow, is a county in western Fujian province, People's Republic of China. With a population of 480,000 and an area of 3,099 square kilometres (1,197 sq mi), Changting is the fifth largest county in the province. The majority of the population belongs to the Hakka people and speaks Changting dialect, a dialect of Hakka Chinese. The Changting dialect is mutually unintelligible with the Meixian dialect, which is another Hakka language spoken in Guangdong.
Changting may refer to:
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Tingzhou/Changting is a diocese co-extensive with the Chinese imperial prefecture Tingzhou fu. The cathedral is located in the present-day Tingzhou town.
The Ting River flows 300 kilometres (190 mi) from Ninghua County in western Fujian south to the port and Special Economic Zone of Shantou, Guangdong. It is a main tributary of the Han River and is also referred to Hakka Mother River.
The town of Tingzhou (汀州镇) is the seat of the Changting County, Longyan government, Party and police.
Shanghang is a county in southwest Fujian Province, China, bordering Guangdong Province to the southwest. It is under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Longyan.
Shibi, literally Stone Wall, is one of four towns of Ninghua County, in western Fujian province, People's Republic of China, near the border with Jiangxi.
The Longyan dialect, also known as Longyan Minnan or Liong11l11334, is a dialect of Hokkien spoken in the urban city area of Longyan in the province of Fujian, China while Hakka is spoken in rural villages of Longyan. The Longyan Min people had settled in the region from southern part of Fujian Province as early as the Tang dynasty period (618–907). Although Longyan Min has some Hakka influence to a limited extent by the peasant Hakka Chinese language due to close distance of rural village Hakka peasants of the region, Longyan Min is a close dialect of the Minnan language and has more number of tones than Hakka. The Longyan dialect has a high but limited intelligibility with Southern Min dialects such as Hokkien–Taiwanese. Today, Longyan Minnan is predominantly spoken in Longyan's urban district Xinluo District while Zhangzhou Minnan is spoken in Zhangping City excluding Chishui and Shuangyang towns where Longyan Minnan is spoken. Hakka on the other hand is spoken in the non-urban rest of the rural areas of Longyan prefecture: Changting County, Liancheng County, Shanghang County, Wuping County, and Yongding District.
Liancheng County is a county in the municipal region of Longyan, Fujian, People's Republic of China.
Lianzhou, formerly Lian County or Lianxian, is a county-level city in northern Guangdong Province, China, and is the northernmost county-level division of the prefecture-level city of Qingyuan. It is known as the host city of the Lianzhou International Photography Festival (LIPF) and as a historic and cultural landmark of Guangdong Province.
The Changting dialect is a dialect of Tingzhou Hakka mainly spoken in Changting County of northwest Fujian, China. It is generally regarded as the representative dialect of the Hakka spoken in western Fujian province.
The Tingzhou dialect is a group of Hakka dialects spoken in Longyan and Sanming, southwestern Fujian. Tingzhou includes the Hakka dialects spoken in the counties originally under the jurisdiction of Tingzhou: Changting (Tingzhou), Ninghua, Qingliu, Liancheng, Wuping, Shanghang, Yongding and Mingxi. The Changting dialect is generally regarded as the representative dialect of this branch of Hakka.
The Sixian dialect, also known as the Sixian accent, is a dialect of Hakka used by Taiwanese Hakkas, and it is the most spoken dialect of Taiwanese Hakka, being used in Hakka broadcasting in many public occasions. The Sixian dialect is generally spoken in northern and southern Taiwan, with main representative regions being Taoyuan and Miaoli in the north, as well as the Liudui Region in Kaohsiung and Pingtung in the south.
Shehua is an unclassified Sinitic language spoken by the She people of Southeastern China. It is also called Shanha, San-hak (山哈) or Shanhahua (山哈话). Shehua speakers are located mainly in Fujian and Zhejiang provinces of Southeastern China, with smaller numbers of speakers in a few locations of Jiangxi, Guangdong and Anhui provinces.