Tinigua are the indigenous people who inhabited the river basin Yari, Caguan and today Caquetá Department of Colombia. In their language, Tinigua refers to the ancestors: tini probably meant “word of the ancients.”
The Tinigua population drastically declined in the 19th century. First, the exploitation of the rubber, then as allies of the Witotos they faced the Muinane and Carijona, and had to abandon much of their territory and settle to the north. Finally they were attacked by settlers after 1949, which caused their extinction, so that in 1994 only survived two elderly brothers, in the Sierra de la Macarena, Meta.
The first references to this group were provided by the priest Martivell Fair (1925) and Capuchins missionary Gaspar de Pinell (1929). Language samples were collected by the Capuchins Estanislao Les Corts (1931), Fructuoso Manresa and Igualada and Marcelino Francisco de Castellvi, and the latter published in 1940 the first study of the language Tinigua.
According to Nubia Tobar, who interviewed some of the last speakers of the language, there were six oral vowels organized into three basic levels of openness: high, medium and low, and three positions: anterior, central and posterior, each of which with its corresponding glottalized and elongated. The 22 consonants were p, ph (aspirated), t, th (aspirated), t (palatal), ts (Africa), k, kh (aspirated), kw (velar) b, d, and (voiceless palatal sound), g, m, n, n, f, s, z (voiced alveolar fricative), h (voiceless glottal fricative), che (palatal affricate), and the glide w. The language was thought lost until two elderly speakers were located in the 1990s. Presumably the language is now extinct.
The Tinigua languages have been grouped in a family-Pamigua Tinigua since Castellvi (1940) demonstrated the affinity of the two languages, using the vocabularies collected by F. Pamigua Published by Ernst and Toro (1895). Of the Pamigua we know from Rivero (1763), who lived between Concepcion de Arama (Meta) and Guaviare, but we ignore the reason of their disappearance.
An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation. It is often difficult to decide if a stop and fricative form a single phoneme or a consonant pair. English has two affricate phonemes, and, often spelled ch and j, respectively.
Ll/ll is a digraph which occurs in several natural languages.
In linguistics, lenition is a sound change that alters consonants, making them more sonorous. The word lenition itself means "softening" or "weakening". Lenition can happen both synchronically and diachronically. Lenition can involve such changes as voicing a voiceless consonant, causing a consonant to relax occlusion, to lose its place of articulation, or even causing a consonant to disappear entirely.
ǂʼAmkoe, formerly called by the dialectal name ǂHoan, is a severely endangered Kxʼa language of Botswana. West ǂʼAmkoe, Taa, and Gǀui form the core of the Kalahari Basin sprachbund, and share a number of characteristic features, including some of the largest consonant inventories in the world. ǂʼAmkoe was shown to be related to the Juu languages by Honken and Heine (2010), and as a result was classified along with the !Kung language in the Kxʼa language group.
Some of the regional varieties of the Spanish language are quite divergent from one another, especially in pronunciation and vocabulary, and less so in grammar.
The glottalic theory is that Proto-Indo-European had ejective stops, *pʼ *tʼ *kʼ, instead of the plain voiced ones, *b *d *ɡ as hypothesized by the usual Proto-Indo-European phonological reconstructions.
Ch is a digraph in the Latin script. It is treated as a letter of its own in Chamorro, Old Spanish, Czech, Slovak, Igbo, Kazakh, Uzbek, Quechua, Guarani, Welsh, Cornish, Breton, and Belarusian Łacinka alphabets. In Vietnamese and Modern Spanish, it also used to be considered a letter for collation purposes but this is no longer common.
This article describes those aspects of the phonological history of the English language which concern consonants.
The Arabic script is a writing system used for writing Arabic and several other languages of Asia and Africa, such as Persian, Kurdish, Azerbaijani, Sindhi, Balochi, Pashto, Lurish, Urdu and Mandinka, among others. Until the 16th century, it was also used to write some texts in Spanish. Additionally, prior to the language reform in 1928, it was the writing system of Turkish. It is the second-most widely used writing system in the world by the number of countries using it and the third by the number of users, after the Latin and Chinese scripts.
The phonology of the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) has been reconstructed by linguists, based on the similarities and differences among current and extinct Indo-European languages. Because PIE was not written, linguists must rely on the evidence of its earliest attested descendants, such as Hittite, Sanskrit, Ancient Greek, and Latin, to reconstruct its phonology.
Unlike many languages, Icelandic has only very minor dialectal differences in sounds. The language has both monophthongs and diphthongs, and many consonants can be voiced or unvoiced.
This article is about the sound system of the Navajo language. The phonology of Navajo is intimately connected to its morphology. For example, the entire range of contrastive consonants is found only at the beginning of word stems. In stem-final position and in prefixes, the number of contrasts is drastically reduced. Similarly, vowel contrasts found outside of the stem are significantly neutralized. For details about the morphology of Navajo, see Navajo grammar.
Jalapa Mazatec is a Mazatecan language, as of 1990 spoken by ca. 15,000 people, one-third of whom are monolingual, in 13 villages in the vicinity of the town of San Felipe Jalapa de Díaz in the Tuxtepec District of the Mexican state of Oaxaca. Egland (1978) found 73% intelligibility with Huautla, the prestige variety of Mazatec. Literacy in Jalapa is taught alongside Spanish in local schools.
The Kaingang language is a Gê language spoken by the Kaingang people of southern Brazil. The Kaingang nation has about 30,000 people, and about from 60% to 65% speak the language. Most also speak Portuguese.
Kensiu (Kensiw) is an Austro-Asiatic language of the Jahaic subbranch. It is spoken by a small community of 300 in Yala Province in southern Thailand and also reportedly by a community of approximately 300 speakers in Western Malaysia in Perak and Kedah States. Speakers of this language are Negritos who are known as the Mani people or Maniq of Thailand.
The Siona language is a Tucanoan language of Colombia and Ecuador.
The indigenous languages of the Americas form various linguistic areas or Sprachbunds that share various common (areal) traits.
Jad (Dzad), also known as Bhotia and Rongba, is a language spoken by a community of about 300 in the states of Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh, in India. It is spoken in several villages, and the three major villages are Jadhang, Nelang and Pulam Sumda in the Harsil sub-division of the Uttarkashi District. Jad is closely related to the Lahuli–Spiti language, which is another Tibetic language. Jad is spoken alongside Garhwali and Hindi. Code switching between Jad and Garhwali is very common. The language borrows some vocabulary from both Hindi and Garhwali. It is primarily a spoken language.
Kurdish phonology is the sound system of the Kurdish dialect continuum. This article includes the phonology of the three Kurdish dialects in their standard form respectively. Phonological features include the distinction between aspirated and unaspirated voiceless stops and the presence of facultative phonemes.