|Naming||A modern river in Sarawak, Malaysia|
The Tinjar Valles are an ancient set of outflow channels in the Amenthes quadrangle of Mars, located at 38° north latitude and 235.8° west longitude. They are 425 km long and were named after a modern river in Sarawak, Malaysia. They have been identified as outflow channels.
Valles Marineris is a system of canyons that runs along the Martian surface east of the Tharsis region. At more than 4,000 km (2,500 mi) long, 200 km (120 mi) wide and up to 7 km (23,000 ft) deep, Valles Marineris is one of the largest canyons of the Solar System, surpassed in length only by the rift valleys of Earth.
Vallis or valles is the Latin word for valley. It is used in planetary geology to name landform features on other planets.
Chryse Planitia is a smooth circular plain in the northern equatorial region of Mars close to the Tharsis region to the west, centered at. Chryse Planitia lies partially in the Lunae Palus quadrangle, partially in the Oxia Palus quadrangle, partially in the Mare Acidalium quadrangle. It is 1600 km or 994 mi in diameter and with a floor 2.5 km below the average planetary surface altitude, and has been suggested to be an ancient buried impact basin, thought this is contested. It has several features in common with lunar maria, such as wrinkle ridges. The density of impact craters in the 100 to 2,000 metres range is close to half the average for lunar maria.
The Mangala Valles are a complex system of criss-crossing channels on Mars, located in the Tharsis region and in the Memnonia quadrangle. They originated in the Hesperian and Amazonian epochs. They are thought to be an outflow channel system, carved by catastrophic floods, and the release of vast quantities of water across the Martian surface. This flooding was probably initiated by tectonic stretching and the formation of a graben, Mangala Fossa, at the channels' head, perhaps breaching a pressurized aquifer trapped beneath a thick "cryosphere" beneath the surface. The Mangala Valles contain several basins; after they filled, the overflow went through a series of spillways. One source of waters for the system was the Memonia Fossae, but water also probably came from a large basin centered at 40 degrees S.
The Athabasca Valles are a late Amazonian-period outflow channel system in the central Elysium Planitia region of Mars, located to the south of the Elysium Rise. They are part of a network of outflow channels in this region that are understood to emanate from large fissures in the Martian surface rather than the chaos terrains that source the circum-Chryse outflow channels. The Athabasca Valles in particular emanate from one of the Cerberus Fossae fissures and flow downstream to the southwest, constrained to the south by a wrinkle ridge for over 100 km, before debouching into the Cerberus Palus volcanic plain. The Athabasca Valles are widely understood to be the youngest outflow channel system on the planet.
The Hypanis Valles are a set of channels in a 270 km valley in Xanthe Terra on Mars at 11° N, 314° E, in the Lunae Palus quadrangle. They appear to have been carved by long-lived flowing water, and a significant deposit exists at their outlet into the lowlands.
The Maja Valles are a large system of ancient outflow channels in the Lunae Palus quadrangle on Mars. Their location is 12.6° north latitude and 58.3° west longitude. The name is a Nepali word for "Mars". The Maja Valles begin at Juventae Chasma. Parts of the system have been partially buried by thin volcanic debris. The channels end at Chryse Planitia.
The Kasei Valles are a giant system of canyons in Mare Acidalium and Lunae Palus quadrangles on Mars, centered at 24.6° north latitude and 65.0° west longitude. They are 1,580 km (980 mi) long and were named for the word for "Mars" in Japanese. This is one of the largest outflow channel systems on Mars.
The Hebrus Valles are an ancient system of troughs and valleys in the Amenthes quadrangle of Mars, located at 20.2° north latitude and 233.4° west longitude. They are 317 km long and were named after a river in the Balkans which runs through present day Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey. Some authors have identified the troughs and valleys of Hebrus Valles as outflow channels, but their origin and history remain ambiguous. It has been considered as a potential site for human exploration due to the presence of icy caves.
The Warrego Valles are a set of channels in an ancient river valley in the Thaumasia quadrangle of Mars, located at 42.2° south latitude and 93° west longitude. They are 188 km long and were named after a modern Australian River.
Outflow channels are extremely long, wide swathes of scoured ground on Mars. They extend many hundreds of kilometers in length and are typically greater than one kilometer in width. They are thought to have been carved by huge outburst floods.
The Granicus Valles are a network of valleys in the Amenthes quadrangle of Mars, located at 30° north latitude and 229° west longitude. They are 750 km long and are named after the ancient name for a river in Turkey. The system has been identified as outflow channels.
The Tiu Valles are an outflow channel system in the Oxia Palus quadrangle of Mars, centered at 16.23° North and 34.86° West.
The Ladon Valles are a river valley system lying within the Margaritifer Sinus quadrangle (MC-19) region of the planet Mars located at 22.6° South and 28.7° West. They are 278 km long and were named after an ancient name for a Greek river.
The Simud Valles are an ancient outflow channel system in the Oxia Palus quadrangle of Mars, located at 19.8° N and 37.8° W. They are 945 km long and were named for the word for "Mars" in Sumerian. Note: Descriptor term changed to the plural (valles), and coordinates redefined 3/31/2008.
Ravi Vallis is an ancient outflow channel, the source of which originates from the Aromatum Chaos depression, and is situated at the eastern end of Xanthe Terra, in the Margaritifer Sinus quadrangle (MC-19) region of Mars, located at. The Ravi Vallis outflow channel is 205.5 km (127.7 mi) long, and starts at the northeastern end of the Aromatum Chaos depression. The channel is orientated in an easterly direction, and further down channel, Ravi Vallis divides into two; a larger northern channel, and a smaller southern channel, and is finally truncated by a fault which is located at the western margin of the Hydraotes Chaos depression. Ravi Vallis was named after the Ravi River, an ancient Indian river.
The Vedra Valles are a set of channels in an ancient river valley in the Lunae Palus quadrangle of Mars, located at 19.4° N and 55.6° W. They are 115 km long and were named after an ancient river in Great Britain.
The Maumee Valles are a set of channels in an ancient river valley in the Lunae Palus quadrangle of Mars, located at 19.7° N and 53.2° W. They are 350 km long and were named after a North American river in Indiana and Ohio.
Nilokeras Scopulus is a long escarpment (cliff) in the northern hemisphere of the planet Mars. It is located along the southeastern boundary of the Tempe Terra plateau and forms the northern valley wall of the downstream portion of the immense Kasei Valles outflow channel system. The escarpment is 765 km long and ranges from 1 to a little over 2 km (3300–6600 ft) in height.
Mangala Fossa is a graben in the Memnonia quadrangle of Mars, located near, which originated in the Hesperian and Amazonian epochs. The graben is located at the head of the outflow channel Mangala Valles, which is thought to have been formed by at least two catastrophic flood events during the same geological period, leading to the release of vast quantities of water from Mangala Fossa onto the Martian surface. The flooding was probably initiated by the emplacement of a dike radiating from the volcano Arsia Mons, resulting in the formation of the graben, Mangala Fossa, at the channels' head. This dike breached a pressurized aquifer trapped beneath a thick "cryosphere" beneath the surface. As the floor of the graben subsided, water found its way up one or both of the faults in the crust that defined the edges of the graben and spilled into the depression, eventually filling it and overflowing at the lowest point on the rim to erode the Mangala Valles channels.