Tinos

Last updated
Tinos
Περιφερειακή ενότητα / Δήμος
Τήνου
Tinos panagia evangelistria 200707 04.jpg
Panagia Evangelistria, landmark of the island
Greece location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Tinos
Tinos within the South Aegean
2011 Dimos Tinou.png
Coordinates: 37°37′N25°08′E / 37.617°N 25.133°E / 37.617; 25.133
Country Greece
Administrative region South Aegean
Seat Tinos (town)
Area
  Municipality194.5 km2 (75.1 sq mi)
Population
 (2021) [1]
  Municipality8,934
  Density46/km2 (120/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+2 (EET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+3 (EEST)
Postal code
842 xx
Area code(s) 22830
Vehicle registration EM
Website www.tinos.gr

Tinos (Greek : Τήνος [ˈtinos] ) is a Greek island situated in the Aegean Sea. It is part of the Cyclades archipelago. The closest islands are Andros, Delos, and Mykonos. It has a land area of 194.464 square kilometres (75.083 sq mi) [2] and a 2021 census population of 8,934 inhabitants. [3]

Contents

Tinos is famous amongst Greeks for the Church of Panagia Evangelistria, its 80 or so windmills, [4] about 1,000 artistic dovecotes, 50 active villages and its Venetian fortifications at the mountain, Exomvourgo. On Tinos, both Greek Orthodox and Catholic populations co-exist, and the island is also well known for its sculptors and painters, such as Nikolaos Gysis, Yannoulis Chalepas and Nikiforos Lytras.

The island is located near the geographical center of the Cyclades island complex, and because of the Panagia Evangelistria church, with its reputedly miraculous icon of Virgin Mary that it holds, Tinos is also the center of a yearly pilgrimage that takes place on the date of the Dormition of the Virgin Mary (15 August, Dekapentavgoustos in Greek). [5] Many pilgrims make their way the 800 metres (2,600 feet) from the ferry wharf to the church on their hands and knees as sign of devotion.

History

Anciently, the island was called Tenos (Ancient Greek : Τῆνος), and was also called Hydroussa/Hydroessa (Ὑδροῦσσα, Ὑδρόεσσα) from the number of its springs, and Ophioussa (Ὀφιοῦσσα) because it abounded in snakes. [6] [7] [8] The sons of Boreas are said to have been slain in this island by Heracles. [9] In the invasion of Greece by Xerxes I, the Tenians were compelled to serve in the Persian fleet; but a Tenian trireme deserted to the Greeks immediately before the Battle of Salamis (480 BCE), and accordingly the name of the Tenians was inscribed upon the tripod at Delphi in the list of Grecian states which had overthrown the Persians. [10] Pausanias relates that the name of the Tenians was also inscribed on the statue of Zeus at Olympia among the Greeks who had fought at the Battle of Plataea. [11] The Tenians afterwards formed part of the Delian League, and are mentioned among the subject allies of Athens at the time of the Sicilian expedition. [12] They paid a yearly tribute of 3600 drachmae, from which it may be inferred that they enjoyed a considerable share of prosperity. [13] Alexander of Pherae took possession of Tenos for a time; [14] and the island was afterwards granted by Marcus Antonius to the Rhodians. [15]

Map of Tinos by Giacomo Franco (1597) Tinos by Giacomo Franco.jpg
Map of Tinos by Giacomo Franco (1597)

Following the capture of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade, Tinos was one of several islands ruled by private Venetian citizens and belonged to Andrea Ghisi, whose heirs held it until 1390 when the last member of the family branch bequeathed both Tinos and Mykonos to Venice. [16] [17] It was ruled by Venice until 1715, when Tinos was captured by the Ottoman Empire (see Ottoman–Venetian War). It was known as İstendil during Ottoman era. [18] The Ottomans held Tinos until 1821 when the inhabitants joined in the Greek War of Independence. [19]

The tumult of the period gave rise to an increase in piracy in the region. In 1825 HMS Cambrian was the lead vessel of a small squadron in anti-piracy operations in the Archipelago, at Alexandria, and around the coasts of Syria. On 27 July 1826, Cambrian's boats captured a pirate bombard and burnt a mistico on Tinos. Five pirates were killed and several wounded.

The date of 15 August also commemorates the 1940 sinking in Tinos's harbour of the Greek cruiser Elli , during peacetime, while she rode at anchor, by the Italian submarine Delfino. The Elli was participating in the celebrations of the Feast of the Dormition. One of the three torpedoes fired hit the Elli under the one operating boiler and she caught fire and sank. Nine petty officers and sailors were killed and 24 were wounded. The same submarine attempted to torpedo the passenger ships M/V Elsi and M/V Hesperos anchored in the port. This attempt failed and the torpedoes only damaged a section of the port's wharf.

Geography

Satellite image of Tinos Tinos Satellite.jpg
Satellite image of Tinos
Exomvourgo Exobourgo.jpg
Exomvourgo
Landscape of the island Tinos landscape.JPG
Landscape of the island
The entrance of the church Candles Panagia Tinou.JPG
The entrance of the church

Tinos has a varied landscape. From the shores of Panormos and Kolimbithra on the North Shore to Kionia, Agios Yannis O Portos, and Agios Sostis on the Southern Shore, Tinos has many beaches. Tsiknias is the highest mountain on the island at 750 metres (2,460 feet) and hides the village of Livada. The mountain of Exobourgo is quite distinct, and unlike its more rounded Cycladic neighbors, has a jagged appearance that would be more at home in the Alps. Between Tsiknias and Exobourgo lies the fruitful plain of Falatados. This area is unique on the island as its relatively flat terrain (albeit with an elevation of about 300 metres (980 feet)) is rare on the island. This made it a strong candidate for a proposed airport on the island. The Meltemi winds and concerns of local villagers of the towns of Falatados, and Steni have all but halted the project.

The landscape around Volax is surreal and unusual with giant boulders some the size of multi-storey buildings.[ citation needed ] The village of Volax lies at the center of this landscape. To the west, the mountains surrounding Pyrgos contain green marble.[ citation needed ]

All around the island of Tinos, the islanders have made the most unusual things out of stone. The hills are all terraced with stone walls and every village is connected to its nearest neighbors by stone walkways set between a parallel set of stone walls.

The island's mineral resources include marble, Verde antico, asbestos and a granite mine near Volax (also known as Volakas).

Administration

View of the town of Tinos Tinos 089.jpg
View of the town of Tinos

Tinos is a separate regional unit of the South Aegean region, and the only municipality of the regional unit. As a part of the 2011 Kallikratis government reform, the regional unit Tinos was created out of part of the former Cyclades Prefecture. At the same reform, the current municipality Tinos was created out of the 3 former municipalities: [20]

Province

The province of Tinos (Greek : Επαρχία Τήνου) was one of the provinces of the Cyclades Prefecture. It had the same territory as the present regional unit. [21] It was abolished in 2006.

Climate

Tinos experiences a Mediterranean climate and has warm and dry summers and mild and wet winters. In the island you come across the etesians (also known as meltemi winds) — the strong, dry north winds of the Aegean Sea, which blow from about mid-May to mid-September. They are at their strongest in the afternoon and often die down at night, but sometimes meltemi winds last for days without a break. Meltemi winds are dangerous to sailors because they come up in clear weather without warning and can blow at 7-8 Beaufort.

MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
High14 °C15 °C16 °C19 °C22 °C26 °C28 °C28 °C26 °C23 °C19 °C15 °C
Low10 °C10 °C11 °C13 °C17 °C21 °C23 °C24 °C21 °C19 °C15 °C12 °C
Precipitation8755300022611
Winds in km/h293026202123232623262328

Transportation

Tinos has three ports, one for passenger speed boats, and two for ferries and highspeed boats which carry passengers and cars to other ports, including Mykonos (35 min), Piraeus, Rafina, Andros and Syros.

There is a heliport close to Aghios Fokas beach, some 2 kilometres (1 mile) from the town of Tinos.

There are regular buses linking the town of Tinos with other villages on the island.

Towns and villages

The village of Kardiani Kardiane.JPG
The village of Kardiani
The village of Volax, postcard from 1907 Volax Tinos 1907 Postcard.jpg
The village of Volax, postcard from 1907

Notable people

Nikolaos Gyzis (1842-1901), an important Greek painter Nikolaos Gyzis (1842-1901).png
Nikolaos Gyzis (1842–1901), an important Greek painter

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cyclades</span> Greek island group in the Aegean Sea

The Cyclades are an island group in the Aegean Sea, southeast of mainland Greece and a former administrative prefecture of Greece. They are one of the island groups which constitute the Aegean archipelago. The name refers to the archipelago forming a circle around the sacred island of Delos. The largest island of the Cyclades is Naxos, however the most populated is Syros.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Paros</span> Greek island in the Aegean Sea

Paros is a Greek island in the central Aegean Sea. Part of the Cyclades island group, it lies to the west of Naxos, from which it is separated by a channel about 8 kilometres wide. It lies approximately 150 km south-east of Piraeus. The Municipality of Paros includes numerous uninhabited offshore islets totaling 196.308 square kilometres (75.795 sq mi) of land. Its nearest neighbor is the municipality of Antiparos, which lies to its southwest. In ancient Greece, the city-state of Paros was located on the island.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Andros</span> Northernmost island of the Greek Cyclades archipelago

Andros is the northernmost island of the Greek Cyclades archipelago, about 10 km (6 mi) southeast of Euboea, and about 3 km (2 mi) north of Tinos. It is nearly 40 km (25 mi) long, and its greatest breadth is 16 km (10 mi). It is for the most part mountainous, with many fruitful and well-watered valleys. The municipality, which includes the island Andros and several small, uninhabited islands, has an area of 380 km2 (146.719 sq mi). The largest towns are Andros (town), Gavrio, Batsi, and Ormos Korthiou.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Folegandros</span> Municipality in Greece

Folegandros is a small Greek island in the Aegean Sea that, together with Sikinos, Ios, Anafi and Santorini, forms the southern part of the Cyclades. Its surface area is 32.216 square kilometres (12.439 sq mi) and it has 719 inhabitants (2021). It has three small villages, Chora, Karavostasis, and Ano Meria, which are connected by a paved road. Folegandros is part of the Thira regional unit.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Syros</span> Regional unit and municipality in Greece

Syros, also known as Siros or Syra, is a Greek island in the Cyclades, in the Aegean Sea. It is 78 nautical miles (144 km) south-east of Athens. The area of the island is 83.6 km2 (32 sq mi) and at the 2021 census it had 21,124 inhabitants.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mykonos</span> Regional unit and municipality in Greece

Mykonos is a Greek island, part of the Cyclades, lying between Tinos, Syros, Paros and Naxos. The island has an area of 85.5 square kilometres (33.0 sq mi) and rises to an elevation of 341 metres at its highest point. At the 2021 census, there were 10,704 inhabitants, most of whom lived in the largest town, Mykonos, which is on the west coast. The town is also known as Chora.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Duchy of the Archipelago</span> 1207–1579 state in the Cyclades archipelago

The Duchy of the Archipelago, also known as Duchy of Naxos or Duchy of the Aegean, was a maritime state created by Venetian interests in the Cyclades archipelago in the Aegean Sea, in the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade, centered on the islands of Naxos and Paros. It included all the Cyclades. In 1537, it became a tributary of the Ottoman Empire, and was annexed by the Ottomans in 1579; however, Christian rule survived in islands such as Sifnos and Tinos.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Serifos</span> Municipality in Greece

Serifos is a Greek island municipality in the Aegean Sea, located in the western Cyclades, south of Kythnos and northwest of Sifnos. It is part of the Milos regional unit. The area is 75.207 square kilometres (29.038 sq mi) and the population was 1,241 at the 2021 census. It is located about 170 kilometres ESE of the Athenian port of Piraeus.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Manto Mavrogenous</span> Greek revolutionary (1796–1848)

Manto Mavrogenous was a Greek princess and heroine of the Greek War of Independence. An extremely wealthy aristocrat, she contributed her fortune for the Hellenic cause. Under her encouragement, her aristocratic European friends contributed money and guns to the revolution.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Modern Greek art</span>

Modern Greek art is art from the period between the emergence of the new independent Greek state and the 20th century. As Mainland Greece was under Ottoman rule for all four centuries, it was not a part of the Renaissance and artistic movements that followed in Western Europe. However, Greek islands such as Crete, and the Ionian islands in particular were for large periods under Venetian or other European powers' rule and thus were able to better assimilate the radical artistic changes that were occurring in Europe during the 14th-18th century.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Panormos, Tinos</span> Municipal unit in Greece

Panormos or Pyrgos (Πύργος) is a village and a former community on the island of Tinos, in the Cyclades, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Tinos, of which it is a municipal unit. The population was 566 at the 2021 census and the land area is 33.378 km². It is a small fishing village, located at the northwestern tip of the island. It shares the island of Tinos with the municipal units of Tinos (town) and Exomvourgo.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">History of the Cyclades</span> Greek islands located in the Aegean Sea

The Cyclades are Greek islands located in the southern part of the Aegean Sea. The archipelago contains some 2,200 islands, islets and rocks; just 33 islands are inhabited. For the ancients, they formed a circle around the sacred island of Delos, hence the name of the archipelago. The best-known are, from north to south and from east to west: Andros, Tinos, Mykonos, Naxos, Amorgos, Syros, Paros and Antiparos, Ios, Santorini, Anafi, Kea, Kythnos, Serifos, Sifnos, Folegandros and Sikinos, Milos and Kimolos; to these can be added the little Cyclades: Irakleia, Schoinoussa, Koufonisi, Keros and Donoussa, as well as Makronisos between Kea and Attica, Gyaros, which lies before Andros, and Polyaigos to the east of Kimolos and Thirassia, before Santorini. At times they were also called by the generic name of Archipelago.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mykonos windmills</span> Feature on the Greek island

The Mykonos windmills are an iconic feature of the Greek island of the Mykonos. The island is one of the Cyclades islands, which neighbour Delos in the Aegean Sea. The windmills can be seen from every point of the village of Mykonos, the island's principal village, which is frequently called the Chora on Greek islands. The windmills are the first thing seen when coming into the harbour of Alefkandra, as they stand on a hill overlooking the area. Most windmills face towards the North where the island's climate sources its strongest winds over the largest part of the year. There are currently 16 windmills on Mykonos of which seven are positioned on the landmark hill in Chora. Most of them were built by the Venetians in the 16th century, but their construction continued into the early 20th century. They were primarily used to mill wheat. They were an important source of income for the inhabitants. Their use gradually declined until they ceased production in the middle of the 20th century. The architecture of each of them is similar, all have a round shape, white colour and a pointed roof and very small windows. Such windmills are found in almost all Cyclades islands. One of these windmills has been transformed into a museum. The whole village of Chora and part of the harbour are visible from this point.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Yannoulis Chalepas</span> Greek sculptor

Yannoulis Chalepas was a Greek sculptor and a significant figure of Modern Greek art.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lefteris Valakas</span> Greek sculptor

Lefteris (Eleftherios) Valakas was a Greek sculptor. He was born in the village of Pyrgos on Tinos island in Greece. Valakas after concluding his basic education in Pyrgos, enrolled in the School of Fine Arts of Pyrgos. After graduating, he continued his studies in the respective school of Athens, Athens School of Fine Arts, for two years. After receiving scholarship by the Evangelistria Institution of Tinos, he concluded the studies in sculpture in the École Nationale Supérieure des Beaux-Arts in Paris.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tinos (town)</span> Municipal unit in Greece

Tinos is a town on the island of Tinos, in the Cyclades, Greece. It is also locally known as Chora (Χώρα) as is common in the Cyclades for island principal towns.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Volax</span>

Volax or Volakas is a small village on the island of Tinos, in the Cyclades, Greece. The population was 51 at the 2011 census.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Exomvourgo</span> Mountain in Greece

Exomvourgo or Exobourgo is a mountain on the island of Tinos. Unlike the other mountains in the Cyclades, it has a rugged appearance and is the site of a ruined Venetian fortress and town.

References

  1. "Αποτελέσματα Απογραφής Πληθυσμού - Κατοικιών 2021, Μόνιμος Πληθυσμός κατά οικισμό" [Results of the 2021 Population - Housing Census, Permanent population by settlement] (in Greek). Hellenic Statistical Authority. 29 March 2024.
  2. "Population & housing census 2001 (incl. area and average elevation)" (PDF) (in Greek). National Statistical Service of Greece.
  3. "Αποτελέσματα Μόνιμου Πληθυσμού κατά δημοτική κοινότητα" (in Greek). Hellenic Statistical Authority. 21 April 2023.
  4. "Art & Tradition:Windmills". Municipality of Tinos. www.tinos.gr. Archived from the original on 2008-01-05. Retrieved 2007-12-21.
  5. See, e.g., Theodore Bent, The Cyclades, or Life Among the Insular Greeks. London, 1885, p. 231ff.
  6. Pliny. Naturalis Historia . Vol. 4.12.22.
  7. Pomponius Mela. De situ orbis. Vol. 2.7.11.
  8. Stephanus of Byzantium. Ethnica. Vol. s.v. Τῆνος.
  9. Apollon. 1.1304, with Schol.
  10. Herodotus. Histories . Vol. 8.82.
  11. Pausanias (1918). "23.2". Description of Greece. Vol. 5. Translated by W. H. S. Jones; H. A. Ormerod. Cambridge, Massachusetts; London: Harvard University Press; William Heinemann via Perseus Digital Library.
  12. Thucydides. History of the Peloponnesian War . Vol. 7.57.
  13. Franz, Elem. Epigr. Gr. No. 49.
  14. Dem. c. Polycl. p. 1207
  15. Appian, B.C. 5.7.
  16. William Miller, The Latin Orient (London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1920), p. 39
  17. D. Jacoby, La féodalité en Grèce médiévale. Les « Assises de Romanie », sources, application et diffusion (1971), p. 237
  18. "Tinos". abttergreece.com. Retrieved October 3, 2022.
  19. 40.pdf Archived 2014-05-12 at the Wayback Machine
  20. "ΦΕΚ A 87/2010, Kallikratis reform law text" (in Greek). Government Gazette.
  21. "Detailed census results 1991" (PDF). (39 MB)(in Greek and French)

PD-icon.svg This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain :  Smith, William, ed. (1854–1857). "Tenos". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography . London: John Murray.