Site archéologique de Tintignac-Naves
|Founded||3rd century BC|
|Abandoned||3rd century AD|
|Cultures||Gallic, Roman, Gallo-Roman|
Tintignac is a hamlet near Naves in the Corrèze region of France. It is primarily known for the archaeological remains of a sanctuary where Gallic and Gallo-Roman artefacts have been found, including seven carnyces (war trumpets) and ornamented helmets.The site is classified on the List of historic monuments of 1840.
The village has been known since the 12th century, using the Occitan spelling of Tintinhac. It is associated with Arnaut de Tintinhac, a troubadour and lord of Tintinhac who was born at Castle Tintignac, probably as a vassal of the Vicomte de Turenne of the House of La Tour d'Auvergne. Four of his poems have survived.
The Gallic and Gallo-Roman site is located on the plateau of Naves, north of the towns of Naves and Tulle, in the foothills east of Puy l'Aiguille, west of the Peuch Redon summit. Around the sanctuary, researchers have discovered traces of dense occupation and activity.[ citation needed ]
The site was discovered in the 19th century and is ranked on the list of protected sites after review by the inspector general of historical monuments, Prosper Mérimée and Abel Hugo.
In September 2004, about 500 fragments of iron and bronze objects were discovered in a Gallic pit. The objects included a dozen swords and scabbards, iron spearheads, a shield, ten bronze helmets and an iron bird (a crane or swan is found on some lemovice items), 2 animal heads including a horse, one animal body in connection with the two hind legs, one foreleg, a cauldron, and seven carnyces (a wind instrument of the Iron Age Celts) and including an almost complete War Trumpet. The first such objects found in the context of a Gallic sanctuary. These unique military and religious objects are now being studied by the team led by Christophe Maniquet, chief scientist at the site of Tintignac. In 2009, an aqueduct was discovered, 2 metres high and feeding a well 13 metres deep.[ citation needed ]
The items were restored by the Materia Viva laboratory in Toulouse and displayed in Tulle before embarking on a series of international exhibitions that began in Bern (Switzerland).[ citation needed ]
Objects found at Tintignac were exhibited at the 2012 exhibition Les Gaulois, une expo renversante (The Gauls, a stunning exhibition).
The La Tène culture was a European Iron Age culture. It developed and flourished during the late Iron Age, succeeding the early Iron Age Hallstatt culture without any definite cultural break, under considerable Mediterranean influence from the Greeks in pre-Roman Gaul, the Etruscans, and the Golasecca culture, but whose artistic style nevertheless did not depend on those Mediterranean influences.
Gaul was a region of Western Europe first clearly described by the Romans, encompassing present-day France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, and parts of Switzerland, Germany, and Northern Italy. It covered an area of 494,000 km2 (191,000 sq mi). According to Julius Caesar, who took control of the region on behalf of the Roman Republic, Gaul was divided into three parts: Gallia Celtica, Belgica, and Aquitania.
Tulle is a commune in central France. It is the third-largest town in the former region of Limousin and is the capital of the department of Corrèze, in the region of Nouvelle-Aquitaine. Tulle is also the episcopal see of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Tulle.
Bibracte, a Gallic oppidum, was the capital of the Aedui and one of the most important hillforts in Gaul. It was located near modern Autun in Burgundy, France. The material culture of the Aedui corresponded to the Late Iron Age La Tène culture.
Limousin is a former administrative region of southwest-central France. On 1 January 2016, it became part of the new administrative region of Nouvelle-Aquitaine. It comprised three departments: Corrèze, Creuse, and Haute-Vienne.
The ancient carnyx was a wind instrument of the Iron Age Celts, used between c. 200 BC and c. AD 200. It was a type of bronze trumpet with an elongated S shape, held so that the long straight central portion was vertical and the short mouthpiece end section and the much wider bell were horizontal in opposed directions. The bell was styled in the shape of an open-mouthed boar's, or other animal's, head.
Gallo-Roman religion is a fusion of the traditional religious practices of the Gauls, who were originally Celtic speakers, and the Roman and Hellenistic religions introduced to the region under Roman Imperial rule. It was the result of selective acculturation.
Alise-Sainte-Reine is a commune in the Côte-d'Or department in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region of eastern France.
The Lemovīcēs were a Gallic tribe dwelling in the modern Limousin region during the Iron Age and the Roman period.
Corseul is a commune in the Côtes-d'Armor department of Brittany in northwestern France.
Agris is a commune in the Charente department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of southwestern France.
Naves is a commune in the Corrèze department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in central France.
Vayrac is a commune in the Lot department in south-western France. The inhabitants of Vayrac are called the Vayracois.
Corent is a commune in the Puy-de-Dôme department in Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes in central France.
Gallo-Roman culture was a consequence of the Romanization of Gauls under the rule of the Roman Empire. It was characterized by the Gaulish adoption or adaptation of Roman culture, language, morals and way of life in a uniquely Gaulish context. The well-studied meld of cultures in Gaul gives historians a model against which to compare and contrast parallel developments of Romanization in other less-studied Roman provinces.
The Gauls were a group of Celtic peoples of mainland Europe in the Iron Age and the Roman period. Their homeland was known as Gaul (Gallia). They spoke Gaulish, a continental Celtic language.
Deductions about the music of the ancient Celts of the La Tène period and their Gallo-Roman and Romano-British descendants of Late Antiquity rely primarily on Greek and Roman sources, as well as on archaeological finds and interpretations including the reconstruction of the Celts' ancient instruments. Most of the textual information centers on military conflicts and on maybe the most prominent Celtic instrument of its time, the carnyx.
Vertillum is a Gallo-Roman site in the modern commune of Vertault in the Côte-d'Or department of eastern France. It has been extensively excavated over the past century. Many of the objects found at the site are held in the nearby Musée du Pays Châtillonnais.
The Agris Helmet is a ceremonial Celtic helmet from c. 350 BC that was found in a cave near Agris, Charente, France, in 1981. It is a masterpiece of Celtic art, and would probably have been used for display rather than worn in battle. The helmet consists of an iron cap completely covered with bands of bronze. The bronze is in turn covered with unusually pure gold leaf, with embedded coral decorations attached using silver rivets. One of the cheek guards was also found and has similar materials and designs. The helmet is mostly decorated in early Celtic patterns but there are later Celtic motifs and signs of Etruscan or Greek influence. The quality of the gold indicates that the helmet may well have been made locally in the Atlantic region.
The Lapidary Museum is a lapidarium-museum in Avignon, France. It has housed the classical Greek, Etruscan, Roman and Gallo-Roman sculptures and objects of the Calvet Museum since the 1980s. They are both run by the Fondation Calvet. As well as exhibiting the museum's core collections, it also mounts summer temporary exhibitions, conferences and networking events, particularly for scholars.