Martinus Jacob van Doorn (2 June 1905, Padang – 17 May 1940, Uccle) was a Dutch painter and graphic artist in the Expressionist style.
He was born in Indonesia. His family returned to the Netherlands when he was eight and settled in The Hague, where he attended the Hogere Burgerschool. During this time, he displayed his artistic abilities by making woodcuts of animals.In 1924, he began his studies at the Royal Academy of Art, graduating in 1928. He lived in Oegstgeest for a year, then moved to Rotterdam, where he met and married the pianist, Annie Vermeulen, known as "Akkie".
He was influenced by the works of Marc Chagall and Franz Marc, experimenting with form and color, which he considered to be the primary conveyor of sentiment and feeling.For his subjects, he began with animals, Biblical scenes and peasants; later moving to vagabonds, circus performers and other people on the fringe of society. In his last paintings, death is a recurrent theme.
In 1931, he was commissioned to provide the sets for La Boîte à Joujoux, a ballet by Claude Debussy.His first major exhibition came at the Stedelijk Museum in 1933. He was unable to earn a steady income entirely from his paintings, however, so he also worked as an illustrator; creating drawings for the works of J. Slauerhoff, Albert Helman, Antoon Coolen and Martinus Nijhoff, among others.
That same year, he moved to Achterhoek, near the German border, and began to be depressed about the political situation. He could see that he would not be allowed to paint as he pleased under the Nazis. In 1938, as German troops made threatening maneuvers, he moved to Belgium. This was to no avail, however. In 1940, when the German army occupied Brussels, he and Akkie committed suicide.
Henri Émile Benoît Matisse was a French visual artist, known for both his use of colour and his fluid and original draughtsmanship. He was a draughtsman, printmaker, and sculptor, but is known primarily as a painter. Matisse is commonly regarded, along with Pablo Picasso, as one of the artists who best helped to define the revolutionary developments in the visual arts throughout the opening decades of the twentieth century, responsible for significant developments in painting and sculpture.
André Derain was a French artist, painter, sculptor and co-founder of Fauvism with Henri Matisse.
Franz Moritz Wilhelm Marc was a German painter and printmaker, one of the key figures of German Expressionism. He was a founding member of Der Blaue Reiter, a journal whose name later became synonymous with the circle of artists collaborating in it.
Lucian Michael Freud was a British painter and draughtsman, specialising in figurative art, and is known as one of the foremost 20th-century English portraitists. He was born in Berlin, the son of Jewish architect Ernst L. Freud and the grandson of Sigmund Freud. Freud got his first name "Lucian" from his mother in memory of the ancient writer Lucian of Samosata. His family moved to England in 1933, when he was 10 years old, to escape the rise of Nazism. He became a British naturalized citizen in 1939. From 1942 to 1943 he attended Goldsmiths College, London. He served at sea with the British Merchant Navy during the Second World War.
Henri-Edmond Cross, born Henri-Edmond-Joseph Delacroix, was a French painter and printmaker. He is most acclaimed as a master of Neo-Impressionism and he played an important role in shaping the second phase of that movement. He was a significant influence on Henri Matisse and many other artists. His work was instrumental in the development of Fauvism.
Jean-Paul Riopelle, was a Canadian painter and sculptor from Quebec. He had one of the longest and most important international careers of the sixteen signatories of the Refus Global, the 1948 manifesto that announced the Quebecois artistic community's refusal of clericalism and provincialism. He is best known for his abstract painting style, in particular his "mosaic" works of the 1950s when he famously abandoned the paintbrush, using only a palette knife to apply paint to canvas, giving his works a distinctive sculptural quality. He became the first Canadian painter since James Wilson Morrice to attain widespread international recognition.
Christian Rohlfs was a German painter and printmaker, one of the important representatives of German expressionism.
August Robert Ludwig Macke was a German Expressionist painter. He was one of the leading members of the German Expressionist group Der Blaue Reiter. He lived during a particularly active time for German art: he saw the development of the main German Expressionist movements as well as the arrival of the successive avant-garde movements which were forming in the rest of Europe. As an artist of his time, Macke knew how to integrate into his painting the elements of the avant-garde which most interested him. Like his friend Franz Marc and Otto Soltau, he was one of the young German artists who died in the First World War.
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner was a German expressionist painter and printmaker and one of the founders of the artists group Die Brücke or "The Bridge", a key group leading to the foundation of Expressionism in 20th-century art. He volunteered for army service in the First World War, but soon suffered a breakdown and was discharged. His work was branded as "degenerate" by the Nazis in 1933, and in 1937 more than 600 of his works were sold or destroyed.
Erich Heckel was a German painter and printmaker, and a founding member of the group Die Brücke which existed 1905–1913. His work was part of the art competitions at the 1928 Summer Olympics and the 1932 Summer Olympics.
Johan Barthold Jongkind was a Dutch painter and printmaker. He painted marine landscapes in a free manner and is regarded as a forerunner of Impressionism.
Pál Szinyei Merse was a Hungarian painter and art educator.
The fame of Vincent van Gogh began to spread in France and Belgium during the last year of his life, and in the years after his death in the Netherlands and Germany. His friendship with his younger brother Theo was documented in numerous letters they exchanged from August 1872 onwards. The letters were published in three volumes in 1914 by Johanna van Gogh-Bonger, Theo's widow, who also generously supported most of the early Van Gogh exhibitions with loans from the artist's estate. Publication of the letters helped spread the compelling mystique of Vincent van Gogh, the intense and dedicated painter who died young, throughout Europe and the rest of the world.
Martinus Johannes "Tinus" de Jongh was one of South Africa's most popular painters.
Rudolf Koller was a Swiss painter. He is associated with a realist and classicist style, and also with the essentially romantic Düsseldorf school of painting. Koller's style is similar to that of the realist painters Gustave Courbet and Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot. Considered Switzerland's finest animal painter, Koller is rated alongside George Stubbs, Rosa Bonheur and Théodore Géricault. While his reputation was based on his paintings of animals, he was a sensitive and innovative artist whose well-composed works in the "plein air" tradition, including Swiss mountain landscapes, are just as finely executed.
Ferdinand Hart Nibbrig was a Dutch painter and Theosophist. He was one of the first artists who introduced luminism to the Netherlands. Hart was his mother's maiden name. He adopted it in 1884 when all of her brothers had died without issue. During his student years he was a renowned amateur racing cyclist.
Eliseu Meifrèn i Roig was a Spanish Impressionist painter.
Salomon Garf was a Dutch painter and graphic artist; known for his portraits and still lifes. He was murdered in the Holocaust.
Jens Birkholm was a Danish genre painter associated with the group known as the Funen Painters.
Wilhelm Morgner was a German Expressionist painter and graphic artist.