Tiny Ionospheric Photometer

Last updated

The tiny ionospheric photometer (TIP) is a small space-based photometer that observes the Earth's ionosphere [1] [2] at 135.6 nm. The TIP instruments were designed and built by the US Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and are a part of the COSMIC program.



Although each TIP instrument is fairly simple in design and operation, the value of this instrument is that six of them were launched at once, and they observe the Earth simultaneously from three orbital planes spaced equally apart around the Earth. The data of this instrument when combined with the data from the other COSMIC payloads allows a 3D tomographic analysis of the Earth's ionosphere to be performed.

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Space weather</span> Branch of space physics and aeronomy

Space weather is a branch of space physics and aeronomy, or heliophysics, concerned with the time varying conditions within the Solar System, including the solar wind, emphasizing the space surrounding the Earth, including conditions in the magnetosphere, ionosphere, thermosphere, and exosphere. Space weather is distinct from, but conceptually related to, the terrestrial weather of the atmosphere of Earth. The term "space weather" was first used in the 1950s and came into common usage in the 1990s. Later, it was generalized to a "space climate" research discipline, which focuses on general behaviors of longer and larger-scale variabilities and effects.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mars 96</span> Failed Mars mission

Mars 96 was a failed Mars mission launched in 1996 to investigate Mars by the Russian Space Forces and not directly related to the Soviet Mars probe program of the same name. After failure of the second fourth-stage burn, the probe assembly re-entered the Earth's atmosphere, breaking up over a 320 km (200 mi) long portion of the Pacific Ocean, Chile, and Bolivia. The Mars 96 spacecraft was based on the Phobos probes launched to Mars in 1988. They were of a new design at the time and both ultimately failed. For the Mars 96 mission the designers believed they had corrected the flaws of the Phobos probes, but the value of their improvements was never demonstrated due to the destruction of the probe during the launch phase.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Venera 11</span> 1978 Soviet uncrewed spacecraft which successfully landed on Venus

The Venera 11 was a Soviet uncrewed space mission which was part of the Venera program to explore the planet Venus. Venera 11 was launched on 9 September 1978 at 03:25:39 UTC.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Venera 12</span> 1978 Soviet uncrewed mission which successfully touched down on Venus

The Venera 12 was an uncrewed Soviet space mission designed to explore the planet Venus. Venera 12 was launched on 14 September 1978 at 02:25:13 UTC.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Venera 6</span> 1969 Soviet robotic lander on Venus

Venera 6, or 2V (V-69) No.331, was a Soviet spacecraft, launched towards Venus to obtain atmospheric data. It had an on-orbit dry mass of 1,130 kg (2,490 lb).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Explorer 6</span> NASA satellite of the Explorer program

Explorer 6, or S-2, was a NASA satellite, launched on 7 August 1959, at 14:24:20 GMT. It was a small, spheroidal satellite designed to study trapped radiation of various energies, galactic cosmic rays, geomagnetism, radio propagation in the upper atmosphere, and the flux of micrometeorites. It also tested a scanning device designed for photographing the Earth's cloud cover. On 14 August 1959, Explorer 6 took the first photos of Earth from a satellite.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Venera 5</span> Soviet space probe to Venus in 1969

Venera 5 was a space probe in the Soviet space program Venera for the exploration of Venus.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate</span>

Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) is a program designed to provide advances in meteorology, ionospheric research, climatology, and space weather by using GPS satellites in conjunction with low Earth orbiting (LEO) satellites. The term "COSMIC" may refer to either the organization itself or the constellation of 6 satellites. The constellation is a joint U.S.-Taiwanese project with major participants including the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), the National Science Foundation, the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), SRI International on the U.S. side and the National Space Organization (NSPO) on the Taiwanese side.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Canadian Geospace Monitoring</span>

Canadian Geospace Monitoring (CGSM) is a Canadian space science program that was initiated in 2005. CGSM is funded primarily by the Canadian Space Agency, and consists of networks of imagers, meridian scanning photometers, riometers, magnetometers, digital ionosondes, and High Frequency SuperDARN radars. The overarching objective of CGSM is to provide synoptic observations of the spatio-temporal evolution of the ionospheric thermodynamics and electrodynamics at auroral and polar latitudes over a large region of Canada.

<i>Polar</i> (satellite) NASA science spacecraft which studied the polar magnetosphere until 2008

The Global Geospace Science (GGS) Polar satellite was a NASA science spacecraft designed to study the polar magnetosphere and aurorae. It was launched into orbit in February 1996, and continued operations until the program was terminated in April 2008. The spacecraft remains in orbit, though it is now inactive. Polar is the sister ship to GGS Wind.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">C/NOFS</span>

C/NOFS, or Communications/Navigation Outage Forecasting System was a USAF satellite developed by the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Space Vehicles Directorate to investigate and forecast scintillations in the Earth's ionosphere. It was launched by an Orbital Sciences Corporation Pegasus-XL launch vehicle at 17:02:48 UTC on 16 April 2008 and decayed on 28 November 2015.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Injun (satellite)</span>

The Injun program was a series of six satellites designed and built by researchers at the University of Iowa to observe various radiation and magnetic phenomena in the ionosphere and beyond.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ariel 2</span>

Ariel 2, also known as UK-C, was a British radio astronomy satellite, which was operated by the Science and Engineering Research Council as part of the Ariel programme. It was built in America by Westinghouse Electric, and had a mass at launch of 68 kilograms (150 lb). It was launched in 1964, and became the first satellite to be used for radio astronomy, although the Canadian satellite Alouette 1 was launched 1962 and also did similar radio astronomy observations.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Euclid (spacecraft)</span> European visible and near-infrared space observatory

Euclid is a spacecraft carrying a wide-angle space telescope with a 600-megapixel camera to record visible light and a near-infrared spectrometer and photometer to determine the redshift of the detected galaxies. It was developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Euclid Consortium and was launched on 1 July 2023. After approximately one month, it will reach its destination, a Lissajous orbit around the Lagrange point L2, at an average distance of 1.5 million kilometers beyond Earth's orbit, where centrifugal and gravitational forces are such that objects move in tandem with the Earth around the Sun. The telescope is expected to remain operational for at least six years.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ionospheric Connection Explorer</span> NASA satellite of the Explorer program

Ionospheric Connection Explorer (ICON) is a satellite designed to investigate changes in the ionosphere of Earth, the dynamic region high in our atmosphere where terrestrial weather from below meets space weather from above. ICON studies the interaction between Earth's weather systems and space weather driven by the Sun, and how this interaction drives turbulence in the upper atmosphere. It is hoped that a better understanding of this dynamic will mitigate its effects on communications, GPS signals, and technology in general. It is part of NASA's Explorer program and is operated by University of California, Berkeley's Space Sciences Laboratory.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Student Nitric Oxide Explorer</span> NASA satellite of the Explorer program

Student Nitric Oxide Explorer, was a NASA small scientific satellite which studied the concentration of nitric oxide in the thermosphere. It was launched in 1998 as part of NASA's Explorer program. The satellite was the first of three missions developed within the Student Explorer Demonstration Initiative (STEDI) program funded by the NASA and managed by the Universities Space Research Association (USRA). STEDI was a pilot program to demonstrate that high-quality space science can be carried out with small, low-cost free-flying satellites on a time scale of two years from go-ahead to launch. The satellite was developed by the University of Colorado Boulder's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) and had met its goals by the time its mission ended with reentry in December 2003.

TARANIS was an observation satellite of the French Space Agency (CNES) which would have studied the transient events produced in the Earth's atmospheric layer between 10 km (6.2 mi) and 100 km (62 mi) altitude. TARANIS was launched in November 2020 with SEOSat-Ingenio aboard Vega flight VV17 and would have been placed in a sun-synchronous orbit at an altitude of 676 km, for a mission duration of two to four years, but the rocket failed shortly after launch.

CSES , or Zhangheng, is a Chinese–Italian space mission dedicated to monitoring electromagnetic field and waves, plasma parameters and particle fluxes induced by natural sources and artificial emitters in the near-Earth space. Austria contributes to one of the magnetometers.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Explorer 20</span> NASA satellite of the Explorer program

Explorer 20, also known Ionosphere Explorer-A, IE-A, S-48, TOPSI and Topside Explorer, was a NASA satellite launched as part of Explorer program. Its purpose was two-fold: long-term investigation of the ionosphere from above, and in situ investigation of ion concentrations and temperatures.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Dynamics Explorer 1</span> NASA satellite of the Explorer program

Dynamics Explorer 1 was a NASA high-altitude mission, launched on 3 August 1981, and terminated on 28 February 1991. It consisted of two satellites, DE-1 and DE-2, whose purpose was to investigate the interactions between plasmas in the magnetosphere and those in the ionosphere. The two satellites were launched together into polar coplanar orbits, which allowed them to simultaneously observe the upper and lower parts of the atmosphere.


  1. "COSMIC - Radio Occultation" . Retrieved 25 February 2016.
  2. "CDAAC: COSMIC Data Analysis and Archive Center - Data Status" . Retrieved 25 February 2016.