Tipu Sultan

Last updated

Tipu Sultan
Badshah
Nasib ad-Dawlah
Mir Fateh Ali Bahadur
TipuSultanPic.jpg
Sultan of Mysore
Reign10 December 1782 – 5 May 1799
Coronation 29 December 1782
Predecessor Hyder Ali
Successor Krishnaraja Wodeyar III
Born(1750-11-20)20 November 1750 [1]
Devanahalli, present-day Bangalore, Karnataka
Died4 May 1799(1799-05-04) (aged 48) [1]
Srirangapatna, present-day Mandya, Karnataka
Burial
Full name
Badshah Nasibuddaulah Sultan Mir Fateh Ali Bahadur Sahab
House Mysore
Father Hyder Ali
MotherFatima Fakhr-un-Nisa
Religion Islam

Tipu Sultan (born Sultan Fateh Ali Sahab Tipu, [2] 20 November 1750 – 4 May 1799), also known as the Tipu Sahab or Tiger of Mysore [3] was a ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore and India's first freedom fighter. He was the eldest son of Sultan Hyder Ali of Mysore. [4] Tipu Sultan introduced a number of administrative innovations during his rule, [5] including his coinage, a new Mauludi lunisolar calendar, [6] and a new land revenue system which initiated the growth of the Mysore silk industry. [7] He expanded the iron-cased Mysorean rockets and commissioned the military manual Fathul Mujahidin , and is considered a pioneer in the use of rocket artillery. [8] He deployed the rockets against advances of British forces and their allies during the Anglo-Mysore Wars, including the Battle of Pollilur and Siege of Seringapatam. He also embarked on an ambitious economic development program that established Mysore as a major economic power, with some of the world's highest real wages and living standards in the late 18th century. [9]

Sultan noble title with several historical meanings

Sultan is a position with several historical meanings. Originally, it was an Arabic abstract noun meaning "strength", "authority", "rulership", derived from the verbal noun سلطة sulṭah, meaning "authority" or "power". Later, it came to be used as the title of certain rulers who claimed almost full sovereignty in practical terms, albeit without claiming the overall caliphate, or to refer to a powerful governor of a province within the caliphate. The adjective form of the word is "sultanic", and the dynasty and lands ruled by a sultan are referred to as a sultanate.

Kingdom of Mysore historic state in India

The Kingdom of Mysore was a kingdom in southern India, traditionally believed to have been founded in 1399 in the vicinity of the modern city of Mysore. The kingdom, which was ruled by the Wodeyar family, initially served as a vassal state of the Vijayanagara Empire. With the decline of the Vijayanagara Empire, the kingdom became independent. The 17th century saw a steady expansion of its territory and during the rule of Narasaraja Wodeyar I and Chikka Devaraja Wodeyar, the kingdom annexed large expanses of what is now southern Karnataka and parts of Tamil Nadu to become a powerful state in the southern Deccan.

India Country in South Asia

India, also known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the northeast; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia.

Contents

Napoleon Bonaparte, the French commander-in-chief, sought an alliance with Tipu Sultan. Both Tipu Sultan and his father used their French-trained army [10] in alliance with the French in their struggle with the British, and in Mysore's struggles with other surrounding powers, against the Marathas, Sira, and rulers of Malabar, Kodagu, Bednore, Carnatic, and Travancore. Napoleon learned a lot about Quran and Islam from Tipu Sultan. [11] [12] [13] Tipu's father, Hyder Ali, rose to power capturing Mysore, and Tipu succeeded him as ruler of Mysore upon his father's death in 1782. He won important victories against the British in the Second Anglo-Mysore War and negotiated the 1784 Treaty of Mangalore with them after his father died from cancer in December 1782 during the Second Anglo-Mysore War.

Napoleon 19th century French military leader and politician

Napoléon Bonaparte was a French statesman and military leader of Italian descent who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars. He was Emperor of the French as Napoleon I from 1804 until 1814 and again briefly in 1815 during the Hundred Days. Napoleon dominated European and global affairs for more than a decade while leading France against a series of coalitions in the Napoleonic Wars. He won most of these wars and the vast majority of his battles, building a large empire that ruled over much of continental Europe before its final collapse in 1815. He is considered one of the greatest commanders in history, and his wars and campaigns are studied at military schools worldwide. Napoleon's political and cultural legacy has endured as one of the most celebrated and controversial leaders in human history.

French First Republic republic governing France, 1792-1804

In the history of France, the First Republic, officially the French Republic, was founded on 22 September 1792 during the French Revolution. The First Republic lasted until the declaration of the First Empire in 1804 under Napoleon, although the form of the government changed several times. This period was characterized by the fall of the monarchy, the establishment of the National Convention and the Reign of Terror, the Thermidorian Reaction and the founding of the Directory, and, finally, the creation of the Consulate and Napoleon's rise to power.

Maratha Empire Indian imperial confederacy that existed from 1674 to 1818

The Maratha Empire or the Maratha Confederacy was an Indian power that dominated large portion of Indian subcontinent in the 18th century. The empire formally existed from 1674 with the coronation of Chhatrapati Shivaji and ended in 1818 with the defeat of Puppet Peshwa Bajirao 2 installed by Maratha nobles under Monarch Chhatrapati Pratapsingh. The Marathas are credited to a large extent for ending Mughal rule in India.

Tipu's conflicts with his neighbours included the Maratha–Mysore War which ended with the signing the Treaty of Gajendragad [14] The treaty required that Tipu Sultan pay 4.8 million rupees as a one time war cost to the Marathas, and an annual tribute of 1.2 million rupees in addition to returning all the territory captured by Hyder Ali. [15] [16]

The Maratha–Mysore Wars was a conflict in the 18th century India, between the Maratha Empire and the Kingdom of Mysore.

Hyder Ali Sultan and de facto ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore

Hyder Ali, Haidarālī was the Sultan and de facto ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore in southern India. Born as Sayyid wal Sharif Hyder Ali Khan, he distinguished himself militarily, eventually drawing the attention of Mysore's rulers. Rising to the post of Dalavayi (commander-in-chief) to Krishnaraja Wodeyar II, he came to dominate the titular monarch and the Mysore government. He became the de facto ruler of Mysore as Sarvadhikari by 1761. He offered strong resistance against the military advances of the British East India Company during the First and Second Anglo–Mysore Wars, and he was the innovator of military use of the iron-cased Mysorean rockets. He also significantly developed Mysore's economy.

Tipu remained an implacable enemy of the British East India Company, sparking conflict with his attack on British-allied Travancore in 1789. In the Third Anglo-Mysore War, he was forced into the Treaty of Seringapatam, losing a number of previously conquered territories, including Malabar and Mangalore. He sent emissaries to foreign states, including the Ottoman Empire, Afghanistan, and France, in an attempt to rally opposition to the British.

East India Company 16th through 19th-century British trading company

The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, Company Bahadur, or simply The Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company. It was formed to trade in the Indian Ocean region, initially with Mughal India and the East Indies, and later with Qing China. The company ended up seizing control over large parts of the Indian subcontinent, colonised parts of Southeast Asia, and colonised Hong Kong after a war with Qing China.

Battle of the Nedumkotta

The Battle of the Nedumkotta took place on 28 December 1789, and was a reason for the opening of hostilities in the Third Anglo-Mysore War. Forces of Tipu Sultan, the ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore, attacked the fortified line known as the Nedumkotta in Thrissur district that protected the Kingdom of Travancore. Travancore successfully defended their kingdom and defeated Mysore.

Third Anglo-Mysore War war

The Third Anglo–Mysore War (1790–1792) was a conflict in South India between the Kingdom of Mysore and the East India Company and its allies, including the Maratha Empire and the Nizam of Hyderabad. It was the third of four Anglo–Mysore Wars.

In the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War, the imperial forces of the British East India Company were supported by the Nizam of Hyderabad and Marathas. They defeated Tipu, and he was killed on 4 May 1799 while defending his fort of Srirangapatna.

Fourth Anglo-Mysore War war

The Fourth Anglo–Mysore War was a conflict in South India between the Kingdom of Mysore against the British East India Company and the Hyderabad Deccan in 1798–99.

Nizam of Hyderabad Historic monarch of the Hyderabad State

The Nizam of Hyderabad was a monarch of the Hyderabad State, now divided into Telangana state, Hyderabad-Karnataka region of Karnataka and Marathwada region of Maharashtra. Nizam, shortened from Nizam-ul-Mulk, meaning Administrator of the Realm, the title of the rulers of Hyderabad State, was the premier Prince of India, since 1724, belonging to the Asaf Jahi dynasty.

Siege of Seringapatam (1799) siege

The Siege of Seringapatam was the final confrontation of the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War between the British East India Company and the Kingdom of Mysore. The British, with the allied Nizam of Hyderabad and Maratha, achieved a decisive victory after breaching the walls of the fortress at Seringapatam and storming the citadel. Tipu Sultan, Mysore's ruler, was killed in the action. The British restored the Wodeyar dynasty to the throne after the victory, but retained indirect control of the kingdom. The leader of the British troops was Major General David Baird, who twenty years earlier had been held captive for 44 months and tortured by the Sultans for refusing to convert to Islam.

He was one of the few South Indian kings to provide stiff resistance to British imperialism, along with his father Hyder Ali. He is applauded as a ruler who fought against British colonialism. [17]

Tipu has been a controversial figure and criticized for his repression of Hindus and Christians. [18] [19] [20] Various sources describe the massacres, [21] [22] imprisonment, [23] [24] [25] forced conversion, [26] [27] [28] and circumcision [29] [30] of Hindus (Kodavas of Coorg and Nairs of Malabar) and Christians (Catholics of Mangalore) and the destruction of churches [31] and temples [32] which are cited as evidence for his religious intolerance. Other sources mention the appointment of Hindu officers in his administration [33] and his endowments to Hindu temples, [34] [35] [36] which are cited as evidence for his religious tolerance.

Early years

Childhood

Tippu's birthplace, Devanahalli. Tippu Birthplace.jpg
Tippu's birthplace, Devanahalli.
Tipu Sultan confronts his opponents during the Siege of Srirangapatna. Tipu Sultan, Indian warrior Emperor of Mysore.gif
Tipu Sultan confronts his opponents during the Siege of Srirangapatna.

Tipu Sultan was born on 20 November 1750 (Friday, 20th Dhu al-Hijjah, 1163 AH) at Devanahalli, [1] in present-day Bangalore Rural district, about 33 km (21 mi) north of Bangalore city. He was named "Tipu Sultan" after the saint Tipu Mastan Aulia of Arcot. Being illiterate, Hyder was very particular in giving his eldest son a prince's education and a very early exposure to military and political affairs. From the age of 17 Tipu was given independent charge of important diplomatic and military missions. He was his father's right arm in the wars from which Hyder emerged as the most powerful ruler of southern India.[ citation needed ]

Tipu's father, Hyder Ali, was a military officer in service to the Kingdom of Mysore who had become the de facto ruler of Mysore in 1761 while his mother Fatima Fakhr-un-Nisa was the daughter of Mir Muin-ud-Din, the governor of the fort of Kadapa. Hyder Ali appointed able teachers to give Tipu an early education in subjects like Urdu, Persian, Arabic, Kannada, Quran, Islamic jurisprudence, riding, shooting and fencing. [1]

Early military service

A flintlock blunderbuss, built for Tipu Sultan in Srirangapatna, 1793-94. Tipu Sultan used many Western craftsmen, and this gun reflects the most up-to-date technologies of the time. Flintlock Blunderbuss Tipoo Sahib Seringapatam 1793 1794.jpg
A flintlock blunderbuss, built for Tipu Sultan in Srirangapatna, 1793–94. Tipu Sultan used many Western craftsmen, and this gun reflects the most up-to-date technologies of the time.

Tipu Sultan was instructed in military tactics by French officers in the employment of his father. At age 15, he accompanied his father against the British in the First Mysore War in 1766. He commanded a corps of cavalry in the invasion of Carnatic in 1767 at age 16. He also distinguished himself in the First Anglo-Maratha War of 1775–1779. [38]

Alexander Beatson, who published a volume on the Fourth Mysore War entitled View of the Origin and Conduct of the War with Tippoo Sultaun, described Tipu Sultan as follows: "His stature was about five feet eight inches; he had a short neck, square shoulders, and was rather corpulent: his limbs were small, particularly his feet and hands; he had large full eyes, small arched eyebrows, and an aquiline nose; his complexion was fair, and the general expression of his countenance, not void of dignity". [39] School and college textbooks in India officially recognize him as the first "freedom-fighter" along with many other rulers of the 18th century who fought European powers. [40]

Second Anglo-Mysore War

In 1779, the British captured the French-controlled port of Mahé, which Tipu had placed under his protection, providing some troops for its defence. In response, Hyder launched an invasion of the Carnatic, with the aim of driving the British out of Madras. [41] During this campaign in September 1780, Tipu Sultan was dispatched by Hyder Ali with 10,000 men and 18 guns to intercept Colonel Baillie who was on his way to join Sir Hector Munro. In the Battle of Pollilur, Tipu decisively defeated Baillie. Out of 360 Europeans, about 200 were captured alive, and the sepoys, who were about 3800 men, suffered very high casualties. Munro was moving south with a separate force to join Baillie, but on hearing the news of the defeat he was forced to retreat to Madras, abandoning his artillery in a water tank at Kanchipuram. [42]

Mural of the Battle of Pollilur on the walls of Tipu's summer palace, painted to celebrate his triumph over the British Battle of pollilur.jpg
Mural of the Battle of Pollilur on the walls of Tipu's summer palace, painted to celebrate his triumph over the British

Tipu Sultan defeated Colonel Braithwaite at Annagudi near Tanjore on 18 February 1782. Braithwaite's forces, consisting of 100 Europeans, 300 cavalry, 1400 sepoys and 10 field pieces, was the standard size of the colonial armies. Tipu Sultan seized all the guns and took the entire detachment prisoner. In December 1781 Tipu Sultan successfully seized Chittur from the British. Tipu Sultan had thus gained sufficient military experience by the time Hyder Ali died on Friday, 6 December 1782 – some historians put it at 2 or 3 days later or before, (Hijri date being 1 Muharram, 1197 as per some records in Persian – there may be a difference of 1 to 3 days due to the Lunar Calendar). Tipu Sultan realised that the British were a new kind of threat in India. He became the ruler of Mysore on Sunday, 22 December 1782 (The inscriptions in some of Tipu's regalia showing it as 20 Muharram, 1197 Hijri  – Sunday), in a simple coronation ceremony. He then worked on to check the advances of the British by making alliances with the Marathas and the Mughals. The Second Mysore War came to an end with the 1784 Treaty of Mangalore.[ citation needed ]

Ruler of the Mysore

Flag of Mysore during the reign of Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan. Flag of Mysore Hyder Ali & TipuSultan.jpg
Flag of Mysore during the reign of Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan.
Tipu Sultan seated on his throne, by Anna Tonneli Tipu Sultan seated on his throne.jpg
Tipu Sultan seated on his throne, by Anna Tonneli

In 1780, Tipu crowned himself Badshah or Emperor of Mysore, and struck coinage.

Tipu Sultan's summer palace at Srirangapatna, Karnataka Daria-daulat-bagh.jpg
Tipu Sultan's summer palace at Srirangapatna, Karnataka

Conflicts with Maratha Confederacy

The Maratha Empire, under its new Peshwa Madhavrao I, regained most of Indian subcontinent, twice defeating Tipu's father, who was forced to accept Maratha Empire as the supreme power in 1764 and then in 1767. In 1767 Maratha Peshwa Madhavrao defeated both Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan and entered Srirangapatna, the capital of Mysore. Hyder Ali accepted the authority of Madhavrao who gave him the title of Nawab of Mysore. [43]

However Tipu Sultan wanted to escape from the treaty of Marathas and therefore tried to take some Maratha forts in Southern India, which were captured by Marathas in the previous war.[ citation needed ] Tipu also stopped the tribute to Marathas which was promised by Hyder Ali.[ citation needed ] This brought Tipu in direct conflict with the Marathas, leading to Maratha–Mysore War

Conflicts between Mysore (under Tipu) and Marathas:

Conflict ended with Treaty of Gajendragad in March 1787, as per which Tipu returned all the territory captured by Hyder Ali to Maratha Empire. [44] [45] Tipu agreed to pay four year arrears of tribute which his father Hyder Ali had agreed to pay to Maratha Empire (4.8 million rupees), The Marathas agreed to address Tipu sultan as "Nabob Tipu Sultan Futteh Ally Khan". [46]

The Invasion of Travancore by Sultanate of Mysore (1766–1790)

Tipu Sultan at the lines of Travancore. Tippoo Sahib at the lines of Travancore in the 1850s.jpg
Tipu Sultan at the lines of Travancore.

In 1766, when Tipu Sultan was just 15 years old, he got the chance to apply his military training in battle for the first time, when he accompanied his father on an invasion of Malabar. After the incident- Siege of Tellicherry in Thalassery in North Malabar, [47] Hyder Ali started losing his territories in Malabar. Tipu came from Mysore to reinstate the authority over Malabar. After the Battle of the Nedumkotta (1789–90), due to the monsoon flood, the stiff resistance of the Travancore forces and news about the attack of British in Srirangapatnam he went back. [48] [49]

Third Anglo-Mysore War

Cannon used by Tipu Sultan's forces at the battle of Srirangapatna 1799 Tippu's cannon.jpg
Cannon used by Tipu Sultan's forces at the battle of Srirangapatna 1799
Very small Cannon used by Tipu Sultan's forces now in Government Museum (Egmore), Chennai Tipu Sultan's cannon.jpg
Very small Cannon used by Tipu Sultan's forces now in Government Museum (Egmore), Chennai

In 1789, Tipu Sultan disputed the acquisition by Dharma Raja of Travancore of two Dutch-held fortresses in Cochin. In December 1789 he massed troops at Coimbatore, and on 28 December made an attack on the lines of Travancore, knowing that Travancore was (according to the Treaty of Mangalore) an ally of the British East India Company.[ citation needed ] On account of the staunch resistance by the Travancore army, Tipu was unable to break through the Tranvancore lines and the Maharajah of Travancore appealed to the East India Company for help. In response, Lord Cornwallis mobilised company and British military forces, and formed alliances with the Marathas and the Nizam of Hyderabad to oppose Tipu. In 1790 the company forces advanced, taking control of much of the Coimbatore district.[ citation needed ] Tipu counter-attacked, regaining much of the territory, although the British continued to hold Coimbatore itself. He then descended into the Carnatic, eventually reaching Pondicherry, where he attempted without success to draw the French into the conflict.[ citation needed ]

General Lord Cornwallis, receiving two of Tipu Sultan's sons as hostages in the year 1793. Surrender of Tipu Sultan.jpg
General Lord Cornwallis, receiving two of Tipu Sultan's sons as hostages in the year 1793.

In 1791 his opponents advanced on all fronts, with the main British force under Cornwallis taking Bangalore and threatening Srirangapatna. Tipu harassed the British supply and communication and embarked on a "scorched earth" policy of denying local resources to the invaders.[ citation needed ] In this last effort he was successful, as the lack of provisions forced Cornwallis to withdraw to Bangalore rather than attempt a siege of Srirangapatna. Following the withdrawal, Tipu sent forces to Coimbatore, which they retook after a lengthy siege.[ citation needed ]

The 1792 campaign was a failure for Tipu. The allied army was well-supplied, and Tipu was unable to prevent the junction of forces from Bangalore and Bombay before Srirangapatna.[ citation needed ] After about two weeks of siege, Tipu opened negotiations for terms of surrender. In the ensuing treaty, he was forced to cede half his territories to the allies, [38] and deliver two of his sons as hostages until he paid in full three crores and thirty lakhs rupees fixed as war indemnity to the British for the campaign against him. He paid the amount in two instalments and got back his sons from Madras.[ citation needed ]

Napoleon's attempt at a junction

Louis XVI receives the ambassadors of Tipu Sultan in 1788. Tipu Sultan is known to have sent many diplomatic missions to France, the Ottoman Empire, Sultanate of Oman, Zand Dynasty and Durrani Empire. Louis XVI Receives the Ambassadors of Tipu Sultan 1788 Voyer after Emile Wattier 19th century.jpg
Louis XVI receives the ambassadors of Tipu Sultan in 1788. Tipu Sultan is known to have sent many diplomatic missions to France, the Ottoman Empire, Sultanate of Oman, Zand Dynasty and Durrani Empire.

In 1794, with the support of French Republican officers, Tipu helped found the Jacobin Club of Mysore for 'framing laws comfortable with the laws of the Republic'. He planted a Liberty Tree and declared himself Citizen Tipoo. [51]

One of the motivations of Napoleon's Invasion of Egypt was to establish a junction with India against the British. Bonaparte wished to establish a French presence in the Middle East, with the ultimate dream of linking with Tippoo Sahib. [52] Napoleon assured the French Directory that "as soon as he had conquered Egypt, he will establish relations with the Indian princes and, together with them, attack the English in their possessions." [53] According to a 13 February 1798 report by Talleyrand: "Having occupied and fortified Egypt, we shall send a force of 15,000 men from Suez to India, to join the forces of Tipu-Sahib and drive away the English." [53] Napoleon was unsuccessful in this strategy, losing the Siege of Acre in 1799 and at the Battle of Abukir in 1801. [54]

Death

Fourth Anglo-Mysore War

The Last Effort and Fall of Tipu Sultan by Henry Singleton, c. 1800 Tipu death.jpg
The Last Effort and Fall of Tipu Sultan by Henry Singleton, c. 1800
The spot in Srirangapatana where Tipu's body was found Tipu Sultan, Death Place.jpg
The spot in Srirangapatana where Tipu's body was found

Horatio Nelson defeated François-Paul Brueys D'Aigalliers at the Battle of the Nile in Egypt in 1798. Three armies marched into Mysore in 1799—one from Bombay and two British, one of which included Arthur Wellesley.[ citation needed ] They besieged the capital Srirangapatna in the Fourth Mysore War. [55] There were more than 26,000 soldiers of the British East India Company, approximately 4,000 Europeans and the rest Indians. A column was supplied by the Nizam of Hyderabad consisting of ten battalions and more than 16,000 cavalry. Thus, the soldiers in the British force numbered more than 50,000, whereas Tipu Sultan had only about 30,000.[ citation needed ]

The British broke through the city walls, and French military advisers told Tipu Sultan[ citation needed ] to escape via secret passages, but he replied, "Better to live one day as a tiger than a thousand years as a sheep". [56] Tipu Sultan died defending his capital on 4 May.[ citation needed ]

Tipu Sultan was killed at the Hoally (Diddy) Gateway, which was located 300 yards (270 m) from the N.E. Angle of the Srirangapatna Fort. [57] He was buried the next afternoon at the Gumaz, next to the grave of his father. Many members of the British East India Company believed that Nawab of Carnatic Umdat Ul-Umra secretly provided assistance to Tipu Sultan during the war and sought his deposition after 1799.[ citation needed ]

Administration

Tipu introduced a new calendar, new coinage, and seven new government departments, during his reign, and made military innovations in the use of rocketry.

Mysorean rockets

Tipu Sultan organised his Rocket artillery brigades known as Cushoons, Tipu Sultan expanded the number of servicemen in the various Cushoons from 1500 to almost 5000. The Mysorean rockets utilised by Tipu Sultan, were later updated by the British and successively employed during the Napoleonic Wars. Congreve rockets.gif
Tipu Sultan organised his Rocket artillery brigades known as Cushoons, Tipu Sultan expanded the number of servicemen in the various Cushoons from 1500 to almost 5000. The Mysorean rockets utilised by Tipu Sultan, were later updated by the British and successively employed during the Napoleonic Wars.

[ citation needed ]

Dr APJ Abdul Kalam, the former President of India, in his Tipu Sultan Shaheed Memorial Lecture in Bangalore (30 November 1991), called Tipu Sultan the innovator of the world's first war rocket. Two of these rockets, captured by the British at Srirangapatna, were displayed in the Royal Artillery Museum in London. According to historian Dr Dulari Qureshi Tipu Sultan was a fierce warrior king and was so quick in his movement that it seemed to the enemy that he was fighting on many fronts at the same time. [58] Tipu managed to subdue all the petty kingdoms in the south. He was also one of the few Indian rulers to have defeated British armies. He is said to have started a new coinage, calendar, and a new system of weights and measures mainly based on the methods introduced by French technicians.[ citation needed ]

Tipu Sultan's father had expanded on Mysore's use of rocketry, making critical innovations in the rockets themselves and the military logistics of their use.[ citation needed ] He deployed as many as 1,200 specialised troops in his army to operate rocket launchers. These men were skilled in operating the weapons and were trained to launch their rockets at an angle calculated from the diameter of the cylinder and the distance to the target. The rockets had twin side sharpened blades mounted on them, and when fired en masse, spun and wreaked significant damage against a large army. Tipu greatly expanded the use of rockets after Hyder's death, deploying as many as 5,000 rocketeers at a time.[ citation needed ] The rockets deployed by Tipu during the Battle of Pollilur were much more advanced than those the British East India Company had previously seen, chiefly because of the use of iron tubes for holding the propellant; this enabled higher thrust and longer range for the missiles (up to 2 km range). [8]

British accounts describe the use of the rockets during the third and fourth wars.[ citation needed ] During the climactic battle at Srirangapatna in 1799, British shells struck a magazine containing rockets, causing it to explode and send a towering cloud of black smoke with cascades of exploding white light rising up from the battlements. After Tipu's defeat in the fourth war the British captured a number of the Mysorean rockets. These became influential in British rocket development, inspiring the Congreve rocket, which was soon put into use in the Napoleonic Wars. [8]

In 1786 Tipu Sultan, again following the lead of his father, decided to build a navy consisting of 20 battleships of 72 cannons and 20 frigates of 62 cannons. In the year 1790 he appointed Kamaluddin as his Mir Bahar and established massive dockyards at Jamalabad and Majidabad. Tipu Sultan's board of admiralty consisted of 11 commanders in service of a Mir Yam. A Mir Yam led 30 admirals and each one of them had two ships. Tipu Sultan ordered that the ships have copper-bottoms, an idea that increased the longevity of the ships and was introduced to Tipu by Admiral Suffren. [59]

Economy

The peak of Mysore's economic power was under Tipu Sultan in the late 18th century. Along with his father Hyder Ali, he embarked on an ambitious program of economic development, aiming increase the wealth and revenue of Mysore. [60] Under his reign, Mysore overtook Bengal Subah as India's dominant economic power, with highly productive agriculture and textile manufacturing. [9] Mysore's average income was five times higher than subsistence level at the time. [61]

The Mysore silk industry was first initiated during the reign of Tipu Sultan. He sent an expert to Bengal Subah to study silk cultivation and processing, after which Mysore began developing polyvoltine silk. [62]

Under Tipu Sultan, Mysore had some of the world's highest real wages and living standards in the late 18th century, higher than Britain, which in turn had the highest living standards in Europe. [9] Mysore's average per-capita income was five times higher than subsistence level, [63] i.e. five times higher than $400 (1990 international dollars), [64] or $2,000 per capita. In comparison, the highest national per-capita incomes in 1820 were $1,838 for the Netherlands and $1,706 for Britain. [65]

Religious policy

On a personal level, Tipu was a devout Muslim, saying his prayers daily and paying special attention to mosques in the area. [66] As a Muslim ruler of a predominantly Hindu country, some of his policies have evoked controversy. The mainstream view considers Tipu's administration to have been tolerant. [67] [68] [67] Regular endowments were made during this period to about 156 Hindu temples, [69] including the famed Ranganathaswami Temple at Srirangapatna. [68]

His religious legacy has become a source of considerable controversy in India, with some groups proclaiming him a great warrior for the faith or Ghazi, while others revile him as a bigot who massacred Hindus, [70] [71] Christians. [72] [73]

He clamped down on several communities such as the Hindus of Coorg, the Christians of Mangalore, the Nayars of Malabar, the Mappila Muslims of Malabar, the Mahadevi Muslims, and the Muslim Nawab of Savanur and people of Nizams kingdom for both religious and political reasons. [68]

British accounts

Historians such as Brittlebank, Hasan, Chetty, Habib, and Saletare, amongst others, argue that controversial stories of Tipu Sultan's religious persecution of Hindus and Christians are largely derived from the work of early British authors (who were very much against Tipu Sultan's independence and harboured prejudice against the Sultan) such as Kirkpatrick [74] and Mark Wilks, [75] whom they do not consider to be entirely reliable and likely fabricated. [76] A. S. Chetty argues that Wilks' account in particular cannot be trusted. [77]

Irfan Habib and Mohibbul Hasan argue that these early British authors had a strong vested interest in presenting Tipu Sultan as a tyrant from whom the British had liberated Mysore. [76] This assessment is echoed by Brittlebank in her recent work where she writes that Wilks and Kirkpatrick must be used with particular care as both authors had taken part in the wars against Tipu Sultan and were closely connected to the administrations of Lord Cornwallis and Richard Wellesley, 1st Marquess Wellesley. [78]

However, such arguments are dubious because even contemporary French sources mentions about cruelties of Tippu Sultan. The French were allies of Tipu Sultan. Francois Fidele Ripaud de Montaudevert, a French soldier who fought for Tippu, in his diary entry of January 14, 1799 writes: "I'm disturbed by Tipu Sultan's treatment of these most gentle souls, the Hindus. During the siege of Mangalore, Tipu's soldiers daily exposed the heads of many innocent Brahmins within sight from the fort for the Zamorin and his Hindu followers to see." [79]

Foreign relations

Mughal Empire

Both Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan owed nominal allegiance to the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II; both were described as Nabobs by the British East India Company in all existing treaties. But unlike the Nawab of Carnatic, they did not acknowledge the overlordship of the Nizam of Hyderabad. [80]

Immediately after his coronation as Badshah, Tipu Sultan sought the investiture of the Mughal emperor. He earned the title "Nasib-ud-Daula" with the heavy heart of those loyal to Shah Alam II. Tipu was a selfdeclared "Sultan" this fact drew towards him the hostility of Nizam Ali Khan, the Nizam of Hyderabad, whom clearly expressed his hostility by dissuading the Mughal emperor and laying claims on Mysore. Disheartened, Tipu Sultan began to establish contacts with other Muslim rulers of that period. [81]

Tipu Sultan was master of his own diplomacy with foreign nations, in his quest to rid India of the East India Company and to ensure the international strength of France. Like his father before him he fought battles on behalf of foreign nations which were not in the best interests of Shah Alam II.

After the eunuch Ghulam Qadir had Shah Alam II blinded on 10 August 1788, Tipu Sultan is believed to have broken into tears. [82]

Tipu Sultan's forces during the Siege of Srirangapatna. The storming of Seringapatam - John Vendramini, 1802 - BL P779.jpg
Tipu Sultan's forces during the Siege of Srirangapatna.

After the Fall of Seringapatam in 1799, the blind emperor did remorse for Tipu, but maintained his confidence in the Nizam of Hyderabad, whom had now made peace with the British.

Afghanistan

After facing substantial threats from the Marathas, Tipu Sultan began to correspond with Zaman Shah Durrani, the ruler of the Afghan Durrani Empire, so they could defeat the British and Marathas. [83] Initially, Zaman Shah agreed to help Tipu, but the Persian attack on Afghanistan's Western border diverted its forces, and hence no help could be provided to Tipu.

Ottoman Turkey

In 1787, Tipu Sultan sent an embassy to the Ottoman capital Constantinople, to the Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid I requesting urgent assistance against the British East India Company. Tipu Sultan requested the Ottoman Sultan to send him troops and military experts. Furthermore, Tipu Sultan also requested permission from the Ottomans to contribute to the maintenance of the Islamic shrines in Mecca, Medina, Najaf and Karbala.

However, the Ottomans were themselves in crisis and still recuperating from the devastating Austro-Ottoman War and a new conflict with the Russian Empire had begun, for which Ottoman Turkey needed British alliance to keep off the Russians, hence it could not risk being hostile to the British in the Indian theatre.

Due to the Ottoman inability to organise a fleet in the Indian Ocean, Tipu Sultan's ambassadors returned home only with gifts from their Ottoman foes.

Nevertheless, Tipu Sultan's correspondence with the Ottoman Turkish Empire and particularly its new Sultan Selim III continued till his final battle in the year 1799. [84]

Persia

Like his father before him, Tipu Sultan maintained friendly relations with Mohammad Ali Khan, ruler of the Zand Dynasty in Persia. Tipu Sultan also maintained correspondence with Hamad bin Said, the ruler of the Sultanate of Oman. [85]

France
In his attempts to junction with Tipu Sultan, Napoleon annexed Ottoman Egypt in the year 1798. Louis-Francois Baron Lejeune 001.jpg
In his attempts to junction with Tipu Sultan, Napoleon annexed Ottoman Egypt in the year 1798.

Both Hyder Ali and Tipu sought an alliance with the French, the only European power still strong enough to challenge the British East India Company in the subcontinent. In 1782, Louis XVI concluded an alliance with the Peshwa Madhu Rao Narayan. This treaty enabled Bussy to move his troops to the Isle de France (now Mauritius). In the same year, French Admiral De Suffren ceremonially presented a portrait of Louis XVI to Haidar Ali and sought his alliance. [86]

Napoleon conquered Egypt in an attempt to link with Tipu Sultan.[ citation needed ] In February 1798, Napoleon wrote a letter to Tipu Sultan appreciating his efforts of resisting the British annexation and plans, but this letter never reached Tipu and was seized by a British spy in Muscat. The idea of a possible Tipu-Napoleon alliance alarmed the British Governor, General Sir Richard Wellesley (also known as Lord Wellesley), so much that he immediately started large scale preparations for a final battle against Tipu Sultan.

Relations with Muslims

During his campaigns of clamping down on groups that helped the British, Tipu Sultan targeted several Muslim groups, including the Mappila Muslims of Malabar, the Mahadevi Muslims, and the Nawab of Savanur and Nizam.

Relations with Hindus

Hindu officers

Tipu Sultan's treasurer was Krishna Rao, Shamaiya Iyengar was his Minister of Post and Police, his brother Ranga Iyengar was also an officer, and Purnaiya held the very important post of "Mir Asaf". Moolchand and Sujan Rai were his chief agents at the Mughal court, and his chief "Peshkar", Suba Rao, was also a Hindu. [87]

Regular endowments to 156 Hindu temples

Editor of Mysore Gazettes spondence between his court and temples, and his having donated jewellery and deeded land grants to several temples, which he was compelled to do to make alliances with Hindu rulers. Between 1782 and 1799 Tipu Sultan issued 34 "Sanads" (deeds) of endowment to temples in his domain, while also presenting many of them with gifts of silver and gold plate. The Srikanteswara Temple in Nanjangud still possesses a jeweled cup presented by the Sultan. [88] He also gave a greenish linga; to Ranganatha temple at Srirangapatna, he donated seven silver cups and a silver camphor burner. This temple was hardly a stone's throw from his palace from where he would listen with equal respect to the ringing of temple bells and the muezzin's call from the mosque; to the Lakshmikanta Temple at Kalale he gifted four cups, a plate and Spitoon in silver. [89] [90]

Sringeri incident, Maratha sacking, and rebuilding temple

During the Maratha–Mysore War in 1791, a group of Maratha horsemen under Raghunath Rao Patwardhan raided the temple and matha of Sringeri Shankaracharya . They killed and wounded many people, including Brahmins, plundered the monastery of all its valuable possessions, and desecrated the temple by displacing the image of goddess Sarada. [91]

The incumbent Shankaracharya petitioned Tipu Sultan for help. A bunch of about 30 letters written in Kannada, which were exchanged between Tipu Sultan's court and the Sringeri Shankaracharya were discovered in 1916 by the Director of Archaeology in Mysore. Tipu Sultan expressed his indignation and grief at the news of the raid: [91] [92]

"People who have sinned against such a holy place are sure to suffer the consequences of their misdeeds at no distant date in this Kali age in accordance with the verse: "Hasadbhih kriyate karma rudadbhir-anubhuyate" (People do [evil] deeds smilingly but suffer the consequences crying)." [93]

He immediately ordered the Asaf of Bednur to supply the Swami with 200 rahatis ( fanam s) in cash and other gifts and articles. Tipu Sultan's interest in the Sringeri temple continued for many years, and he was still writing to the Swami in the 1790s. [94]

Controversial figure

In light of this and other events, historian B. A. Saletare has described Tipu Sultan as a defender of the Hindu dharma, who also patronised other temples including one at Melkote, for which he issued a Kannada decree that the Shrivaishnava invocatory verses there should be recited in the traditional form.[ citation needed ] The temple at Melkote still has gold and silver vessels with inscriptions indicating that they were presented by the Sultan. Tipu Sultan also presented four silver cups to the Lakshmikanta Temple at Kalale. [95] Tipu Sultan does seem to have repossessed unauthorised grants of land made to Brahmins and temples, but those which had proper sanads (certificates) were not. It was a normal practice for any ruler, Muslim or Hindu, on his accession or on the conquest of new territory.

Noted for his persecution of Christians, historian Thomas Paul notes that Tipu had shifted his hatred for the British to Catholics of Mangalore and other Christian communities of South India. [96] According to historian Praxy Fernandes, Tipu Sultan was "an enlightened monarch who followed a secular policy towards his subjects." [67]

C. Hayavadana Rao wrote about Tipu in his encyclopaedic court history of Mysore. He asserted that Tipu's "religious fanaticism and the excesses committed in the name of religion, both in Mysore and in the provinces, stand condemned for all time. His bigotry, indeed, was so great that it precluded all ideas of toleration". He further asserts that the acts of Tipu that were constructive towards Hindus were largely political and ostentatious rather than an indication of genuine tolerance. [97]

Persecution of Lingayats

After Haider Ali led a coup, after being appointed the military chief of Hindu Wadiyar dynasty of Mysore, the Lingayats of Karnataka came under Islamic rule in the late 18th century. [98] During this period, the followers of Lingayatism were persecuted. A British source claimed that Tipu Sultan found the practice of Lingayat women of being topless, offensive and ordered the mutilation of breasts of a Lingayat woman, as a result, wearing of long garments came into use by Hindu women. [99]

Persecution of Hindus outside Mysore

Kodagu (Coorg)
A soldier from Tipu Sultan's army, using his rocket as a flagstaff. Indian soldier of Tipu Sultan's army.jpg
A soldier from Tipu Sultan's army, using his rocket as a flagstaff.

Tipu got Runmust Khan, the Nawab of Kurnool , to launch a surprise attack upon the Kodava Hindus who were besieged by the invading Muslim army. 500 were killed and over 40,000 Kodavas fled to the woods and concealed themselves in the mountains. [100] Thousands of Kodavas were seized along with the Raja and held captive at Seringapatam. They were thought to be subjected to forcible conversions to Islam, death, and torture. [101]

In Seringapatam, the young men were all forcibly circumcised and incorporated into the Ahmedy Corps, and were formed into eight Risalas or regiments. [100] The actual number of Kodavas that were captured in the operation is unclear. The British administrator Mark Wilks gives it as 70,000, historian Lewis Rice arrives at the figure of 85,000, while Mir Kirmani's score for the Coorg campaign is 80,000 men, women and child prisoners. [100]

Mohibbul Hasan, Prof. Sheikh Ali, and other historians cast great doubt on the scale of the deportations and forced conversions in Coorg in particular. Hassan says that it is difficult to estimate the real number of Coorgis captured by Tipu. [102]

In a letter to Runmust Khan, Tipu himself stated: [103]

We proceeded with the utmost speed, and, at once, made prisoners of 40,000 occasion-seeking and sedition-exciting Coorgis, who alarmed at the approach of our victorious army, had slunk into woods, and concealed themselves in lofty mountains, inaccessible even to birds. Then carrying them away from their native country (the native place of sedition) we raised them to the honour of Islam, and incorporated them into our Ahmedy corps.

[104]

Kasaragod (near Mangalore)

Tipu sent a letter on 19 January 1790 to the Governor of Bekal (near Kasaragod), Budruz Zuman Khan. It says:

"Don't you know I have achieved a great victory recently in Malabar and over four lakh Hindus were converted to Islam? I am determined to march against that cursed Raman Nair ( Rajah of Travancore) very soon. Since I am overjoyed at the prospect of converting him and his subjects to Islam, I have happily abandoned the idea of going back to Srirangapatanam now." [105]

Malabar
North Malabar

In 1788, Tipu entered into Malabar to quell a rebellion. Nairs were surrounded with offers of death or circumcision. Chirakkal's Nair Raja who was received with distinctions for surrendering voluntarily was later hanged. Tipu then divided Malabar into districts, with three officers in each district given the task of numbering productive trees, collecting revenue and giving religious orders to Nairs.

Calicut (Kozhikode)
The merchants of Calicut seized and chained to a barren rock, by the order of Tippoo Sahib Pictorialhistoci00sear 0503.jpg
The merchants of Calicut seized and chained to a barren rock, by the order of Tippoo Sahib

In 1788, Tipu ordered his governor in Calicut Sher Khan to begin the process of converting Hindus to Islam, and in July of that year, 200 Brahmins were forcibly converted. [106]

Destruction of the Palace at Vittala:

In 1784, Tippu Sultan captured Achutha Heggade, king of Vittala. He beheaded him and set fire to the ancient royal palace of the Domba- Heggade kings of Vittala. It was an ancient and sacred palace of the dyansty whose age goes back to the period when the first kings settled in that area. [107]

Inscriptions

On the handle of the sword presented by Tipu to Marquess Wellesley was the following inscription: [108]

My victorious sabre is lightning for the destruction of the unbelievers. Ali, the Emir of the Faithful, is victorious for my advantage, and moreover, he destroyed the wicked race who were unbelievers. Praise be to him (God), who is the Lord of the Worlds! Thou art our Lord, support us against the people who are unbelievers. He to whom the Lord giveth victory prevails over all (mankind). Oh Lord, make him victorious, who promoteth the faith of Muhammad. Confound him, who refuseth the faith of Muhammad; and withhold us from those who are so inclined from the true faith. The Lord is predominant over his own works. Victory and conquest are from the Almighty. Bring happy tidings, Oh Muhammad, to the faithful; for God is the kind protector and is the most merciful of the merciful. If God assists thee, thou will prosper. May the Lord God assist thee, Oh Muhammad, with a mighty great victory.

During a search of his palace in 1795, some gold medals were found in the palace, on which the following was inscribed on one side in Persian: "Of God the bestower of blessings", and the other: "victory and conquest are from the Almighty". These were carved in commemoration of a victory after the war of 1780. [109]

The following is a translation of an inscription on the stone found at Seringapatam, which was situated in a conspicuous place in the fort: [108]

"Oh Almighty God! dispose the whole body of Kafirs (infidels)! Scatter their tribe, cause their feet to stagger! Overthrow their councils, change their state, destroy their very root! Cause death to be near them, cut off from them the means of sustenance! Shorten their days! Be their bodies the constant object of their cares (i.e., infest them with diseases), deprive their eyes of sight, make black their faces (i.e., bring shame), destroy in them organs of speech! Slay them as slay them as Shedaud (i .e. the Prince who presumptuously aimed at establishing a paradise for himself and was slain by command of God); drown them as Pharaoh was drowned, and visit them with the severity of the wrath. Oh Avenger! Oh Universal Father ! I am depressed and overpowered, grant me thy assistance." [110]

The Mysore Gazetteer states that this inscription should have been engraved after the Cornwallis Treaty, stating it showed his inveterate rancour and determined hostility to the English. [109]

Persecution of Christians

The Jamalabad fort route. Mangalorean Catholics had travelled through this route on their way to Seringapatam JamalabadFortPassage.jpg
The Jamalabad fort route. Mangalorean Catholics had travelled through this route on their way to Seringapatam

Tipu is considered to be anti-Christian by several historians. [111] [112] [113] While Alan Machado in his book 'Slaves of Sultans', argues that by expelling Christian priests, Tipu was only following precedent set by European rivals. [114] [115] Historian J. B. Prashant More in his paper 'Tipu Sultan and the Christians' argues that Tipu's encounters and dealings with the Christians of both European and Indian origin were in accordance with the spirit of his times and also had a political dimension. [116] The captivity of Mangalorean Catholics at Seringapatam, which began on 24 February 1784 and ended on 4 May 1799, remains the most disconsolate memory in their history. [117]

The Barcoor Manuscript reports him as having said: "All Musalmans should unite together, and considering the annihilation of infidels as a sacred duty, labour to the utmost of their power, to accomplish that subject." [118] Soon after the Treaty of Mangalore in 1784, Tipu gained control of Canara. [119] He issued orders to seize the Christians in Canara, confiscate their estates, [120] and deport them to Seringapatam, the capital of his empire, through the Jamalabad fort route. [121] However, there were no priests among the captives. Together with Fr. Miranda, all the 21 arrested priests were issued orders of expulsion to Goa, fined Rupees 200,000, and threatened death by hanging if they ever returned. [118]

Tipu ordered the destruction of 27 Catholic churches. Among them included the Church of Nossa Senhora de Rosario Milagres at Mangalore, Fr Miranda's Seminary at Monte Mariano, Church of Jesu Marie Jose at Omzoor, Chapel at Bolar, Church of Merces at Ullal, Imaculata Conceicão at Mulki, San Jose at Perar, Nossa Senhora dos Remedios at Kirem, Sao Lawrence at Karkal, Rosario at Barkur, Immaculata Conceição at Baidnur. [118] All were razed to the ground, with the exception of The Church of Holy Cross at Hospet, owing to the friendly offices of the Chauta Raja of Moodbidri. [122]

According to Thomas Munro, a Scottish soldier and the first collector of Canara, around 60,000 people, [123] nearly 92 percent of the entire Mangalorean Catholic community, were captured; only 7,000 escaped. Francis Buchanan gives the numbers as 70,000 captured, from a population of 80,000, with 10,000 escaping. They were forced to climb nearly 4,000 feet (1,200 m) through the jungles of the Western Ghat mountain ranges. It was 210 miles (340 km) from Mangalore to Seringapatam, and the journey took six weeks. According to British Government records, 20,000 of them died on the march to Seringapatam. James Scurry, a British officer, who was held captive along with Mangalorean Catholics, said that 30,000 of them were forcibly converted to Islam. The young women and girls were forcibly made wives of the Muslims living there. [124] The young men who offered resistance were disfigured by cutting their noses, upper lips, and ears. [125] According to Mr. Silva of Gangolim, a survivor of the captivity, if a person who had escaped from Seringapatam was found, the punishment under the orders of Tipu was the cutting off of the ears, nose, the feet and one hand. [126] Gazetteer of South India describes Tipu Sultan forcibly circumcising 30,000 West Coast Christians and deporting them to Mysore. [127]

Tipu's persecution of Christians even extended to captured British soldiers. For instance, there were a significant number of forced conversions of British captives between 1780 and 1784. Following their disastrous defeat at the 1780 Battle of Pollilur, 7,000 British men along with an unknown number of women were held captive by Tipu in the fortress of Seringapatnam. Of these, over 300 were circumcised and given Muslim names and clothes and several British regimental drummer boys were made to wear ghagra cholis and entertain the court as nautch girls or dancing girls. After the 10-year-long captivity ended, James Scurry, one of those prisoners, recounted that he had forgotten how to sit in a chair and use a knife and fork. His English was broken and stilted, having lost all his vernacular idiom. His skin had darkened to the swarthy complexion of negroes, and moreover, he had developed an aversion to wearing European clothes. [128]

During the surrender of the Mangalore fort which was delivered in an armistice by the British and their subsequent withdrawal, all the Mestizos and remaining non-British foreigners were killed, together with 5,600 Mangalorean Catholics. Those condemned by Tipu Sultan for treachery were hanged instantly, the gibbets being weighed down by the number of bodies they carried. The Netravati River was so putrid with the stench of dying bodies, that the local residents were forced to leave their riverside homes. [118]

The Archbishop of Goa wrote in 1800, "It is notoriously known in all Asia and all other parts of the globe of the oppression and sufferings experienced by the Christians in the Dominion of the King of Kanara, during the usurpation of that country by Tipu Sultan from an implacable hatred he had against them who professed Christianity." [118]

The British officer James Scurry, who was detained a prisoner for 10 years by Tipu Sultan along with the Mangalorean Catholics James Scurry.jpg
The British officer James Scurry, who was detained a prisoner for 10 years by Tipu Sultan along with the Mangalorean Catholics

Tipu Sultan's invasion of the Malabar had an adverse impact on the Syrian Malabar Nasrani community of the Malabar coast. Many churches in the Malabar and Cochin were damaged. The old Syrian Nasrani seminary at Angamaly which had been the center of Catholic religious education for several centuries was razed to the ground by Tipu's soldiers. A lot of centuries old religious manuscripts were lost forever. The church was later relocated to Kottayam where it still exists to this date. The Mor Sabor church at Akaparambu and the Martha Mariam Church attached to the seminary were destroyed as well. Tipu's army set fire to the church at Palayoor and attacked the Ollur Church in 1790. Furthernmore, the Arthat church and the Ambazhakkad seminary was also destroyed. Over the course of this invasion, many Syrian Malabar Nasrani were killed or forcibly converted to Islam. Most of the coconut, arecanut, pepper and cashew plantations held by the Syrian Malabar farmers were also indiscriminately destroyed by the invading army. As a result, when Tipu's army invaded Guruvayur and adjacent areas, the Syrian Christian community fled Calicut and small towns like Arthat to new centres like Kunnamkulam, Chalakudi, Ennakadu, Cheppadu, Kannankode, Mavelikkara, etc. where there were already Christians. They were given refuge by Sakthan Tamburan, the ruler of Cochin and Karthika Thirunal, the ruler of Travancore, who gave them lands, plantations and encouraged their businesses. Colonel Macqulay, the British resident of Travancore also helped them. [129]

Treatment of prisoners

According to historian Professor Sheikh Ali, Tipu "took his stand on the bedrock of humanity, regarding all his subjects as equal citizen to live in peace, harmony and concord."[ citation needed ] However, during the storming of Srirangapatna by the British in 1799, thirteen murdered British prisoners were discovered, killed by either having their necks broken or nails driven into their skulls. [130]

The Coinage System

The coinage of Tipu Sultan is one of most complex and fascinating series struck in India during the 18th century. Local South India coinage had been struck in the area that became Mysore since ancient times, with the first gold coinage introduced about the 11th century (the elephant pagoda), and other pagodas continuing through the following centuries. These pagoda were always in the South Indian style until the reign of Haidar Ali (1761-1782), who added pagodas with Persian legends, plus a few very rare gold mohurs and silver rupees, always in the name of the Mughal emperor Shah Alam II plus the Arabic letter "ح" as the first letter of his name. His successor, Tipu Sultan, continued to issue pagoda s, mohurs and rupees, with legends that were completely new. As for copper, the new large paisa was commenced by Haidar Ali in AH1195, two years before his death, with the elephant on the obverse, the mint on the reverse, and was continued throughout the reign of Tipu Sultan, who added other denominations. Tipu Sultan introduced a set of new Persian names for the various denominations, which appear on all of the gold and silver coins and on some of the copper. They were:

Copper: Qutb "قطب" for the 1/8 paisa (Persian for the pole star) -- Akhtar "اختر" for the 1/4 paisa (star) -- Bahram "بهرام" for the 1/2 paisa (the planet Mars) -- Zohra "زهره" for the paisa (the planet Venus) -- either Othmani "عثمانی" for the double-paisa (the third caliph of the Rashidun) or Mushtari "مشتری" (the planet Jupiter).

Silver: Khizri "خضری" for the 1/32 rupee (Khizr the prophet) -- Kazimi "کاظمی" for the 1/16 rupee (for Musa, the seventh Shi'ite Imam) -- Ja'fari "جعفری" for the 1/8 rupee (Ja'far al-Sadiq, the sixth Shi'ite Imam) -- Bâqiri "باقری" for the 1/4 rupee (Muhammad al-Baqir, the fifth Imam) -- Abidi "عبیدی" for the 1/2 rupee (Ali Zain al-'Abidin, the fourth Imam) -- Imami for the rupee (reference to the 12 Shi'ite Imams) -- Haidari "حیدری" for the double-rupee (lion, for Ali b. Abi Talib, who was both the fourth caliph and the first Shi'ite Imam).

Gold: Faruqi "فاروقی" for the pagoda (Umar al-Faruq, the second caliph) -- Sadîqi "صدیقی" for the double-pagoda (Abu Bakr al-Sadiq, the first caliph) -- Ahmadi "احمدی" for the four-pagoda ( "most praised ", one of the name of the Prophet Muhammad). During his first 4 years, the large gold coin was the mohur, with an average weight of about 10.95g (AH1197-1200), replaced with the four-pagoda of 13.74g with the calendar change to the Mauludi "مولودی" system (AM1215-1219).

Coinage Dating System

The denomination does not appear on the Hijri dated gold coins, but was added on all the Mauludi dated pieces.

At the beginning of his first year, Tipu Sultan abandoned the Hijri dating system and introduced the Mauludi system (from the Arabic word "walad ", which means "birth "), based on the solar year and the birth year of the Prophet Muhammad (actually 571 AD, but for some perplexing reason reckoned as 572 by Tipu Sultan for his staff).

From the beginning of his reign, Tipu Sultan added the name of the Indian cyclic year on the large silver and gold coins, including this double-pagoda, together with his regnal year. Each of the names is Persian, though in several examples, the meaning of the names in India was different from the Iranian meaning (not indicated here). According to the Indian meanings, these are the cyclic years: Zaki "زکي" for cyclic 37, which corresponded to his year 1 ( "pure ") -- Azâl "أزل" for 38 ( "eternity ", year 2) -- Jalal "جَلال" for 39 ( "splendor ", year 3) -- Dalv "دَلو" for 40 (the sign of Aquarius, year 4) -- Shâ "شاه" for 41 ( "king ", year 5) -- Sârâ "سارا" for 42 ( "fragrant ", year 6) -- Sarâb "سراب" for 43 ( "mirage ", for year 7) -- Shitâ "شتا" for 44 ( "winter ", year 8) -- Zabarjad "زبرجد" for 45 ( "topaz ", year 9) -- sahar "سَحَر" ( "dawn ", year 10) -- Sâher "ساحِر" ( "magician ", year 11). [131]

Assessment and legacy

Among his many innovations, Tipu introduced new coin denominations and new coin types, including this handsome copper double paisa weighing over 23 gm. The coin on the left also contains the emblem of the Sultanate of Mysore. Double paisa of Tipu Sultan.jpg
Among his many innovations, Tipu introduced new coin denominations and new coin types, including this handsome copper double paisa weighing over 23 gm. The coin on the left also contains the emblem of the Sultanate of Mysore.

Assessments of Tipu Sultan have often been passionate and divided. Successive Indian National Congress governments have often celebrated Tipu Sultan's memory and monuments and relics of his rule while the Bharatiya Janata Party has been largely critical. School and college textbooks in India officially recognize him as a "freedom-fighter" along with many other rulers of the 18th century who fought European powers.

In 1990, a television series on him, The Sword of Tipu Sultan was directed by Bollywood actor Sanjay Khan and based on a historical novel by Bhagwan Gidwani.


Family

The mausoleum housing Tipu's tomb is another example of Islamic architecture. Tipu's flag is in the foreground. Gumbaz.jpg
The mausoleum housing Tipu's tomb is another example of Islamic architecture. Tipu's flag is in the foreground.
The tomb of Tipu Sultan at Srirangapatna. Tipu's tomb is adjacent to his mother's and father's graves. Tipu tomb.jpg
The tomb of Tipu Sultan at Srirangapatna. Tipu's tomb is adjacent to his mother's and father's graves.
  1. Shahzada Sayyid walShareef Hyder Ali Khan Sultan (1771 – 30 July 1815)
  2. Shahzada Sayyid walShareef Abdul Khaliq Khan Sultan (1782 – 12 September 1806)
  3. Shahzada Sayyid walShareef Muhi-ud-din Ali Khan Sultan (1782 – 30 September 1811)
  4. Shahzada Sayyid walShareef Mu'izz-ud-din Ali Khan Sultan (1783 – 30 March 1818)
  5. Shahzada Sayyid walShareef Mi'raj-ud-din Ali Khan Sultan (1784? – ?)
  6. Shahzada Sayyid walShareef Mu'in-ud-din Ali Khan Sultan (1784? – ?)
  7. Shahzada Sayyid walShareef Muhammad Yasin Khan Sultan (1784 – 15 March 1849)
  8. Shahzada Sayyid walShareef Muhammad Subhan Khan Sultan (1785 – 27 September 1845)
  9. Shahzada Sayyid walShareef Muhammad Shukrullah Khan Sultan (1785 – 25 September 1830)
  10. Shahzada Sayyid walShareef Sarwar-ud-din Khan Sultan (1790 – 20 October 1833)
  11. Shahzada Sayyid walShareef Muhammad Nizam-ud-din Khan Sultan (1791 – 20 October 1791)
  12. Shahzada Sayyid walShareef Muhammad Jamal-ud-din Khan Sultan (1795 – 13 November 1842)
  13. Shahzada Sayyid walShareef Munir-ud-din Khan Sultan (1795 – 1 December 1837)
  14. His Highness Shahzada Sir Sayyid walShareef Ghulam Muhammad Sultan Sahib, KCSI (March 1795 – 11 August 1872)
  15. Shahzada Sayyid walShareef Ghulam Ahmad Khan Sultan (1796 – 11 April 1824)
  16. Shahzada Sayyid walShareef Hashmath Ali Khan Sultan (expired at birth)

Tipu had several wives. One of his wives quite renowned for her beauty and intelligence was Sindh Sahiba whose grandson was Sahib Sindh Sultan also known as His Highness Shahzada Sayyid walShareef Ahmed Halim-az-Zaman Khan Sultan Sahib. Tipu Sultan's family was sent to Calcutta by the British. A descendant of one of Tipu Sultan's uncles, Noor Inayat Khan, was a British Special Operations Executive agent during the Second World War, murdered in the German Dachau concentration camp in 1944. Many other descendants continue to live in Kolkata.

Sword and tiger

Tipu Sultan's Tiger. Victoria and Albert Museum, London Tipu Sultan's Tiger.JPG
Tipu Sultan's Tiger. Victoria and Albert Museum, London

Tipu Sultan had lost his sword in a war with the Nairs of Travancore during the Battle of the Nedumkotta (1789), in which he was forced to withdraw due to the severe joint attack from Travancore army and British army. [132] The Nair army under the leadership of Raja Kesavadas again defeated the Mysore army near Aluva. The Maharaja, Dharma Raja, gave the famous sword to the Nawab of Arcot, from whom the sword was taken away forcibly by the British after annexing Arcot and sent to London. The sword was on display at the Wallace Collection, No. 1 Manchester Square, London.

Tipu was commonly known as the Tiger of Mysore and adopted this animal as the symbol (bubri/babri) [133] of his rule. [134] It is said that Tipu Sultan was hunting in the forest with a French friend. they came face to face with a tiger. the tiger first pounced on the french soldier and killed him. tipu's gun did not work, and his dagger fell on the ground as the tiger jumped on him. He reached for the dagger, picked it up, and killed the tiger with it. That earned him the name "the Tiger of Mysore". He even had French engineers build a mechanical tiger for his palace. [135] The device, known as Tipu's Tiger, is on display in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London. [136] Not only did Tipu place relics of tigers around his palace and domain, but also had the emblem of a tiger on his banners and some arms and weapons. Sometimes this tiger was very ornate and had inscriptions within the drawing, alluding to Tipu's faith. [137] Historian Alexander Beatson reported that "in his palace was found a great variety of curious swords, daggers, fusils, pistols, and blunderbusses; some were of exquisite workmanship, mounted with gold, or silver, and beautifully inlaid and ornamented with tigers' heads and stripes, or with Persian and Arabic verses". [138]

The last sword used by Tipu in his last battle, at Sri Rangapatnam, and the ring worn by him were taken by the British forces as war trophies. Till April 2004, they were kept on display at the British Museum London as gifts to the museum from Maj-Gen Augustus W.H. Meyrick and Nancy Dowager. [139] At an auction in London in April 2004, Vijay Mallya purchased the sword of Tipu Sultan and some other historical artefacts, and brought them back to India. [140]

In October 2013, another sword owned by Tipu Sultan and decorated with his babri (tiger stripe motif) surfaced and was auctioned by Sotheby's. [141] It was purchased for £98,500 [142] by a telephone bidder.

Tipu Jayanti

On 10 November 2017, the Government of Karnataka under the leadership of Chief Minister Siddaramaiah celebrated Tipu's birth anniversary as Tipu Jayanti [ citation needed ]

Lok Sabha Congress leader, Mallikarjuna Kharge, hit back at the RSS, asking,

When they can celebrate Nathuram Godse can't we celebrate Tipu Sultan [143]

In fiction

See also

Related Research Articles

Srirangapatna Town in Karnataka, India

Srirangapatna is a town of Mandya district in the Indian State of Karnataka. Located near the city of Mysore, it is of religious, cultural and historic importance.

Second Anglo-Mysore War war

The Second Anglo–Mysore War was a conflict between the Kingdom of Mysore and the British East India Company from 1780 to 1784. At the time, Mysore was a key French ally in India, and the conflict between Britain against the French and Dutch in the American Revolutionary War sparked Anglo–Mysorean hostilities in India. The great majority of soldiers on the company side were raised, trained, paid and commanded by the company, not the British government. However, the company's operations were bolstered by Crown troops sent from Britain, and by troops sent from Hanover, which was also ruled by Britain's King George III.

First Anglo-Mysore War conflict in India between the Sultanate of Mysore and the East India Company.

The First Anglo–Mysore War (1766–1769) was a conflict in India between the Sultanate of Mysore and the East India Company. The war was instigated in part by the machinations of Asaf Jah II, the Nizam of Hyderabad, who sought to divert the company's resources from attempts to gain control of the Northern Circars.

Anglo-Mysore Wars

The Anglo–Mysore Wars were a series of wars fought in over the last three decades of the 18th century between the Kingdom of Mysore on the one hand, and the British East India Company, and Maratha Confederacy and the Nizam of Hyderabad on the other. Hyder Ali and his successor Tipu Sultan fought a war on four fronts with the British attacking from the west, south and east, while the Marathas and the Nizam's forces attacked from the north. The fourth war resulted in the overthrow of the house of Hyder Ali and Tipu, and the dismantlement of Mysore to the benefit of the East India Company, which won and took control of much of India.

Dharma Raja Maharaja of Travancore

Dharma RajaKarthika Thirunal Rama Varma was the Maharajah of Travancore from 1758 until his death in 1798. He succeeded his uncle Marthanda Varma, who is credited with the title of "maker of modern Travancore". During his reign Dharma Raja not only retained all the territories his predecessor had gained but administered the kingdom with success. He was addressed as Dharma Raja on account of his strict adherence to Dharma Sastra, the principles of justice by providing asylum to thousands of Hindus and Christians fleeing Malabar during the religious and military onslaught of Tipu Sultan.

His Highness Prince Sahibzada Sayyid walShareef Sir Ghulam Muhammad Sultan Khan Sahib, was the fourteenth son of Tipu Sultan.Deported to Calcutta in 1806 along with the remainder of his family seven years after the defeat and death of his father, he was eventually recognised by the Government of India as official head of the family and successor to his father. Knighted in 1870, he died two years later, aged 77, of dengue fever, the last surviving son of Tipu Sultan.

<i>Fathul Mujahidin</i>

Fathul Mujahidin is a military manual that was written by Zainul Abedin Shustari at the instruction of Tipu Sultan, a defacto ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore, considered a pioneer in the use of rocket artillery. Mysore started to equip their army with rockets in the 1750s and during the Second Anglo–Mysore War (1780–1784) Tipu and his father Haider Ali used this technology against British troops. Tipu Sultan used rockets in battle with the British Army in the 1792 Siege of Srirangapatna, a battle at the end of the Third Anglo-Mysore War.

The Treaty of Mangalore was signed between Tipu Sultan and the British East India Company on 11 March 1784. It was signed in Mangalore and brought an end to the Second Anglo-Mysore War.

The Captivity of Mangalorean Catholics at Seringapatam (1784–1799) was a 15-year imprisonment of Mangalorean Catholics and other Christians at Seringapatam in the Indian region of Canara by Tipu Sultan, the de facto ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore. Estimates of the number of captives range from 30,000 to 80,000 but the generally accepted figure is 60,000, as stated by Tipu in the Sultan-ul-Tawarikh. The captivity was the most disconsolate period in the community's history. Its cause is disputed, however it is generally agreed by historians that it was purely due to religious reasons, as Tipu stated:

The Captivity of Kodavas at Seringapatam speaks chiefly of the capture and imprisonment of Kodava by Tipu Sultan, the ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore, during a number of attempts to suppress their rebellion in the 1780s. These captives were forcibly deported, some of them were converted and some were killed. The estimated numbers of the captives vary according to different sources, from 500 to 85,000. During the Third Anglo-Mysore War (1789–1792) 5,000 Coorg men along with their families, amounting to 12,000 people escaped from prison in Seringapatam (Srirangapatna) and came back into Coorg.

The Captivity of Nairs at Seringapatam was imposed on the Nair Hindus of Malabar by Muslims under Tipu Sultan, the de facto ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore from 1786 to 1799. They were subjected to forcible conversions to Islam, death, and torture. The Nairs were treated with extreme brutality by the Muslims due to their strong adherence to the Hindu faith and martial tradition. The captivity ended when Nair troops from Travancore, with the help of the East India Company defeated Tipu in the Third Anglo-Mysore War. It is estimated that out of the 30,000 Nairs put to captivity, only a few hundred returned to Malabar alive.

The 'Treaty of Srirangapatinam, signed 18 March 1792, ended the Third Anglo-Mysore War. Its signatories included Lord Cornwallis on behalf of the British East India Company, representatives of the Nizam of Hyderabad and the Maratha Empire, and Tipu Sultan, the ruler of Mysore.

Mysorean invasion of Malabar

The Mysorean invasion of Kerala was the military invasion of northern Malabar(now Kerala), including the territories of the Zamorin of Calicut, by the Muslim de facto ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore Hyder Ali. After completing the occupation, Kingdom of Cochin, situated south of Malabar, was made a tributary state of Mysore. The major reason for the occupation of Malabar was the desire to have access to the Indian Ocean ports. The Mysore invasion provided the English East India Company more chances to tighten their grip on the ancient feudal principalities of Malabar and converting Travancore, over whom Mysore Sultans attacked after Cochin, to a mere protected ally

Ravi Varma of Padinjare Kovilakam Nair prince regent and rebel from Calicut

Ravi Varma Raja (1745–1793) was a Samanta Kshatriya warrior prince of the Royal House of Zamorins from Calicut who fought a two-decade long revolt against the Mysore Sultanate under Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan between 1766–1768 and 1774–1791, and later the British East India Company in 1793.

Srirangapatna Fort

Srirangapatna Fort is a historical fort located in Srirangapatna, the historical capital city in the South Indian state of Karnataka. Built by the Timmanna Nayaka in 1454, the fort came to prominence during the rule of Tipu Sultan. The fort was fully fortified and the architecture was modified with the help of French architects to meet the growing needs of saving against invaders. The river Kaveri surrounds the fort in one of the sides. The fort is protected in the West and Northern directions by river Cauvery. The fort had Lal Mahal and Tipu's palace, which were demolished during the British capture of 1799. There are seven outlets and two dungeons.

Gumbaz, Srirangapatna

The Gumbaz at Srirangapatna is a Muslim mausoleum at the centre of a landscaped garden, holding the graves of Tippu Sultan, his father Hyder Ali, and his mother Fakr-Un-Nisa. It was built by Tippu Sultan to house the graves of his parents. The British allowed Tippu to be buried here after his death in the Siege of Srirangapatna in 1799.

The recorded history of this district exists only from the 10th century onward. In 930 AD, emperor Erayappa of Ganga Dynasty led his troops to south west of Mysore and after conquering, called it Bayalnad meaning the land of swamps. After Erayappa, his sons Rachamalla and Battunga fought each other for the new kingdom of their father’s legacy. Rachamalla was killed and Battunga became the undisputed ruler of Bayalnad. In 12th century AD, Gangas were dethroned from Bayalnad by Kadamba dynasty of North Canara. In 1104 AD Vishnuvardhana of Hoysala invaded Bayalnad followed by Vijayanagara dynasty in 16th century. In 1610 AD Udaiyar Raja Wadiyar of Mysore drove out Vijayanagara General and became the ruler of Bayalnad and the Nilgiris. Bayalnad is the present Wayanad.

Masjid-i-Ala

Masjid-i-Ala is a mosque located inside the Srirangapatna Fort in Srirangapatna in Mandya District in Karnataka. It was built during the regime of Tipu Sultan during 1786-87. The mosque is located close to the Bangalore Gate and has two minarets. The mosque is built over an elevated platform.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 Hasan, Mohibbul (2005). History of Tipu Sultan. Aakar Books. p. 6. ISBN   978-81-87879-57-2 . Retrieved 19 January 2013.
  2. "Tipu Sultan's 216th death anniversary: 7 unknown facts you should know about the Tiger of Mysore : Listicles: Microfacts". Indiatoday.intoday.in. 4 May 2015. Retrieved 13 November 2015.
  3. Cavendish, Richard (4 May 1999). "Tipu Sultan killed at Seringapatam". History Today. 49 (5). Retrieved 13 December 2013.
  4. Allana, Gulam (1988). Muslim political thought through the ages: 1562–1947 (2 ed.). Pennsylvania State University, Pennsylvania: Royal Book Company. p. 78. Retrieved 18 January 2013.
  5. "Tipu Jayanti debate: Akbar is the hero India should really celebrate".
  6. Hasan, Mohibbul (2005). History of Tipu Sultan. Aakar Books. p. 399. ISBN   978-81-87879-57-2 . Retrieved 19 January 2013.
  7. R.k.datta (2007). Global Silk Industry: A Complete Source Book. APH Publishing. p. 17. ISBN   978-81-313-0087-9 . Retrieved 22 January 2013.
  8. 1 2 3 Roddam Narasimha (1985). Rockets in Mysore and Britain, 1750–1850 A.D. National Aeronautical Laboratory and Indian Institute of Science.
  9. 1 2 3 Parthasarathi, Prasannan (2011), Why Europe Grew Rich and Asia Did Not: Global Economic Divergence, 1600–1850, Cambridge University Press, ISBN   978-1-139-49889-0
  10. Kaushik Roy, War, Culture and Society in Early Modern South Asia, 1740–1849, (Routledge, 2011), 77.
  11. https://www.nytimes.com/2007/03/18/opinion/18iht-edgoldfarb.4943373.html
  12. http://www.ihistory.co/enlightened-french-disbelievers-on-prophet-muhammad/
  13. http://chnm.gmu.edu/revolution/exhibits/show/liberty--equality--fraternity/item/2938
  14. Mohibbul Hasan, History of Tipu Sultan, p. 105-107
  15. Naravane, M. S. (2006). Battles of the Honourable East India Company: Making of the Raj. APH Publishing. ISBN   9788131300343.
  16. Sen, Sailendra Nath (1995). Anglo-Maratha Relations, 1785-96. Popular Prakashan. ISBN   9788171547890.
  17. Binita Mehta (2002). Widows, Pariahs, and Bayadères: India as Spectacle. Bucknell University Press. p. 110. ISBN   9780838754559.
  18. Varghese, Alexander (2008). India: History, Religion, Vision and Contribution to the World, Volume 1. Atlantic Publishers. ISBN   9788126909032.
  19. 1 Dr. Gurusiddaiah C, 2 Dr. BP Mahesh Chandra Guru, 3 Abhilash MS, 4 Dr. Sreekantaiah (January 2018). "Religious philosophy of Tipu Sultan" (PDF). www.educationjournal.in. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Education and Research. 3: 11–16. ISSN   2455-4588.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  20. Sanyal, Sanjeev (2016). The Ocean of Churn: How the Indian Ocean Shaped Human History. p. 188. ISBN   9789386057617.
  21. Kerala District Gazetteers: Cannanore By A. Sreedhara Menon p.134-137
  22. Tipu Sultan: villain or hero? : an ... – Sita Ram Goel — Google Books. Books.google.com. 29 August 2008. Retrieved 15 November 2011.
  23. Moegling, H (1855). Coorg Memoirs: An Account of Coorg and of the Coorg Mission. p. 117. Retrieved 11 February 2014.
  24. Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge (Great Britain) 1842 , p.  494
  25. Farias 1999 , p. 76
  26. Cariappa 1981 , p. 48
  27. Knight 1858 , p.  94
  28. "Deportation & The Konkani Christian Captivity at Srirangapatna (February 24, 1784 Ash Wednesday)". Mangalore: Daijiworld Media. Archived from the original on 1 March 2012. Retrieved 29 February 2008.
  29. Wilks, Mark (1817). Historical Sketches of the South of India, in an Attempt to Trace the History of Mysoor. Longman, Hurst, Rees, and Orme. p. 545. Retrieved 12 February 2014.
  30. Prabhu 1999 , p. 213
  31. Sarasvati's Children, Joe Lobo
  32. Panikkassery, Velayudhan. MM Publications (2007), Kottayam India
  33. Hasan 1971, History of Tipu Sultan, pp. 357–8
  34. A. Subbaraya Chetty, 2002, "Tipu's endowments to Hindus" in Habib. 111–115.
  35. Habib, Irfan (2002), p118, Confronting Colonialism: Resistance and Modernization Under Haidar Ali & Tipu Sultan, Anthem Press, London, ISBN   1-84331-024-4
  36. Hasan, Mohibbul (1951), p360, History of Tipu Sultan, Aakar Books, Delhi, ISBN   81-87879-57-2
  37. 1 2 Exhibition at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
  38. 1 2 Chisholm 1911.
  39. Beatson, Alexander (1800). "Appendix No. XXXIII". A View of the Origin and Conduct of the War with Tippoo Sultaun. London: G. & W. Nichol. pp. ci–civ. Archived from the original on 9 June 2013.
  40. https://scroll.in/article/812199/seven-things-you-may-not-have-known-about-tipu-sultan-indias-first-freedom-fighter
  41. Fortescue, John William (1902). A history of the British army, Volume 3. Macmillan. pp. 431–432.
  42. "The Tiger and The Thistle – Tipu Sultan and the Scots in India". nationalgalleries.org. Archived from the original on 11 November 2006.
  43. Roy, Kaushik (30 March 2011). War, Culture and Society in Early Modern South Asia, 1740–1849. ISBN   978-1-136-79087-4.
  44. Naravane, M. S. (2006). Battles of the Honourable East India Company: Making of the Raj. APH Publishing. ISBN   9788131300343.
  45. Sen, Sailendra Nath (1995). Anglo-Maratha Relations, 1785-96. Popular Prakashan. ISBN   9788171547890.
  46. Sen, Sailendra Nath (1995). Anglo-Maratha Relations, 1785-96. Popular Prakashan. ISBN   9788171547890.
  47. Dictionary of Indian biography. archive.org. 1906.
  48. A Survey of Kerala History by a Sreedhara Menon
  49. madur (10 November 2016). "Tipu Sultan – Personalities". Karnataka.com.
  50. "Islamic Voice". islamicvoice.com.
  51. Upendrakishore Roychoudhury (101). White Mughals. ISBN   9780143030461.
  52. Watson, William E. (2003). Tricolor and Crescent. google.com. ISBN   9780275974701.
  53. 1 2 Napoleon and Persia. google.com. January 1999. ISBN   9780934211581.
  54. Empires of the Sand. google.com. 2001. ISBN   9780674005419.
  55. The Parliamentary Register; Or, History of the Proceedings and Debates of the [House of Lords and House of Commons]-J. Almon, 1793
  56. http://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780199539536.001.0001/acref-9780199539536-e-156, Tipu Sultan's world-famous quote, "Better to live one day as a tiger than a thousand years as a sheep" on oxfordreference.com website, Retrieved 14 February 2017
  57. "View of the Hoally Gateway, where Tipu Sultan was killed, Seringapatam (Mysore)". British Library Online Gallery. Retrieved 14 June 2009.
  58. Zachariah, Mini Pant. "Tipu's legend lives on". The Hindu . Retrieved 18 December 2013.
  59. Roy, Kaushik (30 March 2011). War, Culture and Society in Early Modern South Asia, 1740–1849. ISBN   978-1-136-79087-4.
  60. Parthasarathi, Prasannan (2011), Why Europe Grew Rich and Asia Did Not: Global Economic Divergence, 1600–1850, Cambridge University Press, p. 207, ISBN   978-1-139-49889-0
  61. Parthasarathi, Prasannan (2011), Why Europe Grew Rich and Asia Did Not: Global Economic Divergence, 1600–1850, Cambridge University Press, p. 45, ISBN   978-1-139-49889-0
  62. R.k.datta (2007). Global Silk Industry: A Complete Source Book. APH Publishing. p. 17. ISBN   978-8131300879 . Retrieved 22 January 2013.
  63. Parthasarathi, Prasannan (2011), Why Europe Grew Rich and Asia Did Not: Global Economic Divergence, 1600–1850, Cambridge University Press, p. 45, ISBN   978-1-139-49889-0
  64. Angus Maddison (2007). The World Economy Volume 1: A Millennial Perspective Volume 2: Historical Statistics. Academic Foundation. p. 260. ISBN   9788171886135.
  65. Maddison, Angus (2007), Contours of the World Economy, 1–2030 AD. Essays in Macro-Economic History, Oxford University Press, ISBN   978-0-19-922721-1, p. 382, table A.7
  66. Yadav, Bhupendra (1990). "Tipu Sultan: Giving 'The Devil' His Due". Economic and Political Weekly. 25 (52): 2835–2837. JSTOR   4397149.
  67. 1 2 3 Binita Mehta (2002). Widows, Pariahs, and Bayadères: India as Spectacle. Bucknell University Press. pp. 110–111. ISBN   9780838754559.
  68. 1 2 3 B. N. Pande (1996). Aurangzeb and Tipu Sultan: Evaluation of Their Religious Policies. University of Michigan. ISBN   9788185220383.
  69. A. Subbaraya Chetty "Tipu's endowments to Hindus and Hindu institutions" in Habib (Ed.) Confronting Colonialism
  70. Brittlebank, pp. 1–3
  71. Valath, V. v. k. (1981). Keralathile Sthacharithrangal – Thrissur Jilla (in Malayalam). Kerala Sahithya Academy. pp. 74–79.
  72. The Chaldean Syrian Church of the East. ISPCK. 1983. p. 30.
  73. Balakrishna, S. (2013). Tipu Sultan-The Tyrant of Mysore (1st ed.). Rare Publications. ISBN   978-81-927884-7-0.
  74. W. Kirkpatrick Select Letters of Tipu Sultan, London 1811
  75. M. Wilks Report on the Interior Administration, Resources and Expenditure of the Government of Mysore under the System prescribed by the Order of the Governor-General in Council dated 4 September 1799, Bangalore 1864, and Historical Sketches of the South of India in an Attempt to Trace the History of Mysore, 2 vols, ed. M. Hammick, Mysore 1930.
  76. 1 2 Irfan Habib "War and Peace. Tipu Sultan's Account of the last Phase of the Second War with the English, 1783-4" State and Diplomacy Under Tipu Sultan (Delhi) 2001 p5; Mohibbul Hasan, The History of Tipu Sultan (Delhi) 1971 p368
  77. A. Subbaraya Chetty "Tipu's endowments to Hindus and Hindu institutions" in Habib (Ed.) Confronting Colonialism p111
  78. Brittlebank, pp. 2-12
  79. Francois Gautier. "The Tyrant Diaries". www.outlookindia.com/.
  80. Brittlebank
  81. Özcan, Azmi (1997). Pan-Islamism: Indian Muslims, the Ottomans and Britain, 1877–1924. ISBN   978-90-04-10632-1.
  82. Kausar, Kabir (1980). "Secret correspondence of Tipu Sultan".
  83. I. M. Muthanna, I. M. Muthanna – CHAPTER XIII TIPU'S FERVENT APPEAL TO MUSLIMS ABROAD
  84. Özcan, Azmi (1997). Pan-Islamism: Indian Muslims, the Ottomans and Britain, 1877–1924. ISBN   978-90-04-10632-1.
  85. Bhacker, Mohmed Reda (1992). Trade and Empire in Muscat and Zanzibar: The Roots of British Domination. ISBN   978-0-415-07997-6.
  86. "Tipu Sultan and the Scots in India". The Tiger and The Thistle. Archived from the original on 21 November 2008. Retrieved 11 March 2017.
  87. Hasan 1971, History of Tipu Sultan, pp. 357–8
  88. A. Subbaraya Chetty, 2002, "Tipu's endowments to Hindus" in Habib. . 111–115.
  89. Habib, Irfan (2002), p118, Confronting Colonialism: Resistance and Modernization Under Haidar Ali & Tipu Sultan, Anthem Press, London, ISBN   1-84331-024-4
  90. Hasan, Mohibbul (1951), p360, History of Tipu Sultan, Aakar Books, Delhi, ISBN   81-87879-57-2
  91. 1 2 Mohibbul Hasan, History of Tipu Sultan, p. 358
  92. Vikram Sampath (31 January 2014). "Why we love to hate Tipu Sultan". www.livemint.com/.
  93. Annual Report of the Mysore Archaeological Department 1916 pp 10–11, 73–6
  94. Hasan, History of Tipu Sultan, p. 359
  95. B.A. Saletare "Tipu Sultan as Defender of the Hindu Dharma" in Habib (Ed.) Confronting Colonialism, pp. 116–8
  96. Thomas, Paul (1954), Christians and Christianity in India and Pakistan: a general survey of the progress of Christianity in India from apostolic times to the present day, Allen & Unwin, p. 235
  97. Rao, Hayavadana C. History of Mysore 1399–1799: Incorporating the latest Epigraphical, Literary and Historical Researches Vol. 3 pgs 1047–53. Bangalore Government Press.
  98. Aya Ikegame (2013). Princely India Re-imagined: A Historical Anthropology of Mysore from 1799 to the present. Routledge. pp. 123–125. ISBN   978-1-136-23910-6.
  99. Justine M. Cordwell; Ronald A. Schwarz (1979). The fabrics of culture: the anthropology of clothing and adornment. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 144–145. ISBN   978-3-11-163152-3.
  100. 1 2 3 Prabhu 1999 , p. 223
  101. Cariappa & Cariappa 1981 , p. 48
  102. Hassan, Mohibbul (1 December 2005). History of Tipu Sultan. p. 79. ISBN   9788187879572 . Retrieved 12 February 2014.
  103. Sen 1930 , p. 157
  104. Sultan, Tipu (1811). Select letters of Tippoo Sultan to various public functionaries. London. p. 228.
  105. K.M. Panicker, Bhasha Poshini, August 1923
  106. Mappila Muslims of Kerala: a study in Islamic trends (1992), Roland E. Miller, Orient Longman, p. 93
  107. Studies in Tuluva History and Culture, Prof. P. Gururaja Bhatt, p. 134-135
  108. 1 2 Mysore gazetteer, Volume 2, Issue 4, Conjeeveram Hayavadana Rao (rao sahib), Benjamin Lewis Rice, Government Press, 1930, p. 2697
  109. 1 2 Mysore gazetteer, Volume 2, Issue 4, Conjeeveram Hayavadana Rao (Rao sahib), Benjamin Lewis Rice, Government Press, 1930, p. 2698
  110. Mysore gazetteer, Volume 2, Issue 4, Conjeeveram Hayavadana Rao (Rao sahib), Benjamin Lewis Rice, Government Press, 1930, p. 2697-2698
  111. Stephen Conway, The British Isles and the War of American Independence, Oxford University Press, 2000, ISBN   0-19-820659-3, M1 Google Print, p. 342.
  112. N. Shyam Bhat, South Kanara, 1799–1860: a study in colonial administration and regional response, Mittal Publications, 1998, ISBN   81-7099-586-8, M1 Google Print, p. 2.
  113. J. B. Prashant More, Religion and society in South India: Hindus, Muslims, and Christians, Institute for Research in Social Sciences and Humanities of MESHAR, 2006, ISBN   81-88432-12-1, M1 Google Print, p. 117.
  114. Machado, Alan. "BOOK EXTRACT". Scroll.in. Retrieved 10 January 2017.
  115. Machado, Alan (14 August 2015). Slaves of Sultans (First ed.). Goa,1556. ISBN   978-9380739939.
  116. More, J. B. Prashant (2010). "Tipu Sultan and the Christians". Islam and Christian–Muslim Relations. 14 (3): 313–324. doi:10.1080/09596410305262.
  117. "Deportation & The Konkani Christian Captivity at Srirangapatna (1784 Feb. 24th Ash Wednesday)". Daijiworld Media Pvt Ltd Mangalore . Retrieved 29 February 2008.
  118. 1 2 3 4 5 Sarasvati's Children, Joe Lobo
  119. Forrest 1887 , pp. 314–316
  120. The Gentleman's Magazine 1833 , p.  388
  121. "Christianity in Mangalore". Diocese of Mangalore. Archived from the original on 22 June 2008. Retrieved 30 July 2008.
  122. John B. Monteiro. "Monti Fest Originated at Farangipet – 240 Years Ago!". Daijiworld Media Pvt Ltd Mangalore. Retrieved 28 April 2009.
  123. Bowring, p. 126
  124. Scurry & Whiteway 1824 , p.  103
  125. Scurry & Whiteway 1824 , p.  104
  126. Account of a Surviving Captive, A Mr. Silva of Gangolim (Letter of a Mr. L.R. Silva to his sister, a copy of which was given by an advocate, M.M. Shanbhag, to the author, Severino da Silva, and reproduced as Appendix No. 74: History of Christianity in Canara (1965))
  127. Gazetteer of South India, Volume 2 & Mittal Publications , p. 34
  128. William Dalrymple White Mughals (2006) p.28
  129. K.L. Bernard, Kerala History , pp. 79
  130. Holmes, Richard (2003). Wellington: The Iron Duke. Harper Collins. p. 60. ISBN   978-0-00-713750-3.
  131. "CoinArchives.com Lot Viewer". www.coinarchives.com. Retrieved 17 April 2019.
  132. "The swords of Tipu Sultan". The Hindu. 3 May 2011.
  133. "Tipu Sultan and the tiger motif". The Seringapatnam Times. Toshkhana : wordpress. 17 August 2011. Retrieved 13 December 2013.
  134. Brittlebank, K. (1995). "Sakti and Barakat: The ∀ Power of Tipu's Tiger. An Examination of the Tiger Emblem of Tipu Sultan of Mysore". Modern Asian Studies. 29 (2): 257–269. doi:10.2307/312813 (inactive 28 September 2018). JSTOR   312813.
  135. James, Lawrence (12 August 2000). Raj: The Making and Unmaking of British India. MacMillan. ISBN   978-0-312-26382-9 . Retrieved 12 February 2010.
  136. "Tippoo's Tiger". Victoria & Albert Museum. 11 April 2004. Archived from the original on 25 August 2006. Retrieved 10 December 2006.
  137. "Tiger Motif". Macquarie University Library. Retrieved 12 February 2010.
  138. Beatson, Alexander (1800). A View of the Origin and Conduct of the War with Tippoo Sultaun. London: G. & W. Nichol. Archived from the original on 9 June 2013.
  139. "Ring and sword of Tipu Sultan". Exploring the museum. The British Museum. Retrieved 13 December 2013.
  140. "BBC NEWS – South Asia – Tipu's sword back in Indian hands". bbc.co.uk.
  141. Sinha, Kounteya (4 October 2013). "Another Tipu Sultan sword surfaces, to be auctioned". The Times of India. Retrieved 13 December 2013.
  142. Nag, Ashoke (21 October 2013). "Tipu Sultan memorabilia goes under hammer at Sotheby's 'The Arts of Imperial India' auction". The Economic Times. Retrieved 13 December 2013.
  143. Upadhya, Harish (31 October 2016). "Karnataka Prepares To Celebrate Tipu Sultan Jayanti, BJP Threatens Stir Karnataka". NDTV. NDTV. Retrieved 5 November 2016.
  144. The Project Gutenberg eBook of The Tiger of Mysore, by G. A. Henty. gutenberg.org. 12 July 2006.
  145. "The Project Gutenberg eBook of At the Point of the Bayonet, by G. A. Henty". ibiblio.org.
  146. Modern Indian literature, an anthology, Volume 2, Sahitya Akademy, p. 217

Further reading

Further reading