Tiqqūn sōferīm (Hebrew : תיקון סופרים, plural תיקוני סופריםtiqqūnēi sōferīm) is a term from rabbinic literature meaning "correction/emendation of the scribes" or "scribal correction" and refers to a change of wording in the Tanakh in order to preserve the honor of God or for a similar reason. Today, the phrase Tiqqun Soferim can also refer to a copy of the Five Books of Moses that is used to copy therefrom the Torah scroll.[ citation needed ]
The first to use the term tiqqun soferim was Shimon ben Pazi (an amora); previously, the tannaim had used the phrase kina hakatuv ("the verse used a euphemism") in reference to the same verses.
Many traditional commentators (including Elijah Mizrachi,Rashba, and Joseph Albo ) consider tiqqunei soferim not as actual changes in the text, but rather as meaning that the original author acted like one who corrects a text for reasons of honoring God. On the other hand, modern scholars interpret the words of the old rabbis literally — that the text was corrected by later scribes, perhaps those of the Great Assembly that edited the Biblical corpus. Even among traditional commentators, including the Arukh and Rashi, there are those who believe that the tiqqunei soferim were actual changes that were made (and this seems to be stated explicitly in the Midrash Tanhuma).
The rabbis mentioned tiqqunei soferim in several places in their writings, with a total of about 18 tiqqunei soferim in all. [ who? ] argue that the rabbis did not give all the cases of tiqqun soferim, and they try to identify other cases.[ citation needed ]However, some modern scholars
An example of a tiqqun soferim can be seen in I Kings 21:12–13, where Naboth is accused of cursing God, but the text now has "blessed" since it is not fitting that the name of God should appear after the word "cursed": "Naboth has blessed God and King" instead of "Naboth has cursed God and King".
The Further reading section below contains a link to the HCSB's footnotes which makes the tiqqune clearer.
|S = Tiqqun remains in main text|
|Passage||Nondenom: NIV||Nondenom/Crossway: ESV||Catholic: NAB||C of E: AKJV||Orthodox: RSV||SBC: HCSB||SBC/Lockman: NASB||Methodist: NLT||BibleHub Interlinear: WLC||Academic-Bible.com: Stutgartensia||Chabad: AJR||Chabad: AJRH||Sefaria: JPS2006/JPS1985||Sefaria: he.wikisource.org||Mechon Mamre (MM): JPS1917||MM: Mamre Institute|
|1 Samuel 3:13||S||S||S||S||S||S||S||S||S||S||S|
|2 Samuel 16:12||S||S||S|
|2 Samuel 20:1||S||S||S||S||S||S||S||S||S||S||S||S||S||S||S||S|
|1 Kings 12:16||S||S||S||S||S||S||S||S||S||S||S||S||S||S||S||S|
|2 Chronicles 10:16||S||S||S||S||S||S||S||S||S||S||S||S||S||S||S||S|
|Zechariah 2:8 (or 12)||S||S||S||S||S||S||S||S||S||S||S||S||S||S|
|2 Samuel 12:14||S||S||S||S||S||S||S|
|1 Kings 21:10|
|1 Kings 21:13|
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Modern scholars have come to the same conclusion: the preponderance of manuscript evidence is that Rashi really did write those final four words. The best edition of the Miqraot Gedolot today (Bar Ilan's HaKeter edition) includes these words and does not put them in brackets.
Yeshaya Maori has proven quite conclusively that Rashi indeed subscribed to the understanding of an actual tikkun... The Arukh of Rabbi Nathan b. Yechiel of Rome, when it discusses Tikkun Soferim, speaks of ספרים הראשונים, which were corrected by the Soferim to the current reading.
Rashi in Job 32:3 writes: זה אחד מן המקומות שתקנו סופרים את לשון הכתוב וירשיעו כלפי המקום בשתיקותם היה לו לכתוב אלא שכינה הכתוב. "This is one of the places in which the Scribes corrected the language of the verse." How much clearer can Rashi be that tikkun soferim is to be understood literally?