This article needs additional citations for verification .(March 2016)
Tirésias Simon Sam
|16th President of Haiti|
March 31, 1896 –May 12, 1902
|Preceded by||Florvil Hyppolite|
|Succeeded by||Pierre Nord Alexis|
|Minister of War and Navy|
December 27,1894 –March 31,1896
|Preceded by||Alson Verne|
|Succeeded by||Borno Monpoint|
May 15,1887 –August 10,1888
|Preceded by||Brenor Prophète|
|Succeeded by||Seïde Thélémaque|
|Minister of Interior and Agriculture|
September 1,1879 –November 3,1879
|Preceded by||Armand Thoby|
|Succeeded by||Evariste Laroche|
|Member of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Haiti|
July 26,1879 –October 23,1879
Paul Tirésias Augustin Simon Sam
15 May 1835
|Died||11 May 1916 80)(aged|
|Political party||National Party|
|Spouse(s)||Constance Salomon (first) |
Victoire Labelle (second)
Alphaïde Metelly (third)
Paul Tirésias Augustin Simon Sam(May 15,1835 –May 11,1916) was the President of Haiti from 31 March 1896 to 12 May 1902. He resigned the presidency just before completing his six-year term.
Born in the year 1835,Tirésias Simon Sam was a well-received politician and he rose to become the country's president in the year 1896. Sam resigned before completion of his presidential term. His political popularity has seen several postage stamps in Haiti bear his likeness. There were reports that Victoire Jean-Baptiste,the president's mistress,had much influence on his leadership.
According to the constitution of Haiti,Sam was elected as the new Haitian President,a week after his predecessor Hyppolite died. Sam was instituted by the National Assembly which held a meeting in Port-au-Prince on 31 March 1896. Before the new position,Sam was the Secretary of War for Haiti. His new term was to run for a period of seven years according to the Haitian constitution.
All the relevant people in governance had accepted the election of the new president. Sam was sworn in on 1 April 1896.
Despite humiliation and pressure from foreign authorities,especially the United States and Germany,Haiti remained calm during the reign of Sam.
Sam's predecessors had majored on infrastructure development,something that Sam embraced. During his governance a new structure to hold the country's Court of Justice was started in Port-au-Prince. New railways were constructed to connect major towns to the Haitian capital. In 1900,Simon Sam's government signed a treaty with France for reciprocity. In 1902 the US also signed a treaty with Haiti on naturalization.
Concerning Sam's term in office,the Haitian General Assembly had misinterpreted the constitution. The issue had been published in local newspapers and was raising concerns. Whereas the National Assembly had declared that Sam was to remain in office until 15 May 1903 this was contrary to the Haitian constitution. According to the Constitution of Haiti,article 93 reads:"In case of the death,resignation,or dismissal of the President,his successor is appointed for seven years,and his power must always cease on 15 May,even if the seventh year of his term be not completed." This article was applicable to the presidential term of Simon Sam. His election was on 31 March 1896 and so he was supposed to leave the presidential seat on 15 May 1902.
Sam wrote a letter of resignation to the Haitian National Assembly on 12 May 1902,three days before the constitutional expiry of his presidential term. He left Port-au-Prince the following day. After Sam's resignation,Haiti was left in the hands of an interim government that was led by General Boisrond Canal,a former head of state of the country. This provisional government was responsible for maintaining law and order before an election of a legal president.
The son of Sam,Vilbrun Guillaume Sam,was also a President of Haiti for only five months in 1915. His mistress,Victoire Jean-Baptiste,is said to have had some influence over him.
The government of Haiti is semi-presidential republic,a multiparty system wherein the President of Haiti is head of state elected directly by popular elections. The Prime Minister acts as head of government and is appointed by the President,chosen from the majority party in the National Assembly. Executive power is exercised by the President and Prime Minister who together constitute the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of the National Assembly of Haiti. The government is organized unitarily,thus the central government delegates powers to the departments without a constitutional need for consent. The current structure of Haiti's political system was set forth in the Constitution of March 29,1987.
The president of Haiti,officially called the president of the Republic of Haiti,is the head of state of Haiti. Executive power in Haiti is divided between the president and the government,which is headed by the prime minister of Haiti. Prime Minister Ariel Henry currently serves as Acting President following the assassination of President Jovenel Moïse on 7 July 2021.
Jean Vilbrun Guillaume Sam was President of Haiti from 4 March to 27 July 1915,when he was assassinated. He was the son of Tirésias Simon Sam,Haiti's president from 1896 to 1902.
Pierre Nord Alexis was President of Haiti from 17 December 1902 to 2 December 1908.
Dumarsais Estimé was a Haitian politician and President of the Haitian Republic from August 16,1946,to May 10,1950.
The National Assembly consisted of the bicameral legislature of the Republic of Haiti,consisting of the upper house as the Senate (Sénat) and the lower house as the Chamber of Deputies. Both assemblies conduct legislative sessions at the Haitian capital of Port-au-Prince.
The Hotel Oloffson is an inn in central Port-au-Prince,Haiti. Built in the late 19th century as a private home,it was turned into a hotel in 1935,and became known for the many artists and celebrities who stayed there. The hotel was the real-life inspiration for the fictional Hotel Trianon in Graham Greene's 1966 novel The Comedians.
The Archdiocese of Port-au-Prince is a metropolitan archdiocese,responsible for the suffragan dioceses of Jacmel,Jérémie,Anse-à-Veau and Miragoâne and Les Cayes.
François C. Antoine Simon was President of Haiti from 6 December 1908 to 3 August 1911. He led a rebellion against Pierre Nord Alexis and succeeded him as president.
Louis Mondestin Florvil Hyppolite was a Haitian general and politician who served as the President of Haiti from 17 October 1889 to 24 March 1896.
Joseph Antoine Tancrède Auguste as the 20th President of Haiti from August 8,1912 until his death in office on May 2,1913. He assumed the presidency the day that Cincinnatus Leconte died in office from a massive explosion that destroyed the presidential palace. Auguste served in this capacity for less than one year,as he became ill and died while traveling in the north of the country in early May 1913. It is widely believed by some sources that he was the victim of poisoning. He was the grandfather of Haitian writer Jacques Roumain.
Pierre Théoma Boisrond-Canal was a Haitian politician who served as the President of Haiti three times.
François Denys Légitime was a Haitian general who served as President of Haiti from 1888 to 1889.
Victoire Jean-Baptiste (1861–1923),known as "La Belle Victoire",was a politically influential Haitian woman,mistress to President Florvil Hyppolite and highly influential during his term of office. She had previously been the mistress of Hyppolite's successor,Tirésias Simon Sam,and was granted immunity by him after the death of Florvil Hyppolite.
Marie-Madeleine Lachenais,known as Joute,was a politically active and influential Haitian woman. She was the mistress and political advisor of both president Alexandre Sabès Pétion and president Jean-Pierre Boyer,and exerted a significant influence over the affairs of state during their presidencies for a period of 36 years (1807–1843). She was called "The President of two Presidents," and regarded to have been the most politically powerful woman in the history of Haiti before the introduction of women's suffrage in 1950.
Hammerton Killick was an admiral in the Haitian Navy. He was killed in the 1902 Firmin rebellion when he refused to surrender his ship to the German warship SMS Panther. A naval base in Port-au-Prince is named after him. A 1943 Haitian postage stamp commemorated his role in the rebellion.
Crête-à-Pierrot was a gunboat in the Haitian Navy. It was destroyed by Admiral Hammerton Killick in 1902 to prevent it falling into the hands of a German warship.
Occide Jeanty (1860–1936) was a Haitian composer,trumpeter,pianist and music director.
German–Haitian relations date back to the time before the country's independence. They were characterized by trade in the 19th century. In the 20th century,they lost importance due to political developments in both Germany and Haiti.