This article needs additional citations for verification .(September 2020)
Tirahi (Pashto : تيراهي) were the speakers of the Tirahi language, a nearly extinct if not already extinct Indo-Aryan language which may still be spoken by older adults, who are likewise fluent in Pashto, in a few villages in the southeast of Jalalabad in Nangarhar Province, Afghanistan. They were the previous inhabitants of Tirah and the Peshawar Valley in modern-day Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
The Tirahis were expelled from Tirah by the Afridi Pashtuns.Georg Morgenstierne claimed that Tirahi is "probably the remnant of a dialect group extending from Tirah through the Peshawar district into Swat and Dir."
Pashtuns, also called Pakhtuns or Pathans and historically known as Afghans, are an Iranian ethnic group who are native to Central Asia and South Asia. Pashtuns are the 26th-largest ethnic group in the world, and the largest segmentary lineage society. There are an estimated 350–400 Pashtun tribes and clans with a variety of origin theories.
Pashtunistan is a historical region inhabited by the indigenous Pashtun people of modern-day Afghanistan and Pakistan in Central and South Asia, wherein Pashtun culture, the Pashto language, and Pashtun national identity have been based. Alternative names historically used for the region include Pashtūnkhwā (پښتونخوا), Pakhtūnistān, or Pathānistān. Pashtunistan borders the geographical regions of Turkestan to the north, Kashmir to the northeast, Punjab to the east, and Balochistan to the south.
Pashto, is an Eastern Iranian language in the Indo-European language family. It is known in historical Persian literature as Afghani.
Pakistan is a multilingual country with dozens of languages spoken as first languages. The majority Pakistan's languages belong to the Indo-Iranian group of the Indo-European language family.
Gāndhārī is the modern name, coined by scholar Harold Walter Bailey, for a Prakrit language found mainly in texts dated between the 3rd century BCE and 4th century CE in the northwestern region of Gandhāra. The language was heavily used by the former Buddhist cultures of Central Asia and has been found as far away as eastern China, in inscriptions at Luoyang and Anyang.
The Afridi are a Pashtun tribe found in Pakistan and Afghanistan. They are largely concentrated in the Pakistani province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, where they are predominantly found in Darra Adam Khel and Khyber District. The Afridi speak a subdialect of the northern dialect of the Pashto language, known as Afridi Pashto.
The Bangash, Bungish or Bangakh are a tribe of ethnic Pashtuns of Karlani lineage. Their traditional homeland, historically known as Bangash district, stretches from Kohat to Tall and Spīn Ghar in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, as well as smaller parts of Paktia, Afghanistan. The Bangash are also settled in large numbers in Uttar Pradesh, India, especially in the city of Farrukhabad, which was founded in 1714 by Nawab Muhammad Khan Bangash.
The Rōshānī movement was a populist, nonsectarian Sufi movement that was founded in the mid-16th century and arose among Afghan tribes. The movement was founded by the Afghan or Pashtun warrior, poet, Sufi and revolutionary leader Bayazid Ansari, who is more commonly known as Pir Roshan. Bayazid challenged the inequality and social injustice that he saw being practiced by the ruling powers of the Mughal empire. He advocated for a system of egalitarian codes and tenets that his followers, the Roshaniyya, promulgated within Islam. Bayazid educated and instructed followers of the movement through new and radical teachings that questioned basic Islamic canons during that time, and propagated egalitarian principles. His teachings resonated among the Afridi, Orakzai, Khalil, Mohmand, and Bangash tribes of Afghanistan.
The Tirah also spelled Terah also called the Tirah Valley, is a mountainous tract located in the Khyber district, lying between the Khyber Pass and the Khanki Valley in Pakistan.
Bāyazīd Khān Ansārī Pīr Rōshān or Pīr Rōkhān (1525–1585) was an Afghan warrior, poet, Sufi, and revolutionary leader. He wrote mostly in Pashto, but also in Persian, Hindustani, and Arabic, while he also spoke Ormuri. He is known for founding the Roshani movement, which gained many followers in the Pashtunistan region and produced numerous Pashto poets and writers.
The Pashto media includes Pashto literature, Pashto-language newspapers, magazines, television and radio stations, as well as Pashto films and Pashto internet. Pashto media involves the Pashtuns of Pakistan, Afghanistan and the Pashtun diaspora around the world.
The Pashtun diaspora comprises all ethnic Pashtuns and their descendants who are living outside of their traditional homeland of Pashtunistan, a historic region that is today situated over parts of Afghanistan and Pakistan. While Pashtunistan is home to the majority of Pashtun people, there are significant local Pashtun diaspora communities scattered across the neighbouring Pakistani provinces of Sindh and Punjab, particularly in their respective provincial capital cities of Karachi and Lahore. Additionally, people with Pashtun ancestry are also found across India; particularly in Rohilkhand, a region in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh; and in the Indian states of Gujarat and Rajasthan. Outside of South Asia, significant Pashtun diaspora communities are found in the Arab states of the Persian Gulf, the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, Iran, Australia, Canada, and Russia.
Zeek Afridi is a Pashtun singer from Pakistan.
Kabir Stori was a Pashtun nationalist, poet, and writer from Kunar Province of Afghanistan. He was chairman of the Pashtoons Social Democratic Party, a political party that he founded, until his death.
Pashtunization, also called Pathanization, is a process of cultural or linguistic change in which someone or something non-Pashtun becomes acculturated to Pashtun influence. Pashtuns are the largest ethnic group in Afghanistan and second-largest in Pakistan.
The Chamkani, also transliterated as Tsamkani or Samkani, is a Pashtun tribe 4th son of Ghoryakhel confederation. They are mainly based in Tsamkani District, Paktia Province, Afghanistan, but can also be found in Kurram District, which is called para Chamkani, and the Chamkani neighborhood of Peshawar in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
Afridi Adam Khel is one of the 8 clans of the Afridi tribe that originated in the Pashtun region of modern-day India Afghanistan and Pakistan.
Kala Khel is a clan of Tirah Adam Khel.Kala Khel Area adjacent to FR Peshawar and FR Kohat is a part of Khyber Agency administratively whereas on the Topo - Sheet of Survey of Pakistan, it has been shown as the part of Peshawar Division and Kohat Division. Adam Khel is a sub-tribe of Afridi that has originated from the Karlanee or Karlani group of Pashtuns. The Kala Khel clan of Tirah Adam Khel inhabits in FR Peshawar region and in Bara and Torghar as well. It can be found on Google Maps at 33.728623N,71.55256E and Tirah valley of Khyber agency at 33.73N, 71.01E.
Tirahi is a nearly extinct if not already extinct Indo-Aryan language spoken in a few villages in the southeast of Jalalabad in the Nangarhar Province of eastern Afghanistan. It is spoken by older adults, who are likewise fluent in Pashto.
Pathans in India are citizens or residents of India who are of ethnic Pashtun ancestry. "Pathan" is the local Hindi-Urdu term for an individual who belongs to the Pashtun ethnic group, or descends from it. The term additionally finds mention among Western sources, mainly in the colonial-era literature of British India. Historically, the term "Afghan" was also synonymous with the Pathans. The Pathans originate from the region straddling Pakistan and Afghanistan.
It is very likely that this language is extinct. The Tirahi are “a group of unclear origin, almost completely assimilated by Pashtun” (Pstrusinska and Gray 1990).