Tiraspol

Last updated

Tiraspol
Тираспол, Тирасполь
Municipality
Lenin Superman (38398705784).jpg
Sobor Rozhdestva Khristova, Tiraspol'.jpg
Tiraspolsowjet kramar.jpg
Music Hall (42846092711 cropped).jpg
Superbazar Sherif (cropped).jpg
Tiraspol'skii trolleibus 235.jpg
Ploshchad' Suvorova posle parada.jpg
Statue of Lenin, Church of the Nativity, City Hall, Stalinist Palace of Culture, Sheriff supermarket, city trolleybus, Suvorov Square
Anthem: "Be glorious, our city!"
Moldova relief map.png
Red pog.svg
Tiraspol
Location of Tiraspol in Transnistria
Europe relief laea location map.jpg
Red pog.svg
Tiraspol
Tiraspol (Europe)
Coordinates: 46°50′25″N29°38′36″E / 46.84028°N 29.64333°E / 46.84028; 29.64333 Coordinates: 46°50′25″N29°38′36″E / 46.84028°N 29.64333°E / 46.84028; 29.64333
Country (de jure)Flag of Moldova.svg  Moldova
Country (de facto)Flag of Transnistria (state).svg  Transnistria [1]
Government
  Head of the State Administration of Tiraspol Oleg Dovgopol [2]
Area
  Total55.56 km2 (21.45 sq mi)
Elevation
26 m (85 ft)
Population
 (2015)
  Total133,807
Area code + 373 533
Website tirasadmin.org

Tiraspol or Tirișpolea [3] [4] (Romanian : Tiraspol, Moldovan Cyrillic: Тираспол, Romanian pronunciation:  [tɪˈrɑspol] ; Russian : Тира́споль, pronounced  [tʲɪˈraspəlʲ] ; Ukrainian : Тирасполь, romanized: Tyraspol') is the capital of Transnistria ( de facto ), a breakaway state of Moldova, where it is the third largest city. The city is located on the eastern bank of the Dniester River. Tiraspol is a regional hub of light industry, such as furniture and electrical goods production.

Contents

The modern city of Tiraspol was founded by the Russian generalissimo Alexander Suvorov in 1792, although the area had been inhabited for thousands of years by varying ethnic groups. [5] The city celebrates its anniversary every year on 14 October. [6]

Etymology

The toponym consists of two ancient Greek words: Τύρας, Tyras , the Ancient name for the Dniester River, and polis , i.e., a city (state).[ citation needed ]

History

Classical history

Tyras (Τύρας), also spelled Tiras, was a colony of the Greek city Miletus, probably founded about 600 BC, situated some 10 kilometres (6 miles) from the mouth of the Tiras River (Dniester). Of no great importance in early times, in the 2nd century BC it fell under the dominion of indigenous kings whose names appear on its coins. It was destroyed by the Thracian Getae about 50 BC.

In 56 AD the Romans restored the city and made it part of the colonial province of Lower Moesia. A series of its coins exist that feature heads of Roman emperors from Domitian to Severus Alexander. Soon after the time of the latter, the city was destroyed again, this time by the invasion of the Goths. Its government was in the hands of five archons, a senate, a popular assembly and a registrar. The images on its coins from this period suggest a trade in wheat, wine and fish. The few inscriptions extant are mostly concerned with trade.

Such ancient archeological remains are scanty, as the city site was built over by the great medieval fortress of Monocastro or Akkerman. [7] During the Middle Ages, the area around Tiraspol was a buffer zone between the Tatars and the Moldavians, and inhabited by both ethnic groups.

Russian foundation

The Russian Empire conquered its way to the Dniester River, taking territory from the Ottoman Empire. In 1792 the Russian army built fortifications to guard the western border near a Moldavian village named Sucleia. Field Marshal Alexander Suvorov is considered the founder of modern Tiraspol; his statue is the city's most distinctive landmark. The city took its name from Tyras , the Greek name of the Dniester River on which it stands.

In 1828 the Russian government established a customs house in Tiraspol to try to suppress smuggling. The customs house was subordinated to the chief of the Odessa customs region. It began operations with 14 employees. They inspected shipments of bread, paper, oil, wine, sugar, fruits and other goods.

Soviet Tiraspol

Transnistria parliament building in Tiraspol. In front is a statue of Vladimir Lenin Presidentiraspol.jpg
Transnistria parliament building in Tiraspol. In front is a statue of Vladimir Lenin

After the Russian Revolution, the Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was created in Ukraine in 1924, with Balta as its capital. The republic had Romanian, Ukrainian and Russian as its official languages. Its capital was moved in 1929 to Tiraspol, which remained the capital of the Moldavian ASSR until 1940.

In 1940, following the secret provisions of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, the USSR forced Romania to cede Bessarabia. It integrated Tiraspol, until then part of the Ukrainian SSR, into the newly formed Moldavian SSR. On 7 August 1941, following the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, the city was taken over by Romanian troops. Later that month, on 19 August, the Tiraspol Agreement establishing the Transnistria Governorate was signed. During the occupation, Tiraspol was under Romanian administration. During that period almost all of its Jewish population died: they were slain in situ or deported to German Nazi death camps, where they were murdered.

Soviet MiG-19 monument in Tiraspol Tiraspoljet.JPG
Soviet MiG-19 monument in Tiraspol

In 1941 before the occupation, the newspaper Dnestrovskaya Pravda was founded by the Tiraspol City Council of popular deputies. This is the oldest periodical publication in the region. On 12 April 1944, the city was retaken by the Red Army and became again part of Moldavian SSR.

Post-independence

Heroes memorial in Tiraspol (2012) Helden-Denkmal Tiraspol 2012.jpg
Heroes memorial in Tiraspol (2012)

On 27 January 1990, the citizens in Tiraspol passed a referendum declaring the city as an independent territory. The nearby city of Bendery also declared its independence from Moldova. As the Russian-speaking independence movement gained momentum, some local governments banded together to resist pressure from the Moldovan government for nationalization.

A trolleybus in Tiraspol painted in the colours of the Transnistrian flag Calle Tiraspol.jpg
A trolleybus in Tiraspol painted in the colours of the Transnistrian flag

On 2 September 1990, Tiraspol was proclaimed the capital of the new Pridnestrovian Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic. The new republic was not officially recognized by Soviet authorities; however, it received support from some important Soviet leaders, such as Anatoly Lukyanov. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the territory east of the Dniester River declared independence as the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (PMR), with Tiraspol as its capital. It was not recognized by the international community.

On 1 July 2005, the Lucian Blaga Lyceum, a high school with Romanian as its language of instruction, was registered as a Transnistrian non-governmental establishment. The registration of six Romanian language schools has been the subject of negotiations with the government since 2000. The tension increased in the summer of 2004, when the Transnistrian authorities forcibly closed the schools that taught using the Latin script. According to the official PMR view, this is considered as Romanian. "Moldovan", written in the Cyrillic script, is one of the three official languages in the PMR; Romanian is not. Some economic measures and counter-measures were taken on both banks of the Dniester.

Tensions have been seen in terrorist incidents. On 6 July 2006, an explosion, believed to be caused by a bomb, killed at least eight people in a minibus. [8] Later on 13 August, a grenade exploded in a trolleybus, killing two and injuring ten. [9] [10] [11] The 2022 Tiraspol bombing happened on the 25 April 2022 during the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine when several explosions were reported near the Ministry of State Security (Transnistria) in Tiraspol. Firefighters were on the scene but there were no casualties. [12]

Geography and climate

Tiraspol features a humid continental climate that closely borders an oceanic climate and has transitional features of the humid subtropical climate due to its warm summers. Summers are mild, with average monthly temperatures at around 21 °C (70 °F) in July and August. Winters are cold, with average temperatures in the coldest month (January) at −2.7 °C (27 °F). Precipitation is relatively evenly spread throughout the year, though there is a noticeable increase in monthly precipitation in June and July. Tiraspol on average sees nearly 500 mm (20 in) of precipitation per year.

Climate data for Tiraspol
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)0.7
(33.3)
2.3
(36.1)
7.8
(46.0)
16.5
(61.7)
22.5
(72.5)
25.8
(78.4)
27.4
(81.3)
27.3
(81.1)
23.0
(73.4)
16.1
(61.0)
8.6
(47.5)
3.3
(37.9)
15.1
(59.2)
Average low °C (°F)−6.1
(21.0)
−4.3
(24.3)
−0.7
(30.7)
5.1
(41.2)
10.3
(50.5)
13.8
(56.8)
15.5
(59.9)
14.7
(58.5)
10.3
(50.5)
5.3
(41.5)
1.3
(34.3)
−2.8
(27.0)
5.2
(41.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches)33
(1.3)
35
(1.4)
28
(1.1)
35
(1.4)
52
(2.0)
72
(2.8)
63
(2.5)
49
(1.9)
38
(1.5)
26
(1.0)
36
(1.4)
38
(1.5)
495
(19.5)
Average precipitation days11119101111107771111116
Source: World Weather Information Service [13]

Demographics

Russian Orthodox church on Shevchenko Street 19-01-18-Prednistrowien-RalfR-05.jpg
Russian Orthodox church on Shevchenko Street

Population

The population of the city was about 190,000 in 1989 and about 203,000 in 1992. 41% were Russians, 32% Ukrainians (both Eastern Slavic) and 18% were Moldovans (Romanians).

As result of the political and economic situation that followed the proclamation of the independent (unrecognized) Transnistria, as well as large Jewish emigration in the early 1990s, the population of the city fell below its 1989 number and the 2004 Transnistrian census put its population at 158,069. [14]

Religion

The Latin Catholic minority was served by its own Roman Catholic Diocese of Tiraspol (originally called Cherson), which at times also covered part of neighbouring Romania and Russia, until its 2002 suppression and merger into the Russian Diocese of Saint Clement at Saratov.

Culture

Tiraspol Drama Theater Teatr Tiraspol'.jpg
Tiraspol Drama Theater
Victory day in Tiraspol, 2017. Victory Day in Tiraspol 2017 (1).jpg
Victory day in Tiraspol, 2017.

The statue of Alexander Suvorov was erected in the central square in 1979 in commemoration of his 250th anniversary. In front of the Transnistrian Government building there is a statue of Vladimir Lenin. On the opposite side of the central square, a monument plaza features a Soviet T-34 tank, commemorating the Soviet victory in World War II, an eternal flame to those who fell defending the city in 1941 and liberating it in 1944, as well as several monuments dedicated to more recent conflicts, including the Soviet–Afghan War and the War of Transnistria.

Sport

The two main football clubs are Sheriff Tiraspol and FC Tiraspol. Sheriff is the most successful Moldovan football club of recent history, winning 14 league titles since the 2000–2001 season, and 6 Moldovan Cups. Noted for their last-minute 2–1 Champions League victory against Real Madrid on 28 September 2021. A third club, CS Tiligul-Tiras Tiraspol, withdrew from competition prior to the 2009–2010 season. Tiraspol is home to the Sheriff Stadium, the largest capacity stadium in the region, with a capacity of 14,300 seats.

International relations

Twin towns – sister cities

Notable people

Mikhail Larionov 1917 Mikhail Fyodorovich Larionov.jpg
Mikhail Larionov 1917
Sergey Stepanov 2010 Sergey Stepanov - Epic Sax Guy - May 28, 2010.jpg
Sergey Stepanov 2010

Politics

Sport

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Transnistria</span> Unrecognised state in Eastern Europe

Transnistria, officially the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (PMR), is an unrecognised breakaway state that is internationally recognised as part of Moldova. Transnistria controls most of the narrow strip of land between the Dniester river and the Moldovan–Ukrainian border, as well as some land on the other side of the river's bank. Its capital and largest city is Tiraspol. Transnistria has been recognised only by three other unrecognised or partially recognised breakaway states: Abkhazia, Artsakh and South Ossetia, and has a Russian military presence. Transnistria is officially designated by the Republic of Moldova as the Administrative-Territorial Units of the Left Bank of the Dniester or as Stînga Nistrului.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bender, Moldova</span> Place in Transnistria, Moldova

Bender or Bendery, also known as Tighina, is a city within the internationally recognized borders of Moldova under de facto control of the unrecognized Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (Transnistria) (PMR) since 1992. It is located on the western bank of the river Dniester in the Romanian historical region of Bessarabia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Igor Smirnov</span> First President of Transnistria

Igor Nikolaevich Smirnov is a Transnistrian politician who served as the first president (1991–2011) of the internationally unrecognized Pridnestrovian Moldovan Republic.

Transnistria is a region in Eastern Europe that is under the effective control of the self-declared Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic but is recognized by the international community as an administrative unit of Moldova, the Administrative-Territorial Units of the Left Bank of the Dniester. Transnistria uses a red-green-red triband and the Administrative-Territorial Units of the Left Bank of the Dniester use the flag of Moldova.

Transnistria is a region in Eastern Europe that is under the effective control of the self-declared Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic but is recognized by the international community as an administrative unit of Moldova, the Administrative-Territorial Units of the Left Bank of the Dniester. The Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic uses a coat of arms based on the arms of the former Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic and the Administrative-Territorial Units of the Left Bank of the Dniester use the coat of arms of Moldova.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Transnistria War</span> 1990–1992 conflict between Moldova and Russian-backed self-proclaimed Transnistria

The Transnistria War was an armed conflict that broke out on 2 November 1990 in Dubăsari between pro-Transnistria forces, including the Transnistrian Republican Guard, militia and neo-Cossack units, and pro-Moldovan forces, including Moldovan troops and police.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Transnistria conflict</span> Conflict between Moldova and its breakaway region of Transnistria since 1990

The Transnistria conflict is an ongoing frozen conflict between Moldova and the unrecognized state of Transnistria. Its most active phase was the Transnistria War. There have been several attempts to resolve the conflict, although none have been successful. The conflict may be considered as having started on 2 September 1990, when Transnistria made a formal sovereignty declaration from Moldova.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">History of Transnistria</span> Aspect of history

This is the history of Transnistria, officially the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (PMR), is an unrecognised breakaway state that is internationally recognised as part of Moldova. Transnistria controls most of the narrow strip of land between the Dniester river and the Moldovan–Ukrainian border, as well as some land on the other side of the river's bank. See also the history of Europe.

This is a survey of the postage stamps and postal history of Transnistria, an unrecognized breakaway territory of Moldova and the de facto independent Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Demographic history of Transnistria</span> Aspect of history

A demographic history of Transnistria shows that Transnistria has been home to numerous ethnic groups, in varying proportions, over time.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Coat of arms of Tiraspol</span> Coat of arms of the municipality of Tiraspol

The coat of arms of Tiraspol is the official coat of arms of the city of Tiraspol. Tiraspol is the capital of Transnistria, an unrecognized breakaway republic internationally recognized as part of Moldova. Since 2018, two coats of arms of the city are used: the original imperial one and the Soviet one.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Timeline of the Transnistria War</span>

This timeline of events is a chronological list of incidents and other notable occurrences related to the War of Transnistria, including events leading up to the war.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Outline of Transnistria</span> Overview of and topical guide to Transnistria

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Transnistria:

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Armed Forces of Transnistria</span> Military forces of the state of Transnistria

The Armed Forces of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic are the military forces of the unrecognized state of Transnistria. The Armed Forces fall under the leader ship of the Ministry of Defence. The Armed Forces were created on 6 September 1991 to maintain the sovereignty and independence of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, in accordance with Article 11 of the Republic's Constitution.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Nina Shtanski</span> Transnistrian politician

Nina Viktorovna Shtanski is a Transnistrian former state politician and public figure. She has been the Deputy Prime Minister for the International Cooperation of the Transnistrian Moldovan Republic and the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Transnistrian Moldovan Republic from 24 January 2012 to 2 September 2015. Ph.D. (2012). She became an honoured foreign service officer Transnistrian Moldovan Republic in 2012. She held the rank of Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Vadim Krasnoselsky</span> President of Transnistria

Vadim Nikolaevich Krasnoselsky is a Transnistrian politician who is the 3rd and current President of Transnistria. Previously, he served as a member of the Supreme Council of Transnistria from the 7th district, as 6th Speaker of the Supreme Council (2015–2016) and the 7th Minister of the Interior.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Republic Day of Transnistria</span> State holiday in Transnistria

The Republic Day of Transnistria also known in the West as Independence Day or National Day is the main state holiday in the partially recognized republic of Transnistria. This date is celebrated annually on September 2.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tiraspol Suvorov Military School</span>

The Tiraspol Suvorov Military School (TrSVU) is a military academy and boarding school in the partially recognized Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic that serves as the military school for young adults in the Armed Forces of Transnistria. It is one of many Suvorov Military Schools located in other former Soviet Republics for military cadets. Currently located on Zelinsky Street in Tiraspol, the incumbent officer-in-charge of the school is Sergei Alexandrov.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ministry of Internal Affairs of Transnistria</span>

The Ministry of Internal Affairs of Transnistria also known as the Ministry of the Interior is an official government agency of the partially recognized Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic. It is the executive body in implementing defense policies in of the Armed Forces of Transnistria. It is the successor to the Soviet Department of Internal Affairs Pridnestrovian Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic (PMSSR) The current Minister of Internal Affairs is Major General Vitaly Neagu.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Oleg Dovgopol</span> Transnistrian politician

Oleg Anatolievich Dovgopol is a Transnistrian politician serving as the mayor of Tiraspol and Dnestrovsc since 23 December 2016.

References

Notes
  1. Transnistria's status is disputed. It considers itself to be an independent state, but this is not recognised by any country. The Moldovan government and the international community consider Transnistria a part of Moldova's territory.
  2. "Министерство иностранных дел ПМР". Министерство иностранных дел.
  3. Rotaru, Florin (1996), Românitatea Transnistriană (PDF), p. 212
  4. Frunza, A (1915), România Mare (PDF), p. 63
  5. "About Transdniestra (Russian)". Archived from the original on 1 April 2008. Retrieved 27 December 2006.
  6. Cooper, Jason (14 October 2006). "Street Fairs, Celebrations Mark Tiraspol's 214th Birthday". Tiraspol Times & Weekly Review. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 20 February 2007.
  7. See E. H. Minns, Scythians and Greeks (Cambridge, 1909); V. V. Latyshev, Inscriptiones Orae Septentrionalis Ponti Euxini, vol. I.
  8. "Trans-Dniester Blast Kills Eight". BBC News . 6 July 2006.
  9. "Trolley Bus Blasted in Tiraspol Possibly in a Terror Attack". Regnum. Archived from the original on 3 September 2007.
  10. "New Bus Explosion in Tiraspol Leaves One Dead, Eleven Injured". Tiraspol Times & Weekly Review. 14 August 2006. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007.
  11. "Another Blast in Public Transport in Tiraspol". Moldpres News Agency. 17 August 2006. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007.
  12. "Moldovan president holds security meeting after blasts in Transnistria".
  13. "Weather Information for Tiraspol". World Weather Information Service. Retrieved 6 January 2008.
  14. "2004 Census: PMR Urban, Multilingual, Multicultural". Pridnestrovie.net. Archived from the original on 26 July 2010.
  15. 1 2 "Молдова | Официальный сайт Государственной администрации г.Тирасполя и г.Днестровска". tirasadmin.org. Retrieved 6 August 2021.
  16. "Trondheims vennskapsbyer". trondheim.no (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 1 May 2015.
  17. "Норвегия | Официальный сайт Государственной администрации г.Тирасполя и г.Днестровска". tirasadmin.org. Retrieved 6 August 2021.
  18. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "Города-побратимы - РФ | Официальный сайт Государственной администрации г.Тирасполя и г.Днестровска". tirasadmin.org. Retrieved 6 August 2021.
  19. 1 2 3 4 "Города-побратимы - Украина | Официальный сайт Государственной администрации г.Тирасполя и г.Днестровска". tirasadmin.org. Retrieved 6 August 2021.
  20. "Израиль | Официальный сайт Государственной администрации г.Тирасполя и г.Днестровска". tirasadmin.org. Retrieved 6 August 2021.
  21. "Города-побратимы-Республика Беларусь | Официальный сайт Государственной администрации г.Тирасполя и г.Днестровска". tirasadmin.org. Retrieved 6 August 2021.
  22. "Абхазия - Сухум | Официальный сайт Государственной администрации г.Тирасполя и г.Днестровска". www.tirasadmin.org. Retrieved 6 August 2021.
  23. "Южная Осетия | Официальный сайт Государственной администрации г.Тирасполя и г.Днестровска". tirasadmin.org. Retrieved 6 August 2021.
  24. "Португалия - Сантарен | Официальный сайт Государственной администрации г.Тирасполя и г.Днестровска". tirasadmin.org. Retrieved 6 August 2021.

Further reading