Tiraspol

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Tiraspol
Тираспол ·Тирасполь
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Sobor Rozhdestva Khristova, Tiraspol'.jpg
Tiraspolsowjet kramar.jpg
Music Hall (42846092711 cropped).jpg
Superbazar Sherif (cropped).jpg
Tiraspol'skii trolleibus 235.jpg
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Statue of Lenin, Church of the Nativity, City Hall, Stalinist Palace of Culture, Sheriff supermarket, city trolleybus, Suvorov Square
Anthem: "Be glorious, our city!"
Pridnestrovie Locator map.svg
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Tiraspol
Location of Tiraspol in Transnistria
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Tiraspol
Tiraspol (Moldova)
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Tiraspol
Tiraspol (Europe)
Coordinates: 46°50′25″N29°38′36″E / 46.84028°N 29.64333°E / 46.84028; 29.64333
Country (de jure)Flag of Moldova.svg  Moldova
Country (de facto)Flag of Transnistria (state).svg  Transnistria [lower-alpha 1]
Government
  Head of the State Administration of Tiraspol Oleg Dovgopol [1]
Area
  Total55.56 km2 (21.45 sq mi)
Elevation
26 m (85 ft)
Population
 (2015)
  Total133,807
Area code + 373 533
Website tirasadmin.gospmr.org

Tiraspol (Moldovan Cyrillic: Тираспол; Russian : Тирасполь, pronounced [tʲɪˈraspəlʲ] ) [lower-alpha 2] is the capital and largest city of Transnistria, a breakaway state of Moldova, where it is the third largest city. The city is located on the eastern bank of the Dniester River. Tiraspol is a regional hub of light industry, such as furniture and electrical goods production.

Contents

The modern city of Tiraspol was founded by the Russian generalissimo Alexander Suvorov in 1792, although the area had been inhabited for thousands of years by varying ethnic groups. [4] The city celebrates its anniversary every year on 14 October. [5]

Etymology

The toponym consists of two ancient Greek words: Τύρας, Tyras , the Ancient name for the Dniester River, and polis , i.e., a city (state). [6]

History

Historical affiliations

Classical history

Tyras (Τύρας), also spelled Tiras, was a colony of the Greek city Miletus, probably founded about 600 BCE, situated some 10 kilometres (6 miles) from the mouth of the Tiras River (Dniester). Of no great importance in early times, in the 2nd century BC it fell under the dominion of indigenous kings whose names appear on its coins. It was destroyed by the Thracian Getae about 50 BC.[ citation needed ]

In 56 AD, the Romans restored the city and made it part of the colonial province of Lower Moesia.[ citation needed ] A series of its coins exist that feature heads of Roman emperors from Domitian to Severus Alexander. Soon after the time of the latter, the city was destroyed again, this time by the invasion of the Goths. Its government was in the hands of five archons, a senate, a popular assembly and a registrar. The images on its coins from this period suggest a trade in wheat, wine and fish. The few inscriptions extant are mostly concerned with trade.[ citation needed ]

Such ancient archeological remains are scanty, as the city site was built over by the great medieval fortress of Monocastro or Akkerman. [7] During the Middle Ages, the area around Tiraspol was a buffer zone between the Tatars and the Moldavians, and inhabited by both ethnic groups.

Russian foundation

The Russian Empire conquered its way to the Dniester River, taking territory from the Ottoman Empire. In 1792 the Russian army built fortifications to guard the western border near a Moldavian village named Sucleia. Field Marshal Alexander Suvorov is considered the founder of modern Tiraspol; his statue is the city's most distinctive landmark. [8] The city took its name from Tyras , the Greek name of the Dniester River on which it stands.

In 1828, the Russian government established a customs house in Tiraspol to try to suppress smuggling. The customs house was subordinated to the chief of the Odesa customs region. It began operations with 14 employees. They inspected shipments of bread, paper, oil, wine, sugar, fruits and other goods.

Plan of Tiraspol Fortress of 1856 Plan Tiraspol'skoi kreposti 1856.jpg
Plan of Tiraspol Fortress of 1856

Soviet Tiraspol

Transnistria parliament building in Tiraspol. In front is a statue of Vladimir Lenin. Presidentiraspol.jpg
Transnistria parliament building in Tiraspol. In front is a statue of Vladimir Lenin.

After the Russian Revolution, the Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was created in Ukraine in 1924, with Balta as its capital. The republic had Romanian, Ukrainian and Russian as its official languages. Its capital was moved in 1929 to Tiraspol, which remained the capital of the Moldavian ASSR until 1940. [9]

In 1940, following the secret provisions of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, the USSR forced Romania to cede Bessarabia. It integrated Tiraspol, until then part of the Ukrainian SSR, into the newly formed Moldavian SSR. On 7 August 1941, following the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, the city was taken over by Romanian troops. Later that month, on 19 August, the Tiraspol Agreement establishing the Transnistria Governorate was signed. During the occupation, Tiraspol was under Romanian administration. During that period almost all of its Jewish population died: they were slain in situ or deported to German Nazi death camps, and killed there.

Soviet MiG-19 monument in Tiraspol Tiraspoljet.JPG
Soviet MiG-19 monument in Tiraspol

In 1941, before the occupation, the newspaper Dnestrovskaya Pravda was founded by the Tiraspol City Council of popular deputies. This is the oldest periodical publication in the region. On 12 April 1944, the city was retaken by the Red Army and became again part of the Moldavian SSR.

Post-independence

Heroes memorial in Tiraspol (2012) Helden-Denkmal Tiraspol 2012.jpg
Heroes memorial in Tiraspol (2012)

On 27 January 1990, the citizens in Tiraspol passed a referendum declaring the city as an independent territory.[ citation needed ] The nearby city of Bendery also declared its independence from Moldova. As the Russian-speaking independence movement gained momentum, some local governments banded together to resist pressure from the Moldovan government for nationalization.[ citation needed ]

A trolleybus in Tiraspol painted in the colours of the Transnistrian flag Calle Tiraspol.jpg
A trolleybus in Tiraspol painted in the colours of the Transnistrian flag

On 2 September 1990, Tiraspol was proclaimed the capital of the new Pridnestrovian Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic. The new republic was not officially recognized by Soviet authorities; however, it received support from some important Soviet leaders, such as Anatoly Lukyanov.[ citation needed ] After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the territory east of the Dniester River declared independence as the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (PMR), with Tiraspol as its capital. It was not recognized by the international community.[ citation needed ]

On 1 July 2005, the Lucian Blaga Lyceum, a high school with Romanian as its language of instruction, was registered as a Transnistrian non-governmental establishment. The registration of six Romanian language schools has been the subject of negotiations with the government since 2000.[ citation needed ] The tension increased in the summer of 2004, when the Transnistrian authorities forcibly closed the schools that taught using the Latin script. According to the official PMR view, this is considered as Romanian. "Moldovan", written in the Cyrillic script, is one of the three official languages in the PMR; Romanian is not. Some economic measures and counter-measures were taken on both banks of the Dniester.[ citation needed ]

Tensions have been seen in terrorist incidents. On 6 July 2006, an explosion, believed to be caused by a bomb, killed at least eight people in a minibus. [10] Later on 13 August, a grenade exploded in a trolleybus, killing two and injuring ten. [11] [12] [13] The 2022 Tiraspol bombing happened on the 25 April 2022 during the Russian invasion of Ukraine when several explosions were reported near the Ministry of State Security (Transnistria) in Tiraspol. Firefighters were on the scene but there were no casualties. [14]

Geography and climate

Tiraspol features a humid continental climate that closely borders an oceanic climate and has transitional features of the humid subtropical climate due to its warm summers. Summers are mild, with average monthly temperatures at around 21 °C (70 °F) in July and August. Winters are cold, with average temperatures in the coldest month (January) at −2.7 °C (27 °F). Precipitation is relatively evenly spread throughout the year, though there is a noticeable increase in monthly precipitation in June and July. Tiraspol on average sees nearly 500 mm (20 in) of precipitation per year.

Climate data for Tiraspol (1991–2020)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Mean daily maximum °C (°F)1.8
(35.2)
4.7
(40.5)
10.6
(51.1)
17.7
(63.9)
23.6
(74.5)
27.6
(81.7)
30.3
(86.5)
29.9
(85.8)
23.8
(74.8)
16.5
(61.7)
9.2
(48.6)
3.3
(37.9)
16.6
(61.9)
Daily mean °C (°F)−1.8
(28.8)
−0.2
(31.6)
4.5
(40.1)
10.9
(51.6)
16.7
(62.1)
20.9
(69.6)
23.2
(73.8)
22.7
(72.9)
17.0
(62.6)
10.7
(51.3)
4.9
(40.8)
−0.1
(31.8)
10.8
(51.4)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F)−5.2
(22.6)
−4.1
(24.6)
−0.5
(31.1)
4.6
(40.3)
9.9
(49.8)
14.4
(57.9)
16.3
(61.3)
15.7
(60.3)
10.8
(51.4)
5.6
(42.1)
1.3
(34.3)
−3.3
(26.1)
5.5
(41.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches)35
(1.4)
27
(1.1)
30
(1.2)
31
(1.2)
47
(1.9)
66
(2.6)
57
(2.2)
48
(1.9)
49
(1.9)
39
(1.5)
38
(1.5)
33
(1.3)
500
(19.7)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)65657764555669
Mean monthly sunshine hours 608814620628130132430621515373522,224
Source: NOAA [15]

Demographics

Russian Orthodox church on Shevchenko Street 19-01-18-Prednistrowien-RalfR-05.jpg
Russian Orthodox church on Shevchenko Street

Population

The population of the city was about 190,000 in 1989 and about 203,000 in 1992. 41% were Russians, 32% Ukrainians (both Eastern Slavic) and 18% were Moldovans (Romanians).[ citation needed ]

As result of the political and economic situation that followed the proclamation of the independent (unrecognized) Transnistria, as well as large Jewish emigration in the early 1990s, the population of the city fell below its 1989 number and the 2004 Transnistrian census put its population at 158,069. [16]

Native languagePopulationshare of population
Russian 14,01344.32%
Ukrainian 3,70811.73%
Belarusian 1190.38%
Polish 1,0033.17%
Czech 10.003%
Bulgarian 560.18%
Lithuanian 70.02%
Latvian 70.02%
Romanian 3,61111.42%
Yiddish 8,56827.1%

In 1926, 29,700 people lived in the city of Tiraspol who were classified, by ethnicity, as follows:

Ethnic groupPopulation % total share
Russian 16,27654.8%
Hebrew 8,73229.4%
Ukrainian 4,27714.4%
Moldovan (români)4161.4%

According to the Soviet census of 1939, the city's population was 43,676 inhabitants, distributed as follows: [17]

Ethnic groupPopulation% Total share
Russian 14,78533.85%
Ukrainian 12,50428.63%
Hebrew 11,76426.93%
Moldovan (Romanian)3,4807.97%
2004
Ethnic groupPopulation % Total share
Russian 65,29841.71%
Ukrainian 52,27833.07%
Moldovan (Romanian)23,79015.05%
Bulgarian 2,4501.55%
Gagauz 1,9881.26%
Belarusian 1,7121.08%
German 7010.44%
Hebrew 5730.36%
Armenian 3600.23%
Polish 3240.2%
Gypsy/Rromi/Romani1160.07%
Others7,8494.98%

According to the unofficial census, 90.4% of the city's residents hold Transnistrian "citizenship", but some of them also have a second citizenship: the Republic of Moldova - 16.2%, the Russian Federation - 16.1%.

Religion

The Latin Catholic minority was served by its own Roman Catholic Diocese of Tiraspol (originally called Cherson), which at times also covered part of neighbouring Romania and Russia, until its 2002 suppression and merger into the Russian Diocese of Saint Clement at Saratov.

Culture

Tiraspol Drama Theater Teatr Tiraspol'.jpg
Tiraspol Drama Theater
Victory day in Tiraspol, 2017 Victory Day in Tiraspol 2017 (1).jpg
Victory day in Tiraspol, 2017

The statue of Alexander Suvorov was erected in the central square in 1979 in commemoration of his 250th anniversary. In front of the Transnistrian Government building there is a statue of Vladimir Lenin. On the opposite side of the central square, a monument plaza features a Soviet T-34 tank, commemorating the Soviet victory in World War II, an eternal flame to those who fell defending the city in 1941 and liberating it in 1944, as well as several monuments dedicated to more recent conflicts, including the Soviet–Afghan War and the War of Transnistria.

Sport

The two main football clubs are Sheriff Tiraspol and FC Tiraspol. Sheriff is the most successful Moldovan football club of recent history, winning 14 league titles since the 2000–2001 season, and 6 Moldovan Cups. The team gained world notoriety for their last-minute 2–1 victory during the 2021–22 UEFA Champions League edition against later tournament winners Real Madrid on 28 September 2021. A third club, CS Tiligul-Tiras Tiraspol, withdrew from competition prior to the 2009–2010 season. Tiraspol is home to the Sheriff Stadium, the largest capacity stadium in the region, with a capacity of 14,300 seats.

International relations

Twin towns – sister cities

Notable people

Mikhail Larionov, 1917 Mikhail Fyodorovich Larionov.jpg
Mikhail Larionov, 1917
Sergey Stepanov, 2010 Sergey Stepanov - Epic Sax Guy - May 28, 2010.jpg
Sergey Stepanov, 2010

Politics

Sport

Notes

  1. Transnistria's political status is disputed. It considers itself to be an independent state, but this is not recognised by any UN member state. The Moldovan government and the international community consider Transnistria a part of Moldova's territory.
  2. Romanian: Tiraspol, Romanian pronunciation: [tɪˈrɑspol] ; Ukrainian: Тирасполь, romanized: Tyraspol'; occasionally also known in Romanian as Tirișpolea [2] [3]

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References

  1. "Министерство иностранных дел ПМР". Министерство иностранных дел.
  2. Rotaru, Florin (1996), Românitatea Transnistriană (PDF), p. 212, archived (PDF) from the original on 16 October 2021
  3. Frunza, A (1915), România Mare (PDF), p. 63, archived (PDF) from the original on 9 September 2022
  4. "About Transdniestra (Russian)". Archived from the original on 15 April 2008. Retrieved 27 December 2006.
  5. Cooper, Jason (14 October 2006). "Street Fairs, Celebrations Mark Tiraspol's 214th Birthday". Tiraspol Times & Weekly Review. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 20 February 2007.
  6. Tsoni, Paula (5 June 2022). "How Transnistria's Tiraspol Got Its Ancient Greek Name". Greek Reporter. Retrieved 15 April 2023.
  7. See E. H. Minns, Scythians and Greeks (Cambridge, 1909); V. V. Latyshev, Inscriptiones Orae Septentrionalis Ponti Euxini, vol. I.
  8. Baranchikov, E. V. (2017). "ТИРАСПОЛЬ". old.bigenc.ru . Retrieved 22 January 2024.
  9. "Tiraspol | Moldova | Britannica". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 15 April 2023.
  10. "Trans-Dniester Blast Kills Eight". BBC News . 6 July 2006.
  11. "Trolley Bus Blasted in Tiraspol Possibly in a Terror Attack". Regnum. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007.
  12. "New Bus Explosion in Tiraspol Leaves One Dead, Eleven Injured". Tiraspol Times & Weekly Review. 14 August 2006. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007.
  13. "Another Blast in Public Transport in Tiraspol". Moldpres News Agency. 17 August 2006. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007.
  14. "Moldovan president holds security meeting after blasts in Transnistria". The Jerusalem Post | Jpost.com.
  15. "Tiraspol Climate Normals 1991–2020". World Meteorological Organization Climatological Standard Normals (1991–2020). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on 21 August 2023. Retrieved 21 August 2023.
  16. "2004 Census: PMR Urban, Multilingual, Multicultural". Pridnestrovie.net. Archived from the original on 26 July 2010.
  17. Демоскоп Weekly - Приложение. Справочник статистических показателей
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  19. "Trondheims vennskapsbyer". trondheim.no (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 18 May 2015.
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  27. "Португалия - Сантарен | Официальный сайт Государственной администрации г.Тирасполя и г.Днестровска". tirasadmin.org. Retrieved 6 August 2021.

Further reading